Skeleton Keys Final

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An event of the "Modern Period" in forensic anthropology is:

The establishment of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA)

Which of these cases would a forensic anthropologist analyze?

Burned Case, Airplane Crash, Cremation

Which of the following is NOT one of the sub-specialties of biological anthropology?


Biological Anthropology:

All of the above: Can also be referred to as physical anthropology, Played an unfortunate role in the development of early racial typologies, Is interested in the full extent of human variability , Has its earliest origins in the 15th Century Age of Discovery

Forensic anthropology is

A field that involves both anthropology and forensic studies and A subdiscipline of biological anthropology

The application of the principles of biological anthropology to mediolegal issues is:

Forensic anthropology

Which of these is not a seminal, early forensic anthropologist?

Kathy Reichs

The American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA):

certified forensic anthropologists and sets professional standards

The facility that opened at the University of Tennessee in 1980:

B and C: was overseen by Dr. William "Bill" Bass and is devoted to the study of human decomposition

What is the major problem with the Hamann-Todd and Terry Skeletal Collections?

They are not representative of the entire historic US population

Chief Medical Examiner

Lead, board-certified forensic pathologist, appointed by the state governor in Florida and other states

Forensic odontologist

Expert who assists Medical Examiner in identification based on dental records


Elected official responsible for death investigations of individuals not under the care of a physician at time of death who is usually charged with death investigation located in rural areas and consults with pathologist if an autopsy needs to be performed

Forensic Botanist

Expert who assists Medical Examiner in the use of plant material for death investigation

Forensic Anthropologist

Expert who assists Medical Examiner in recovery of human remains, assessing trauma in skeletonized or badly decomposed remains, and determining the biological profile

Medicolegal Death Investigator

Assists Medical Examiner in death investigation and in corresponding with Law Enforcement and family members; responsible for human remains and associated evidence

Forensic Entomologist

Expert who assists Medical Examiner in the use of insects for death investigation

Medical Examiner

Licensed physician with training in forensic pathology who performs autopsy, determines cause and manner of death, and issues death certificate for individuals not under the care of a physician at time of death

Autopsy technician

Assists Medical Examiner during autopsy

Law Enforcement Officer

Assists Medical Examiner by collecting material evidence at the scene

One Saturday night after a Gator’s football game, George walks into The Salty Dog Saloon and gets into an altercation with Steve, an inebriated student. Steve hits George over the head with a barstool and they are both kicked out of the bar. George seems to be fine but two months later goes into the emergency room for intense pain in his head. He has internal bleeding in his skull. He dies two hours later.

The manner of death is homocide

The coroner is responsible for:

All of the above. Notifying kin, signing the death certificate, and collecting the belongings

Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning Forensic Pathologists?

Forensic Pathologists are always elected officials

The goals of medicolegal death investigation include:

All of the above. Determining the identity of the deceased, determining cause of death, determining time of death, determining who is guilty

Which of these is NOT a main objective of the forensic anthropologist?

determine cause of death

Autopsies are performed when:

All of the above. There is an unnatural death, a prisoner dies, the family asks for it, and to collect evidence

Medical Examiners:

Are licensed physicians

Which of these is a manner of death?


When remains are found, fleshed or skeletonized, the discoverer should:

call the police and leave them alone

Which of the following would be LEAST likely to initiate a medicolegal investigation?

The death of an elderly patient in a nursing home

Local law enforcement has contacted your laboratory because a person has come forward claiming to have buried human remains in a nearby wooded area. They ask for your assistance in the location and recovery of the purported human remains and any associated material evidence.
List at least five items you should include in your field kit before leaving the lab. flags/engineering tape 2.measuring tape/devices 3. bags to collect remains or other evidence 4. flat-edged shovel 5. Gloves/PPE

Upon arrival to the scene, the person claiming to have buried the remains is unable to recall the exact location. What is the simplest noninvasive technique you can use to try to locate the remains?

line search

Which of these is FALSE:

Law enforcement personnel are usually extensively trained to do archaeological recoveries.

The recovery process is documented in all of the following ways EXCEPT:

processing log

Why is screening an important part of the recovery of human remains?

it allows us to collect small bones that may have been missed

Maps of a crime scene:

show the location of bones and other evidence

Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about forensic archaeological mapping:

A field map does not need to convey the relationship of human remains to other evidence and landmarks within the scene.

The relationship among items of evidence and between the greater crime scene and the world at large is referred to as:


Archaeological provenience is:

the location where a bone or other item of evidence is found within a scence

All maps should have

All of the above. Scale, Datum, North arrow

Which statement about the goals of search and recovery is FALSE?

Remains should never be removed from the scene

Remote sensing is a type of

noninvasive search technique

What types of data are recorded on a "Condition of Remains" form?

A and B. Whether or not the remains are skeletonized and presecnce/absence of insect activity

In the cleaning of remains, plastic tools are used because:

they prevent damage to the remains

Quality assurance is a process:

That begins with field recovery and follows all the way through until release of remains

In report writing

Everything that appears in the report should appear in the notes

Skeletal analysis at the CAPHIL includes:

A,B, and C. Inventory, photography and radiography, and bioloigcal profile estimation

The four topics covered in module 4 include all of the following EXCEPT:


Documentation of all cases that come into the lab can be found in

the case log book

Audits can be performed by the following individuals:

A and D. External Auditors and internal auditors

Why do forensic anthropologists do peer reviews?

As a means of quality assurance-to double-check analyses and reports .

Taphonomy and Trauma forms are examples of:

Open forms because there are no specified methods on the form itself

Bone can appear different colors due to

all of the above. sun bleaching, coffin staining, burning

Bone that appears greeen-ish in color can result from:

Both B and D. algae staining and coper staining

Postmortem damage can be distinguished from perimortem damage by

color of the fracture

Locard’s exchange principle states that:

every contact leaves a trace

Which of these can help differentiate between carnivore and rodent gnawing?

A and B. Prescence of punctures, prescence of parellel striae


is the flaking of the outer (cortical) layer of bone

The key difference between Santeria and Palo Mayombe is

Palo Mayombe uses human remains in rituals

The settling of the blood in a body after death is known as

livor mortis

Soil staining can reveal:

all of the above. Original postion of the remains, type of soil, if the remains have been moved, differential preservation envrionments

carnivores are known for

All of the above. scattering remains long distances, breaking remains, ingesting remains

In a human, distal is away from the trunk of the body and proximal is toward the trunk. True/False


Hoe many sets of ribs do humans have?


The scapula is the _______, while the scarum is the ________.

shoulder blade, tail bone

What is the largest single bone in the human body?


Anterior is towards the back of the body, while posterior is towards the front. True/ False


Which of these bones is NOT found in humans?

All of the above. Baculum, coracoid, tibiotarsus

The clavicle is __________ to the patella


The sagittal suture lies in the ________

skull midline

Maximum cranial length is measured with:

Spreading calipers

Osteometry is

the measurement of bone and skeletal materials

The human vertebral column CANNOT be characterized by:

ribs that articulate only with the cervical verterbrae

The manible is ________ to the cranium


metric approaches rely on:

standardized measurements

Which of the following traits is most commonly observed in males?

rugged muscle attachment sites

The Pelvis is the best place to asess_______


Which of the following traits is most commonly observed in females?

vertical forehead

THe _____ is the second best area to look when determing sex.


Which of these is typical of a female pelvis:

Both A and C. wide subpubic angle and wide sciatic notch.

Which of the following statements is true?

It is very unlikely for any given female to have all expected "feminine" traits

Which of the following traits is most commonly observed in males?

large mastoid processes

The female skull is characterized by

sharp orbital margins

Why might a large female be at a disadvantage (as compared to a smaller female)?

Gestation and lactation require a large amount of energy

A pelvis shows the following features: wide sciatic notches, a wide "u-shaped: subpubic angle, and long rectangular-shaped pubic bones. In you report, you would most likely conclude the sex of the individual is


A pubic symphysis with no ridges and furrows, rim erosion, and a pitted or porous face is typical of which age group?

older adults

Which of the following has 6 morphological stages?

Suchey-Broocks pubic symphysis method

A skeleton’s pubic symphysis presents many furrows and ridges; the third molars are in occlusion (in use) but their roots have not fully developed; you observe that most of the epiphyses are closed or in the process of closing. In your report you are most likely to conclude the age of the individual is

Young adult (17-23)

A problem with adult age estimation is:

All of the above. age ranges are broad, different lifestyle varibales contribute to irregularity of skeletal degeneration, methods are based on patterns of degeneration which are hard to quantify

The fusion of epiphysis occurs

Between 10-120 years fo age

Which of following statements is true?

age estimation is more precise for younger individuals

Of the six major joints, the bones of the shoulder will fuse


Which of the following methods would give the most accurate and precise age estimate in subadult remians?

dental development

AS an adult individual approaches SENILITY (old age), what happens?

THe space between the intervertebral discs begins to shrink

Which of the following is an age indicator for adults?

pubic symphsis morphology

For males, self-reported stature is usually _______ actual living stature.

higher than

Long-bone measurements are recorded using what piece of equipment?

otseometric board

Americans have steadily increased height over the last century. This is an example of

secular change

By how much can cadaver stautre vary from living stature in a given individual?

2 inches

Why do adults tend to decrease in stature as they get older?

The intervertebral (between vertbrae) disc spaces narrow and vertebral bodies may collapse

Which of the following was discovered to be the major problem with the Trotter nad GLeser stature estimation study?

The tibia was incorrectly measures

Which of the follwoing is NOT part of the Bergmann’s rule?

Longer limb lengths are predicted in hot climates

Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules explicitly predict which of the following?

animals will be long and lean in warm climates and stocky in cold climates

Which of the following is FALSE concerning the importance of regional standards?

The ratio between limb length and stature is consistent throughout the human populations

According to Allen’s rule, appendages will be _______ in cold climates.


According to Sauer 1992, the goal of the forensic anthropologist is to determine ancestry through use of______________ categories.

None of the above- Sauer thinks its irrelevant which categories are used.

A given skull has receding zygomatics, "steepled" (narrow and pointed) nasal bones, a narrow palate, and a narrow nasal aperture. The ancestry of this individual is likely __________________.


What is the difference between race and ancestry?

Race is culturally and individually defined, while ancestry decribes biological popualtion origins


A computer program that employs discriminant function analysis

Ancestry assessment in the US is somewhat unique due to:

Both A and C. Several disparate groups coming together in one place.

Which continent has the greatest human genetic diversity?


Disciminant function analysis will classify skeletal remains based on

a linear combination of the variables used

Which of the following statments is true of popualtions?

physcial traits vary along global cline/ gradient

Early ideas about race in humans

All of the above. included groups based on different behavioral norms and personalities, invldued discrete and easily defined groups, provided the basis for scientific racism

Which of the following terms is used by most forensic anthropologists to describe the biological population of an individual?


What of the following is type of evidence that establishes postive (not presumptive) identifcation?

Nuclear DNA

Which of the following trauma was inflicted on the two Romanoc children buried seperately?

All of the above. grenade trauma, fire trauma and acid trauma

Radiographic comparison can be conducted using all of the following EXCEPT:

All of the above CAN be compared radiographically

Who should the anthropologist consult for assistance with identification involving radiographs?

A and C. Clinical radiologist and forensic radiologist

Which of the following showed Dr. Falsetti that one of the individuals in the Anastasia film was female?

the sciatic notch

Which of these is an example of skeletal anomaly/idiosyncratic human variation

transitional vertebra

Radiographic comparisons of which of the following are NOT used in an identification

Postmortem damage

Which of the following is NOT an example of a biological factor helpful for an ID?

Nailpolish color

Which of the following was suspected of preventing the death of Anastasia Romanov after she was shot?

Jewels sewn into her clothes, acting as a bullet-proof vest

Unique life history markers include all of the following EXCEPT:


To create a facial reconstruction, the forensic artist needs to know which of the following?

biological profile informaton

In Forensic Files the artists used which of the following methods?

2D facial reconstruction

Why is forensic facial reconstruction something of misnomer?

Forensic artists can never perfectly reconstruct antemortem faical features, only approximate them

The artistic reproduction of the soft tissue features of an individual is called

Both A and B, facial reproduction and facial approximation

Which fo the following statements is true of photo/video superimpostion?

It is a presumptive and exclusionary line of evidence

What is the most accuracte way to colelct facial soft tissue depth data?

ultrasound on living, upright individuals

What is photo/video superimpostion?

the overlay of a skull image and an antemortem (before death) photograph

Which of the following features is least likely to be estimated by a forensic anthropologist, and can only be added to a facial approximation if circumstantial evidence for it exists?

adornments (glasses , piercings etc)

Which of the following is NOT a problem with a facial approximation?

All of the above ARE problems

To line up images in a video or photo superimposition, which of the following are used?

osteometric landmarks

The _______ of a gunshot wounds can provide evidence of the type of weapon used and the events leading to the death.

All of above. Location, number and size

Which of the following is typical of a gunshot wound to the sternum?

All of the above. The entrance wound is circular, beveling present on exit wound, bone fragments were displaced

Internal beveling in bone is indicative of which typw of gunshot wound


Which of the following are FALSE regarding perimortem trauma?

perimoretem trauma can always be distinguished from postmortem damage.

Saw marks can be found on skeleton when

Both B and C. The assaliant is trying to cover his/her crime and the assailant is trying to move the body in smaller portions

Fractures that spread outward directly from the gunshot entrance would are called:

radiating fractures

Which of the following is a force that can result in trauma?

All of the above. Compression, torsion, tension

Sharp force trauma

Is V-shaped in cross section

When a bullet or projectile passes through the body it creates a

Both A and C , temproary cavity and permanent wound track

Reconstruction of burned skeletal remains involves

All of the above. A lot of time, sorting skeletal elemtns by size shape and color, analysis of patterned injuries and possible differentiation of perimoretem taruma from postmoretem damage

Exposure to fire causes muscles to contract, resulting in the ________

pugisilistic posture

Which of the following is LEAST likely to have an effect on the chemical composition of cremated bone?

living stature

Which of the following is NOT helpful to the death investigator compiling a life history?

Decendent’s last meal

Burned bone can shrink up to


The crucial first step in the investigation of fire-related deaths is

recovery of the remains

Which of the following is NOT an element normally found in bone?


During the burning process, the first color bone turns is:

Dark brown-black (charred)

Which of the following sources of information is LEAST likely to be obtained from remains that have been commercially cremated?


It is important to have an anthropologist help in the recovery of charred and calcined bone because

An anthropologist is trained in osteology and can recognize small fragments among similar-colored debris

How did anthropologists help in the identification of the ValuJet victims?

Compared postmortem radiographs with published development standards

What is DMORT?

A multidisciplinary disaster response team specializing in the recovery and identification of human remains

In the renewed (ca. 2007) World Trade Center disaster response:

All of the above. Ground Zero was excavated like an archaeological recovery scene. Additional remains were recovered by construction workers, necessitating action, Anthropologists helped with archaeological recovery and wet-screening.

The following question is useful in planning for a response to a mass disaster:

All of the above . Does the event involve an ‘open’ or ‘closed’ population? Did the disaster result in complete or fragmented remains? Will every individual or fragment be identified? What will happen to the remains that are not identified?

Most cases examined by forensic anthropologists are individual victims of homicide, and therefore come from what type of population?


What skill is a forensic anthropologist most likely to bring to mass disaster response that other specialists may lack?

The ability to identify burned and fragmented human remains

Mass fatality incidents differ from normal casework because

They usually entail remains from a ‘closed’ population.

The World Trade Center identification process involved

A policy of DNA testing for all remains

In a mass fatality incident, the job of the forensic anthropologist is to

aid in identifying indivduals

What is the most important task to perform immediately following a mass disaster?

getting aid and relief to survining victims

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