servSafe study

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Beef stew must be cooled from 135 F to 70 F within ___ hours and from 70 F to 41 F or lower in the next ___ hours.

2, 4

Which is NOT a safe method for thawing frozen food?

Thawing it at room temperature.

Stuffed pork chops must be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of

165 F (74 C) for for fifteen seconds

When reheating potentially hazardous good for hot holding, reheat the food to

165 F (74 C) for fifteen seconds within two hours

Meat, poultry, and fish cooked in a microwave must be heated to at least

165 F (74 C)

All of these practices can help prevent cross-contamination during food preparation except

preparing food in small batches

What is the proper way to cool a large stockpot of clam chowder?

Divide the clam chowder into smaller containers and place them in an ice-water bath

what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs that will be hoy-held for later service?

155 F (68 C) for fifteen seconds

All of these practices can help prevent time and temperature abuse except

Thawing steaks in a microwave and promptly refrigerating them for later use

Generally, establishments that use a private water source, such as a well, must have it tested at least

once a year

A food handler who has been diagnosed with shigellosis should be

told to stay home

employees must be excluded from the establishment if they have been diagnosed with a foodborne illness resulting from which pathogen

Shigella spp

What is the minimum internal cooking temperature for ground beef?

155 F ( 68 C)

What is the danger when thawing food at room temperature?

Time-temperature abuse

what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for eggs,poultry and seafood cooked in microwave?

165 F (74 C)

when serving. it is important to avoid touching the_____of a plate

top

Serving utensils should be used to serve max of _________ food items at a time?

1

At what minimum internal temp should hot TCS food be held?

135 F

At what max internal temp should cold TCS food be held?

41 F

When returning to self-service lines for more food, customers should not_____ their dirty plates?

refill

Where allowed, hot TCS food can be held without temperature control for a maximum of ____ hours before being sold,served, or discarded.

4

Wrapping preset silverware can help it from becoming

contaminated

Re-serving food safely

*menu items returned by one costumer cannot be re-served to another costumer *Never re-serve plate garnishes, such as fruit or pickles *Never reserve uncovered condiments *Do not reserve uneaten bread or rolls

Self-serving areas- rules for food bars

*maintain proper food temperature *keep raw meat, seafood, and poultry separate from ready to eat food *protect food on display with sneeze guards or food shields *identify all food items *do not let costumers refill soiled plates or used soiled utensils at the food bar *ice used to keep food or beverages cold should never be used as an ingredient.

Safety procedures for delivery

*use insulated food containers capable of maintaing food at 135 F or higher or 41 F or lower *clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly *Practice a good personal hygiene when distributing food *check internal food temperatures regularly *label food with use by and time and reheating and service instructions for employees at off site locations *consider providing food safety guidelines for costumers.

When power or running water is not available, caterers may have to change their food-handling procedures

*use insulated containers to hold TCS food *Serve cold food in containers on ice or in chilled, gel filled containers *store raw and ready to eat products separately *if leftovers are given to costumers, provide instructions on how they should be handled *place garbage disposal containers away from food preparation and serving areas.

what should the temperature of the water used to be used in a non-chemical sanitizing in a three bay sink?

at least 171 degrees F (77 degrees C)

__ is not a step in proper hand washing.

drying hands and arms on a common cloth towel.

__ is not a step in cooling food quickly and safely.

placing food uncovered into the freezer.

the relative humidity level in a dry storeroom should be?

50 to 60 percent

what are pathogens?

microorganisms that cause disease.

employee shows up to work with a large cut on their hand. what should they do?

properly was hands, bandage the cut, wear disposable gloves

__ reduces the number of microorganisms to safe levels when food preparation is being done.

cooking

molluscan shellfish can be on display in a tank under what condition?

as long as a variance from the local health department is obtained.

a two-stage method for cooling food that is properly cooked is when

food passes quickly through the temperature range that pathogens grow well.

what should a foodhandler do if they were just handling unsanitized cloths, were just handling raw foods, or about to handle raw foods?

wash their hands

sanitizing is defined by

reducing microorganisms to safe levels

in FAT TOM what does the A stand for?

acidity

what proper temperature should a freezer unit be?

0 degrees F (-18 degrees C) or below

are melons a type of food commonly associated with food allergies?

no but nuts, eggs, soy, dairy, wheat, fish, and shellfish are.

repellents are one of the types of control measures that…

keep insects away but doesn’t necessarily kill them.

what is a different form of bacteria cells can survive some cooking and freezing temperatures?

spores

when possible should meats, poultry, and fish be stored separately when stored in refrigerated storage?

yes

when regarding food safety training you should keep..

training records which can be used to document training for employees

temperature danger zone is between what temperatures?

41 degrees F to 135 degrees F (5 degrees C to 57 degrees C)

an employee is checking the internal temperature of a pork roast. this may be an example of which HACCP principle ?

monitoring

if there is significant lack of refrigeration, backup of raw sewage, and significant infestation of insects or rodents found in an establishment it is a good reason for the health inspector to.

close down the establishment.

what temperature shoud potentially hazardous foods be reheated to for at least 15 seconds?

165 degrees F (74 degrees C)

washing, rinsing, and then wiping or spraying with a chemical-sanitizing solution is and example of

a proper method for cleaning and sanitizing stationary equipment

viruses usally ___ food through a foodhandler’s poor personal hygiene

contaminate

a foodservice worker is spraying insecticide around the building including in the food preperation area this could result in

chemical contamination

ciguatera toxin is found in ____ and is not destroyed by cooking.

predatory tropical reef fish

___ is not a part of the hazard analysis step in the HACCP system.

listing the corrective actions

when inspecting a fresh poultry delivery the poultry should.

spring back when touched

when training your employees in food safety training you should

use different methods in delivering the training infomation due to everyone learns defferently.

fish was delivered today and it had a strong fishy smell to it what should you do?

reject the delivery

a vacuum breaker is installed to help prevent

backflow

time and temperature control is a key factor in

preventing bacterial growth

eggs for immediate service should be cooked at what temperature?

145 degrees F (63 degrees C) for 15 seconds

a thermocouple or thermistor can be used to measure the inside of an oven with what kind of probe attached?

air probe

by removing all visible food and soil from an item’s surface it is called

"cleaning"

the right way to measure the temperature for a MAP or vacuum-packed food is to

insert thermometer stem or probe between two of the packages

cleaning solution is an example of

chemical hazard

the acronym FAT TOM stands for the type of

conditions that most foodbourne microorganisms favor and grow in

fish should be cooked at an internal temperature of __ for 15 seconds.

145 degrees F (63 degrees C)

noroviruse gastroenteritis and __ are diseases that can be transmited through food.

hepatitis A

__ is the greatest threat to water supplies in foodservice facilities.

cross-connections

the leading cause of foodbourne illness is

eatting food that is already contaminated with foodbourne pathogens

using color-coded boards for meats, fish, poultry, and produce is a way to prevent

cross-contamination

the only fully reliable method for preventing backflow is

an air gap

a faucet with running water and a hose connected to it that has been left in a bucket of contaminated water is and example of

a cross-connection

temperature danger zone is a range that__ grow well in.

microorganisms

what are the forms that holds all the infomation in which inform all employees of the hazards associated with the chemicals in which they are working with.

Material Safety Data Sheets

if you only had one cutting board and knife and you needed to go from tcs foods to ready to eat foods what would you do?

scrub them with hot water and detergent, rinse thoroughly, and then sanitize them

dry food should be stored

6 inches off the floor and away from the walls

training for pest identification and prevention should be given to

all employees but very important for the new employees to recive the training as well

the state and local health department agency is responsable for

enforcing food safety in resturants

what is the maximum amount of time that can pass before checking the internal temperature of food in hot-holding equipment?

4 hours

__ is not a way to prevent foodbourne illness from seafood.

using the supplier that is closest to your establishment

a proper way to check the internal temperature for meat, fish, and poultry when delivered is

to insert the thermometer stem or probe into the thickest part of the product.

41 degrees F (5 degrees C) or lower is the proper internal temperature to

store raw meat, poultry, and fish

the immersion probe on the thermocoulpe or thermistor thermometers is the correct probe to check the

temperature of the frying oil

___ is not a factor of influence on the effectiveness of chemical sanitzers.

abrasiveness

what is cross-contamination?

the transfer of microorganisms from one food or surface to another

if potentially hazardous food had been held at the time temperature danger zone for more then 4 hours what must you do with the food?

throw it out

is this correct? "while demonstrating a task. you should not demonstrate a task then explain what was done"

yes

is dried parsley considered a potentially hazardous food?

no

is a dime-sized hole at the base of a wall a sign of a cockroach infestation?

no

what are the two methods of sanitizing a surface?

heat sanitizing and chemical sanitizing.

galvanized containers are not good for storing ___ due to it can cause food contamination.

food with high acidity (like tomato juice)

only use what kind of eggs for people in the high-risk population that can contract foodbourne illness easily.

pasteurized eggs

a foodhandler just got finished with taking out trash and then used chemicals for cleaning tables what should they do before bringing food to a customer.

wash their hands

what is the proper internal temperature for cooking pork chops?

145 degrees F (63 degrees C)

__ can not be destroyed by cooking or freezing

Histamine

foodhandlers should never hold glassware

by touching the rim

the internal temperature for cooking a hamburger is

155 degrees F (68 degrees C) for 15 seconds

true or false thawing chicken in running portable water which is below 70 degrees F is not a critical limit.

true

any violations noted on the health-inspection report should be explored to determine why they occurred, discussed in detail with the inspector, and

corrected within 48 hours or when indicated by the inspector if they were critical

the acidity or alkalinity of food is measured by its

pH level

___ are to be mixed with water until they reach the proper concentration (you can use a kit to test)

chemical sanitizers

when should you recalibrate you thermometer?

anytime it has been dropped

if you find soft piles of material in corners chances are you have

rodents in your establishment

the internal temperature for cooking a roasting chicken is

165 degrees F (74 degrees C)

what grows well in warm, moist, contains protien, and has a pH that is neutral to slightly acidic?

bacteria

mold prefers to grow in

acidic food with low water activity

chicken salad should be placed on what shelf when storing it in a refrigerator?

top shelf

handwashing stations should be located close to food prep areas so that it allows

foodhandlers to wash their hands often

true or false cranberry juice is considered a potenially hazardous food?

false

all pesticides and chemicals should be stored in

a locked storage area away from food

a foodhandler goes and opens a MAP package of fish and noticed it has bubbles inside. what does this indicate?

possible growth of pathogens and should be discarded

when you recive a delivery you should alway __ before accepting it.

check the temperature and quality of the product

what is the maximum hours you have to reheat potentially hazardous food back to 165 degrees F (74 degrees C)

2 hours

50 degrees F to 70 degrees F ( 10 degrees C to 21 degrees C) is the proper temperature for the

dry storerooms

a foodhandler has called work and told them that they have a foodbourne illness. what should the manager do?

exclude them from work

true or false group training ensures that training is more uniform and consistant

true

true or false a foodhandler submerges food under running potable water at a temperature of 100 degrees F (38 degrees C) or lower is the best way for thawing frozen food.

false

Foodborne Illness

disease carried or transmitted to people by food

Foodborne illness outbreak

an incident in which two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food

contamination

the presence of harmful substances in food

3 catagories of contaminants

biological, chemical, physical

5 ways food becomes unsafe

purchased from unsafe sources, failing to cook correctly, holding at incorrect temps, using contaminated equip, practicing poor personal hygiene

Time-Temp abuse

stays too long at temps that are good for pathogen growth

cross-contamination

occurs when pathogens are transferred from one surface or food to another

poor personal hygiene

Failure to wash hands, cough or sneeze on food, come to work while sick.

poor cleaning and sanitizing

o Equipment and utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized between uses o Food contact surfaces are wiped clean instead of being washed, rinsed, and sanitized o Wiping cloths are not stored in a sanitizer solution between uses o Sanitizer solution was not prepared correctly

TCS foods

foods that need time & temp. control for safety

ready-to-eat foods

Foods that require no further preparation in order to be eaten

high-risk population

Infants and preschool age children, pregnant women, elderly people, and other people with compromised immune systems, such as people with cancer/on chemotherapy, people with HIV/AIDS, and transplant recipients

Key practices for ensuring food safety

Controlling time and temperature; Preventing cross-contamination; Practicing good personal hygiene; Purchasing food from approved, reputable suppliers; Cleaning and sanitizing properly.

pathogen

any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

microorganism

a living organism too small to be seen with the naked eye, such as a virus or bacterium

symptoms of foodborne illness

diarrhea, vomiting, fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, jaundice

The big five

Shigella spp., salmonella typhi, enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing E. Coli, Hepatitis A, Norovirus

Bacteria

single-celled, living microorganism that can spoil food and cause FBI

FAT TOM

FOOD, ACIDITY, TEMPERATURE, TIME, OXYGEN, MOISTURE

4 stages of bacterial growth

Lag, Log, Stationary and Death phases

spores

single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms

major foodborne bacteria controlled by time temp

– Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis – Listeriosis – E. Coli – Campylobacter jejuni – Clostridium perfringens – Clostridium botulinum

major foodborne bacteria controlled by cross-contamination

salmoells spp. and salmonella typhi

major foodborne bacteria controlled by buying from reuptable source

vibri vulnificus and vibrio parahaemolyticus

virus

smallest of microbial food contaminates

major foodborne virus

Norovirus and Hep. A. practice personal hygiene to prevent

parasites

prevent by buying food from reputable approved source. – Anisakis simplex -fish – Cryptosporidium parvum -produce – giardia duodenalis – produce – cyclospora cayetanensis

Fungi

found in air, dirt, plants, water and some food.. Mold and yeast are examples

Mold and yeast

spoil food and cause illness, some produce toxins grow under any condition, likes slightly acidic with low wa. prevention measures throw out food

biological toxins

toxins (poisons) produced by pathogens, plants,or animals. they may also occur in animals as a result of their diet.

preventing biological toxins by purchasing from approved reputable suppliers

– Histamine (fish) – Ciguatoxin (fish) – Saxitoxin (shellfish) – Brevetoxin (shellfish) – Domoic toxin (shellfish)

Physical contaminates in food

metal shavings, wood, fingernails, staples, glass, bandages, jewelery, dirt

chemical contaminates in food

cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, pesticides, deoderizers, first-aid products, hba products

deliberate contamination of food

prevent by having a sstem in place such as A.L.E.R.T -Assure -Look -Employees -Reports -Threat

food allergens

Eight major foods that cause a allergic reaction: Milk, Eggs, Peanuts, Tree nuts, Fish, Shellfish, Soy, Wheat. Label must say either "contains" or list the source of the ingredient.

prevent allergic reactions

service staff should be able to tell customers about menu items, describe dishes, indentify ingredients, suggest items and deliver food seperatly

cross-contact

the transfer of an allergen from a food containing an allergen to a food that does not contain the allergen

avoid cross-contact

1. wash, rinse, sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment before preparing food 2. wash your hands and change gloves before preparing food 3. assign specific equipment for preparing food for customers with allergens

how food handlers can contaminate food

A foodborne illness, symptoms of diarrhea, vomitting, or jaundice, have any wounds, have contact with a person who is ill, not washing hands

carrier

a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others

good personal hygiene

1. following hygienic hand practices 2. maintaining personal cleanliness 3. wearing clean and appropriate uniforms and following dress codes 4. avoiding certain habits and actions 5. maintaining good health 6. reporting illnesses

hand washing procedure

1( wash arms and hands with hot water of a temp no less than 100F 2( apply soap 3( vigorously scrub hands and arms for 20 seconds. Clean under fingernails and between fingers. 4( Rinse hands and arms thoroughly under running water. 5( Dry hands and arms with a single-use paper towel or hand dryer. When leaving the restroom, consider using a aper towel to turn off the faucet and to open the door.

when to change gloves

If you pick something up off the floor, they get contaminated, you touch yourself or uniform, or whenever they get damaged.

how to use gloves

1) ash and dry hands 2) use correct glove size 3) hold gloves by edge when putting on 4) check for tears and rips 5) do not blow into gloces 6) do not roll gloves

eating, drinking, smoking

do not do this when: 1) preping or serving food 2) working in prep areas 3) or in areas used to clean utensils

preventing cross-contamination

Use separate equipment, Clean and sanitize, Prep food at different times, Buy prepared food

time temp control

hold food no more than 4 hrs the temp danger zone. 41-135 degrees

types of food thermometers

bimetallic stemmed thermometer thermocouplers thermistors immersion probes infrared

approved, reputable suppliers

have been inspected and meet all applicable local, state and federal laws

gmp and fda sanitation and procesing report

make sure reports contain the following: 1) receiving and storage 2) processing 3) shipping 4) cleaning and sanitizing 5) personal hygiene 6) staff training 7) recall program 8) HACCP program

key drop deliveries

after-hours food delivery

rejecting shipments

1) set all rejects asie 2) tell delivery person whats wrong 3) get a signed adjustment credit slip 4) log the incident

temperature requirements for various foods

1) cold tcs 41 or lower 2) hot tcs 135 or higher 3) frozen food should be frozen solid 4) live shellfish air temp 45, internal temp 50, once recieved colol to internal temp of 41 degrees in under 4 hrs 5) shucked shellfish 45 or lower, must be cooled to 41 inside 4 hrs 6) milk 45 degrees, must be cooled to 41 in less than 4 hrs 7)shell eggs 45 or lower

general inspection guidelines

1) temp. check all foods in temp ranges 2) packaging – dmg, liquid, pests, dates 3) documents and stamps – inspection stamps, shellfish id,. tag 4) food quality – appearance, texture, odor

food labeling

1) identify food 2) qauntity of food 3) ingredients by wt. in descending order 4) artificial colors anf flavorings, chem preservatives 5) name and place of mfg, packer, or distributor 6) souce of each major food allergen

date marking

if food is to be held longer than 24 hrs, ready to eat tcs can be held 7 days at 41 degrees

fifo

First In, First Out. Rotation system that uses the oldest products first

food storage

store raw meat, poultry and fish seperate from ready-to-eat foods, if the cannont be stored seperatly, store ready to eat food above raw meant, poultry, fisf

food linen and single use item storage

store at least 6 inches off the floor

general food preperation practices

1) keep utensils and cutting boards clean 2) only remove a quantity of food you can prep in a short amt of time 3) return prepped food to cooler or cook immediatly 4) present food to customers in a manner that does not mislead them

thawing

under refrigeration under cold running water in microwave and cook immediately

raw and undercooked food

you must advise customers that food cooked raw or under cooked increases changes of FBI

TCS food cooling

cool from 135 to 70 within 2 hrs, then from 70 to 41 within the next 4 hrs

reheating tcs foods

reheat to a minimun 165 degrees for 15 seconds

minimun internal cooking temperatures

1) poultry stuffing with poutry, stuffed meat, poultry, previously cood tcs foods – 165 degrees 15 seconds 2) ground meat, seafood, shell eggs held hot for svc. – 155 15 seconds 3) steak/chops, beef veal lamb, seafood commercally raised game. shell egg served immediatly – 145 15 seconds 4) roast pork veal or lamb 145 degrees 4 min (may vary depending on type of roast and oven used) 5) fruit, veggies, grains, legumes 125 degrees tea – 175 defrees

HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point – based on identifying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points within a product’s flow. Once identified, the hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels. It must be specific to each facility’s menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operations.

Porosity

The extent to which a material will absorb liquids

Resiliency

Material has the ability to react to a shock without breaking or cracking

Coving

Curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and wall to eliminate sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean.

NSF International

Develops and publishes standards for sanitary equipment design

Underwriters Laboratories

Provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF International Standards

Potable Water

Water that is safe to drink

Booster Heater

Used to heat water when water heaters don’t heat to required temperatures for hot-water sanitizing

Cross-Connection

Physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other wastewater sources can enter a potable water supply

Backflow

The unwanted, reverse flow of contaminatns through a crossconnection into a potable water system

Air Gap

An air space used to separate a water supply outlet from an potentially contaminated source

Cleaning

Process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface

Sanitizing

Process of reducing the number of microorganisms on surfaces to safe levels

Detergents

Contain surfactants that quickly penetrate and soften the soil on surfaces

Degreasers

Detergents that contain a grease-dissolving agent

Delimers

Cleaners used on mineral deposits and soils other cleaners can’t remove.

Abrasive Cleaners

Contain a scouring agent that helps scrub hard-to-remove soil.

Heat Sanitizing

Immerse items in hot water at least 171 F for at least thirty seconds

Chemical Sanitizers

Chlorine, Iodine, and Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (quats)

Chemical Santizing

immerse a clean object in specific concentration of soluition for specific amount of time or rinse, swab or spray the object with the solution.

Sanitizer Effectiveness Factors

Contact Time, Termperature, Water Hardness, pH, Concentration

Master Cleaning Schedule

Schedule that uses info gathered while indentifying cleaning needs. Includes what should be cleaned, who should clean it, and when it should be cleaned and how it should be cleaned

general guidelines for holding food

check food temp every 4 hours, establish policy for discarding food, cover food and provide sneeze guard for self serve areas

cold food can be held without temp control for up to 6 hours if:

held at 41 F or lower before removing it from refrigeration, doesn’t exceed 70 F, has a label specifying time it was removed from fridge/time to be thrown out, is sold, served or thrown out within 6 hours

hot food can be held w/o temp control for up to 4 hours if:

held at 135 F or hotter before removing from temp control, has label specifying when to be thrown out, is sold, served or thrown out within 4 hours

never re-serve:

food returned by one customer to another customer, plate garnishes, uncovered condiments, uneaten bread or rolls

in general, only unopened prepackaged food can be reserved

condiment packets, wrapped crackers or breadsticks

when delivering food off-site

use insulated, food grade containers that maintain right temps, clean inside of delivery vehicles regularly, check internal food temps, label food w/ a use-by date and time and reheating and service instructions, make sure the service site has right utilities (safe water, garbage stored away from food), store raw meat, seafood, poultry and RTE food separately

to keep vended food safe:

check product shelf life daily, keep TCS food at right temp, dispense TCS food in its original container, wash and wrap fresh fruit w/ edible peels before putting in machine

when serving, it is important to avoid touching the ____ of a plate

top

serving utensils should be used to serve a max of ___ food items at a time

one

at what minimum temp should hot TCS food be held?

135 F

where allowed, hot TCS food can be held without temp control for a maximum of ___ hours before being sold, served or discarded

4

active managerial control focuses on

controlling the most common foodborne illness risk factors identified by the CDC

T or F: purchasing fish directly fro a local fisher would be considered a risk in an active managerial control system

true

a point in flow of food where a hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels

critical control point

prerequisite food safety programs:

personal hygiene program, supplier selection and specification program, sanitation and pest control programs, facility design and equipment maintenance program, food safety training program

5 most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness

purchasing food from unsafe sources, failing to cook food adequately, holding food at incorrect temps, using contaminated equipment, practicing poor personal hygiene

steps for active managerial control

consider 5 risk factors throughout flow of food and identify any issues that could impact food safety, create policies and procedures that address the issues that were identified, regularly monitor the policies and procedures that have been developed, verify that the policies and procedures are actually controlling the risk factors

based on identifying significant biological, chemical and physical hazards at specific points within a product’s flow through an operation

HACCP

the seven HACCP principles

1) conduct a hazard analysis, 2) determine critical control points, 3) establish critical limits, 4) establish monitoring procedures, 5) identify corrective actions, 6) verify that the system works, 7) establish procedures for record keeping and documentation

a successful crisis management plan has a written plan that focuses on 3 areas

preparation, response, recovery

prepare for a foodborne illness outbreak:

create a crisis management team, train staff on food safety policies and procedures, develop a FBI incident report form, create an emergency contact list, develop a crisis communication plan

air space used to separate a water supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source

air gap

unwanted, reverse flow of contaminants through a cross connection into a potable water system

backflow

most important factor to consider when selecting flooring

material’s porosity, or extent to which it can become saturated w/ liquids – FDA recommends use of nonporous flooring in food prep areas

what action must be taken in event of a backup of raw sewage in an establishment

cause for immediate closure of the area, correction of the problem and thorough cleaning

what can be done to prevent backflow in an establishment

install vacuum breakers or other approved backflow prevention devices on threaded faucets and connections between 2 piping systems, install air gaps wherever practical and possible – only completely reliable method

what are some potable water sources for an establishment? what are the testing requirement for nonpublic water systems

sources: approved public water mains, private water sources regularly maintained and tested, closed portable water containers filled w/ potable water, properly maintained water transport vehicles. requirements: should be tested at least annually

requirements of a handwashing station? what areas are they required?

hot/cold running water supplied through mixing valve or combo faucet at temp of at least 100 F, soap in liquid, bar or powder form, means to dry hands is required – most required disposable paper towels, waste container required, signage must indicate employees are required to wash before returning to work, stations required in food prep areas, service areas, dishwashing areas, and restrooms

what are requirements for installing stationary equipment

must be mounted on legs, at least 6 inches off the floor, or must be sealed to a masonry base

operations that use a private water source such as a well must have it tested at least ____ times a year

1

what is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow

air gap

when installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space b/w the base of equipment and tabletop must be at least

4 inches

how hot should the water at a handwashing station get

at least 100 F

foodservice equipment that has been certified as meeting certain standards may be stamped with the ____ mark

NSF

what info should be posted on or near a dishwasher

water temp, conveyor speed and water pressure

to keep food from being contaminated by lighting, use

shields on heat lamps

what is an example of potable water source

water transport vehicles

outdoor garbage containers should be

kept covered w/ tight fitting lids

what is a cross connection

link b/w sources of safe and dirty water

backflow is when water

flows opposite its normal direction because of water pressure

180

in a heat-sanitizing dishwashing machine, what is the minimum temperature for the final rinse?(just put the #)

Jaundice

a foodhandler must be excluded from the operation for which symptom?

41 to 135

what is the temperature range for the danger zone?(_ to _, just put the #s)

spore

what is form some bacteria take to keep from dying when they do not have enough food?

state

most regulations for foodservice operations are at what level?

41 or lower

at what internal temperature should raw meat, poultry, and seafood be stored?

insulated

what type of container should be used to transport TCS food from the place of preparation to the place of service?

practice the skill

to learn a new skill, learners must be given the opportunity to__.

close the affected area and clean it

a backup of raw sewage has occured in the kitchen. what should happen next?

minimum internal cooking temperature of food

when using a bottom to top shelving order, what determines the best placement of food in a cooler?

cross-connection

a hose connected to a running faucet that is left submerged in a bucket is an example of a

sliced cantaloupe

an example of TCS food is

wheezing

a customer having an allergic reaction may show which symptom?

pasteurized

raw or undercooked dishes made for high-risk populations must use eggs that have been__.

color

the effectiveness of chemical sanitizers is NOT affected by its

state or local regulatory authority

which agency enforces food safety in a foodservice operation?

time-temperature abuse

what can cause histamine to form in tuna?

deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place

what is the second basic rule of an integrated pest management(IPM) program?

deny pests access to the operation

what is the first basic rule of an integrated pest management program?

work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter the operation

what is the third basic rule of an integrated pest management(IPM) program?

16 mesh per square inch screening

screen all windows and vents with at least

touching the walls

food stored in a dry-storage area should NOT be

90 days after the container has been emptied or the last shellfish was served from the container

how lons must shellstock tags be kept on file?

24 hours

you should label all ready to eat TCS food that is prepped in house and held longer than

become ill themselves

people who are carriers are able to carry pathogens in their systems and infect others, yet they never

vacuum-breaker

what is the only certain way to prevent backflow?

when hired, and then periodically after that

when should employees receive food safety training?

individuals and small groups

on-the-job training works best for

165

TCS food must be reheated to what temperature for 15 seconds within 2 hours

show if food has been time-termpature abused during shipment

what do time-temperature indicators do?

at room temperature

what is one way that food should NEVER be thawed?

165

what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for poultry?

conduct a hazard analysis

what is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?

determine critical control points(CCPs)

what is the second step in developing a HACCP plan?

establish critical limits

what is the third step in developing a HACCP plan?

establish monitoring procedures

what is the fourth step in developing a HACCP plan?

identify corrective actions

what is the fifth step in developing a HACCP plan?

verify that the system works

what is the sixth step in developing a HACCP plan?

establish procedures for record keeping and documentation

what is the seventh step in developing a HACCP plan?

the HACCP system

is used to control risks and hazards throughout the flow of food

cool food from 135 to 70 within 2 hours

the first step in cooling TCS food

cool it from 70 to 41 in the next four hours

the second step in cooling TCS food

bimetallic stemmed thermometer

useful for checking large or thick food

thermocouples and thermistors

good for checking the temperature of thick and thin food

immersion probes

use these to check the temperature of liquids, like soups, sauces, and frying oil

165 for 15 seconds

minimum internal temperature for poultry, stuffing, stuffed meat or seafood or pasta, dishes that include previously cooked, TCS ingredients

155 for 15 seconds

minimum internal temperature for ground meat or seafood, injected meat, and eggs for hot held service

145 for 15 seconds

seafood, steaks, pork chop, and eggs that will be served immediately

145 for 4 minutes

roasts of pork, beef

135

commercially processed food that will be hot held

135

fruit, vegetables, grains like rice, and legumes or beans that will be hot held for service

IPM program

the best way to deal with pets is to have an

abrasive cleaner

removes bits of baked cheese from a pot

degreaser

clean a grill backsplash

delimer

remove mineral deposits from a steam table

detergent

wash a kitchen wall

clean, rinse, and sanitize

what are the the steps in a three compartment sink

6 inches

store tableware and utensils at least___off the floor.

chemicals

occupational safety and health administration(OSHA) has requirements for using__

Material Safety Data sheet

OSHA requires chemical manufacturers and suppliers to provide a____ for each hazardous chemical they sell

inform employees of safe use and hazards associated with chemicals used in the operation

what is the purpose of Material Safety Data Sheets

Creating a master cleaning schedule, training your employees to follow it, and monitoring the program to make sure it works

three things to focus on when developing a cleaning program

Virus

what type of pathogen is hepatitis A?

person’s intestines

where is the only place a foodborne virus can reproduce?

surface temperature

what is an infrared thermometer used to measure?

gap between what an employee knows and what an employe needs to know

a training need is a

pile of soft materials in a corner

__is a sign of a possible rodent infestation

thrown out immediately

hot TCS food that has been held below 135 for over 4 hours should be

the federal goverment’s recommendations for foodservice sanitation regulations

what is the FDA food code?

keep the foodhandler away from duties that involve food

what should a manager do when a foodhandler reports being diagnosed with shigellosis?

the water vaporizes before items can be sanitized

what happends when the water temperature in a high temperature dishwashing machine is too high?

use a test kit to check the sanitizer’s concentration when mixing it

to make sure that the chemical sanitizer is at the correct strength,__

41 or lower

cold TCS food must be received at what inernal temperature

155

what is the minimum internal cooking temperature for TCS food cooked in a microwave?

keep it accurate

what is the calibration nut on a bimetallic stemmed thermometer used for?

the date the food should be sold

lables on containers of ready to eat TCS food that was prepped on site must include

cleaned, rinsed, and sanitized

if a food contact surface has been soiled, what three actions must be performed before it can be used again?

every 4 hours

if a food contact surface is in constant use, how often must it be cleaned and sanitized

insert the thermometer of the stem into the thickest part of the product

what is the right way to measure the temperature of fresh meat, poultry, or seafood when it is deliverd

100

what temperature does the water have to be for washing hands

1 hour

a foodhandler who spends an entire shift deboning chicken should change gloves after

fully describe each menu item to customers who ask, including any secret ingredients

when taking the orders of customers with food allergies, a server should

acids in the food can leach zinc into the food

why should food NOT be stored in a galvanized container

botulism

food commonly linked with the bacteria are dented cans, baked potatoes

sous-vide

cooking food in an airtight bag in hot water at 140 degrees for a long period of time

shiga toxin producing e coli

linked with contaminated ground beef and produce

cooking food in the right temperature

can reduce salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels

wash their hands

viruses such as norovirus and hepatitis a can be spread when foodhandlers fail to

toxic metal poisoning

cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which food borne illness

4.6 to 7.5

Level of pH where there is little or no acid– pathogens grow best in food within this level.

Clostridium botulinum

The bacteria which causes Botulism. Food commonly linked with the bacteria include: – Incorrectly canned food – Reduced oxygen packaged (ROP) food – Temperature-abused vegetables, such as baked potatoes – Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures

Bacillus cereus

The bacteria which causes Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis. Vomiting illness caused by cooked rice dishes. Diarrhea illness caused by cooked vegetables, meat products and milk.

Scombroid poisoning

Illness which is also known as histamine poisoning. Commonly linked with tuna, bonito, mackerel and mahi mahi.

Listeria monocytogenes

Bacteria found in ready-to-eat food, such as deli meat, hot dogs and soft cheeses; as well as raw meat and unpasteurized dairy products. *Grows in cool, moist environments!*

Hepatitis A

It’s the illness and virus linked to ready-to-eat food and shellfish from contaminated water. The symptom JAUNDICE (appears later!) distinguishes this illness from others.

The Flow of Food

1. Purchasing 2. Receiving 3. Storing 4. Preparation 5. Cooking 6. Holding 7. Cooling 8. Reheating 9. Serving

HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

FAT TOM / MOISTURE
(water activity)

– The amount of moisture available in food for this growth is called WATER ACTIVITY (aw) – Potentially hazardous food typically has an aw of .85 or higher

VIRAL Foodborne Illnesses

– Hepatitis A – Norovirus gastroenteritis

Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Controlled by Time & Temp

– Listeriosis – Hemorrhagic colitis – Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis – Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis – Botulism

Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Controlled by preventing CROSS-CONTAMINATION

– Salmonellosis

Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Practicing PERSONAL HYGIENE

– Shigellosis – Staphylococcal gastroenteritis

Illnesses caused by BACTERIA
Prevented by PURCHASING FROM APPROVED, REPUTABLE SUPPLIERS

– Vibrio gastroenteritis (oysters) – Vibrio bulnificus primary septicemia (oysters)

Illnesses caused by PARASITES

– Anisakiasis (fish) – Cryptosporidiosis (produce/contaminated water) – Giardiasis (produce/improperly treated water)

Foodborne illness

Illness carried or transmitted to people by food

Foodborne-illness outbreak

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food

Warranty of sale

Rules stating how food must be handled in an establishment.

Reasonable care defense

Defense against a food-related lawsuit stating that an establishment did everything that could be reasonable expected to ensure that the food served was safe.

Immune system

The body’s defense system against illness. People with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to food borne illness.

Contamination

Presence of harmful substances in food. Some food safety hazards occur naturally, while others are introduced by humans or the environment

Biological, chemical, and physical hazards

1) Illness-causing microorganisms. Other examples are certain plant, Mushroom, and seafood toxins. 2) Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and toxic metals. 3) foreign objects that accidentally get into food. Examples include hair, dirt, bandages, metal staples, and broken glass. Naturally occurring objects, such as bones in fillets, are also physical hazards

Time-temperature abuse

Food has been time-temperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at a temperature favorable to the growth of food borne microorganisms.

Cross-Contamination

Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another.

Personal hygiene

Habits that include keeping the hands, hair, and body clean and wearing clean and appropriate uniforms. Avoiding unsanitary actions and reporting illness and injury are also features of good personal hygiene.

Microorganism

Small, living organisms that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope. There are four types of microorganisms that can contaminate food and cause food borne illness: bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.

Pathogen

any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)

Toxins

Poisons produced by pathogens, plants, or animals. Some occur in animals as a result of their diet.

FAT TOM

Pathogens need these to grow F: Food A: Acidity T: Temperature T: Time O: Oxygen M: Moisture

Temperature danger zone

zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth

Water activity

the amount of moisture available in food for pathogens to grow

Virus

Smallest of the microbial food contaminants. Viruses rely on a living host to reproduce. They usually contaminate food through a food handler’s improper personal hygiene. Some survive freezing and cooking temperatures.

Bacteria

Single-celled, living microorganisms that can spoil food and cause food borne illness. Bacteria present in food can quickly multiply to dangerous levels when food is improperly cooked, held, or reheated. Some form spores that can survive freezing and very high temperatures.

Spore

Form that some bacteria can take to protect themselves when nutrients are not available. Spores are commonly found in soil and can contaminate food grown there. A spore can resist heat, allowing it to survive cooking temperatures. Spores can also revert back to a form capable of growth. This can occur when food is not held at the proper temperature or cooled or reheated properly.

Parasite

Organism that needs to live in a host organism to survive. Parasites can be found in water and inside many animals, such as cow, chickens, pigs, and fish. Proper cooking and freezing will kill parasites. Avoiding cross-contamination and practicing proper hand washing can also prevent illness.

Fungi

Ranging in size from microscopic, single-celled organisms to very large, multi-cellular organisms. Fungi most often cause food to spoil. Molds, yeasts, and mushrooms are examples.

Mold

Type of fungus that causes food spoilage. Some molds produce toxins that can cause food borne illness.

Yeast

Type of fungus that causes food spoilage.

Biological contaminants

viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi: the leading causes of foodborne illness

Chemical contaminants

chemical substances, such as cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and toxic metals, that leach from cookware and equipment that have contaminated food

Toxic-metal poisoning

Illness caused when toxic metals have leached from utensils into food

Physical contaminants

foreign object that is accidentally introduced into food, or a naturally occurring object, such as a bone in a filter, that poses a physical hazard. common physical contaminants include metal shavings from cans, staples from cartons, glass from broken light bulbs,blades from plastic or rubber scrapes, fingernails, hair, bandages,dirt and bones.

Food defense

A program developed and implemented by an operation to prevent deliberate contamination of its food

Food Allergy

a condition in which the body’s immune system reacts to substances in some foods

Cross-contact

the transfer of an allergen from a food containing an allergen to a food that does not contain the allergen

Carriers

a human reservoir. the person carries and spreads the disease with out necessarily having symptoms

Finger cot

Protective covering used to cover a properly bandaged cut or wound on the finger.

hair restraint

Device used to keep food handlers’ hair away from food and to keep them from touching it.

Flow of food

path that food takes from purchasing and receiving,storing,preparing,cooking,holding,cooking,holding,cooling,reheating,serving

Bimetallic stemmed thermometer

measures temperature through a metal probe with a sensor toward the end, measures from 0-220, only one that can be calibrated, has a dimple to mark the end of the sensing area, needs accuracy within 2 degrees

Time-temperature indicator

Time and temperature monitoring device attached to a food shipment to determine if the product’s temperature has exceeded safe limits during shipment or later storage.

Calibration

the act of checking or adjusting (by comparison with a standard) the accuracy of a measuring instrument.

Shellstock identification tages

Tags that accompany live shellfish shipment which must remain on the packaging until the last product has been used and then dated and kept on file 90 days

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

Packaging method by which the air inside of a package is altered using gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Many fresh-cut produce items are packaged this way.

Vacuum-packed food

Food processed by removing air from around it while sealed in a package.

Sous vide food

Packaging method by which cooked or partially cooked food is vacuum packed in individual pouches and then chilled. Frozen precooked meals are often packaged this way.

Ultra-high temperature(UHT) pasteurization

Food that is heat treated at very high temperatures ( pasteurized) to kill microorganisms. This food often also aseptically packaged-sealed under sterile conditions to keep it from being contaminated.

Aseptically packaged food

food sealed under sterile conditions to keep it from being contaminated.

First in first out (FIFO)

Method of stock rotation in which products are shelved based on their use-by or expiration dates, so oldest products are used first.

Refrigerated storage

Storage used to hold TCS food at an internal temperature of 41 F (5 C) or lower.

Frozen storage

Storage typically designed to hold food at temperatures that will keep it frozen.

Dry storage

storage used to hold dry and canned food at temperature between 50 F and 70 F (10 C and 21 C) and at a relative humidity of 50 to 60 percent

Shelf life

Recommended period of time during which food can be stored and remain suitable for use.

Slacking

The process of gradually thawing frozen food in preparation for deep-frying, allowing even heating during cooking.

Food additives

Substances added to food to lengthen its shelf life. They are also used to alter food so it does not need time and temperature control. Some are used to enhance flavor.

Minimum internal temperature

the required cooking temperature the internal portion of food must be reach in order to sufficiently reduce the number of microorganisms that might be present. this temperature is specific to the type of food being cooked. Food must reach and hold its minimum internal temperature for a specified amount of time.

Ice-water bath

method of cooking food in which a container holding hot food is placed into a sink or larger container of ice water

Food bar

Self-service buffet

Sneeze guard

food shield used over self-service displays and food bars, which extends seven inches beyond the food and fourteen inches above the food counter.

Off-site service

service of food to someplace other than where it is prepared or cooked, including catering and vending.

Mobile unit

Portable food service facilities, ranging from concession vans to full field kitchens capable of preparing and cooking elaborate meals.

Temporary unit

Establishment operating in one location for no more than fourteen consecutive days in conjunction with a special event or celebration. Usually serves prepackaged food or food requiring only limited preparation.

Food safety management system

a group of programs, procedures, and measures for preventing food borne illness by actively controlling risks & hazards throughout the flow of food

Active managerial control

an approach to manage food safety risks that focuses on controlling the five most common risk factors

HACCP

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

HACCP plan

written document based on HACCP principles describing procedures a specific to a particular establishment will follow to ensure the safety of food served.

Critical control point (CCP)

In a HACCP system, the points in the process where you can intervene to prevent, eliminate, or reduce identified hazards to safe levels.

Porosity

Extent to which water and other liquids are absorbed by a substance. Term Usually used in relation to flooring material.

Resiliency

Ability of a surface to react to a chock without breaking or cracking, usually used in relation to a flooring material.

Coving

a curved, sealed edge placed b/w the floor and wall, eliminates sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean, must adhere tightly to the wall to eliminate hiding places for pests and prevent moisture from deteriorating the wall

NSF International

Org. that develops and publishes standards for sanitary equipment design. Also assesses and certifies that equipment has met these standards

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

Provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF International standards. Also lists products complying with its own published environmental and public health standards.

Potable water

Water that is safe to drink.

Booster heater

Water heater attached to hot-water lines leading to dish washing machines or sinks. Raises water to temperature required for heat sanitizing of tableware and utensils.

Cross-connection

Physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other waste water sources can enter a potable water supply. A hose connected to a faucet and submerged in a mop bucket is an example.

Backflow

unwanted reverse flow of contaminates through a cross connection into a portable water system. It occurs when the pressure in the portable water supply drops below the pressure of the contaminated supply

Air gap

Air space used to separate a water-supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source. The air space between the floor drain and the drainpipe of an sink is an example. An air gap is the only completely reliable method for preventing back flow.

Cleaning

Process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface, such as a counter top or plate.

Sanitizing

Process of reducing the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels

Detergents

Cleaner designed to penetrate and soften soil to help remove it from a surface.

Degreasers

Alkaline detergents that contain a grease dissolving agent

Delimers

used on mineral deposits and other soils that alkaline cleaners cannot remove, such as scale, rust and tarnish

Abrasive cleaners

Cleaners containing a scouring agent used to scrub off hard-to-remove soils. They may scratch some surfaces.

Heat sanitizing

Using heat to reduce the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels. One common way to heat sanitize tableware, utensils, or equipment is to submerge them in or spray them with hot water.

Chemical sanitizing

Using a chemical solution to reduce the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels. Items can be sanitized by immersing in a specific concentration of sanitizing solution for a required period of time or by rinsing, swabbing or spraying the items with a specific concentrations of sanitizing solution.

Sanitizers

Chemical used to sanitize. Chlorine, iodine, and quats are the three most common types of chemical sanitizer in the restaurant and food service industry.

Master cleanig schedule

Detailed schedule listing all cleaning tasks in an establishment, when and how they are to be performed, and who will perform them.

Infestation

Situation that exists when pests overrun or inhabit an establishment in large numbers

Integrated pest management

Program using prevention measures to keep pests from entering an establishment and control measures to eliminate any pests that do get inside.

Pest control operator

Licensed professional who uses safe, current methods to prevent and control pests

Air curtains

Devices installed above or alongside doors that blow a steady stream of air across an entryway, creating an air shield around open doors. Insects avoid them. Also called air doors or fly fans.

Pesticide

a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)

Residual sprays

Type of pesticide spray that leaves behind a film that insects absorb as they crawl across it Used in cracks and crevices like those along baseboards, these sprays can be liquid or a dust, such a boric acid.

Contact sprays

Used to kill insects on contact

Glue boards

pest-control device in which mice are trapped by glue and then die from exhaustion or lack of water or air. They are also used to identify the type of cockroaches that might be present.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Federal agency responsible for the inspection and quality grading of meat, meat products, poultry, dairy products, eggs and egg products, and fruit and vegetables shipped across state lines.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Federal agency that issues the FDA Food Code working jointly with the U.S. Department of Agriculture 9USDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA also inspects food service operations that cross state borders-interstate establishments such as food manufactures and processors, and planes and trains-because they overlap the jurisdictions of two or more states.

Regulations

Laws determining standards of behavior. Restaurant and food service regulations are typically written at the state level and based on the FDA Food Code

Health inspectors

City, county, or state employee who conducts food service inspections. Health inspectors are also known as sanitarians, health officials, and environmental health specialists. They are generally trained in food safety, sanitation, and public health principles.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Agencies of the US department of health and human services that investigate food borne illness outbreaks, study the causes and control disease, publish statistical data and conduct the vessel sanitation program

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Federal agency that sets standards for environmental quality, including air and water quality, and regulates pesticide use and waste handling.

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)

Agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce that provides a voluntary inspection program that includes product standards and sanitary requirements for fish-processing operations.

Training need

Approaches for providing training to employees. this can include more traditional methods such as lectures., demonstrations, or role-play or more technology-based approaches such as Web-based training and interactive CD-ROM’s. Regardless of the approach, it is important to use more than one method of delivery, because employees learn differently.

their immune systems have weakened with age

Why are elderly people at a higher risk for foodborne illnesses?

chemical

the three categories of food safety hazards are biological, physical and?

2 or more

for a foodborne illness to be considered an

between 41 and 135 degrees

Foodborne pathogens grow well at temperatures…

moisture

FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and

Staphylococcus aureus

Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, and throat of humans?

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli

While commonly linked with contaminated ground beef, what pathogen has also been linked with contaminated produce?

cooking food to the right temperature

What practice can reduce Salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels?

Staphylococcus aureus

Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen?

Hepatitis A

Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready to eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage?

wash their hands

Viruses such as Norovirus and hepatitis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to…?

Amnesic shellfish poisoning

A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memory loss, what illness could cause this?

purchased from an approved, reputable supplier

Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless then have been..?

food allergies

Eggs and peanuts are dangerous for people with which condition?

toxic-metal poisoning

Cooking tomato sauce in a copper pot can cause which illness?

separate from

To prevent chemical contamination, chemicals should be stored________ food and utensils?

food allergies

Itching and tightening of the throat are symptoms of what?

clean and sanitize utensils before use

To prevent food allergens from being transferred to food…?

human elements, building interior, building exterior

What three points should a food defense program focus on to prevent possible threats to food?

wash their hands

What must foodhandlers do after touching their hair, face or body?

take off their apron

What should foodhandlers do after prepping food and before using the restroom?

after washing hands

When should hand antiseptics be used?

before putting on the gloves

When should foodhandlers who wear gloves wash their hands?

the foodhandler must be told to not come in to work

When a foodhandler has been diagnosed with shigellosis, what steps must be taken?

Salmonella Typhi

Foodhandlers cannot work in their operation if they have an illness caused by which pathogen?

sore throat and fever

Foodhandlers who work in a nursing home cannot work in the operation if they have which symptom?

prepping food

Foodhandlers should not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum or tobacco while..?

cover the wound with a bandage and a glove or finger cot

What should foodhandlers do if they cut their fingers while preparing food?

washed, rinsed, and sanitize

A foodhandler has finished trimming a raw chicken on a cutting board and needs it to prep vegetables. What must be done to the cutting board?

surface temperature of a grill

Infrared thermometers should be used to measure the…?

between 70 and 125 degrees

At what temperatures do foodborne pathogens grow most quickly?

Immersion probe

Which thermocouple probe should be used to check the temperature of a large stockpot of soup?

it has been inspected and complies with local, state, and federal laws

What is the most important factor in choosing an approved food supplier?

41 degrees

What is the maximum acceptable receiving temperature for fresh beef?

45 degrees

What is the warmest acceptable receiving temperature for eggs?

open the carton and insert a thermometer stem into the food

How should cartons of cloeslaw be checked for correct receiving temperature?

lettuce, fresh salmon, fresh pork roast, fresh chicken breasts

In top-to-bottom order, how should a fresh pork roast, fresh salmon, a carton of lettuce, and a pan of fresh chicken breasts be stored in a cooler?

on the bottom shelf

Where should raw poultry be placed in a cooler?

sell-by or discard date

When storing ready-to-eat TCS food that was prepared on site, what information must be included on the label?

50 to 70 degrees

At what temperature should dry-storage rooms be kept?

7 days

A restaurant that has prepared tuna salad can store it at 41 degrees or lower for a maximum of how many days?

cook it

What must you do to keep food safe after thawing it in a microwave?

165 degrees

what is the minimum internal cooking temp for stuffed pork chops?

165 for 15 sec within 2 hours

What are the time and temp requirements for reheating TCS food for hot holding?

165 degrees

What is the minimum internal cooking temp for eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood cooked in a microwave?

155 degrees

What is the minimum internal cooking temp for eggs that will be hot-held for later service?

put the stock pot in ice water

What is the correct way to cool a stockpot of clam chowder?

time-temperature abuse

What is the danger when thawing food at room temp?

155 degrees

What is the minimum internal cooking temp for ground beef?

top

When serving, it is important to avoid touching the _____ of a plate?

1

Serving utensils should be used to serve max of _________ food items at a time?

41 degrees

At what max internal temp should cold TCS food be held?

refill

When returning to self-service lines for more food, customers should not_____ their dirty plates?

135 degrees

At what minimum internal temp should hot TCS food be held?

purchasing food from unsafe sources, failing to cook food adequately, holding food at incorrect temperatures, practicing poor personal hygiene and using contaminated equipment

The CDC has determined 5 common risk factors for foodborne illness what are they?

conduct a hazard analysis

What is the first step in developing a HACCP plan?

procedures and practices

A food safety management system is a group of ___________ preventing foodborne illness?

to identify and control possible hazards

What is the purpose of a food safety management system?

HACCP plan

An operation that wants to smoke food as a method of preservation must have a(n)?

monitor the policies and procedures

What is the third step in active managerial control?

serving raw oysters from a display tank

Which is an example of when a HACCP plan is required?

once a year

Generally, operations that use a private water source, such as a well, must have it tested at least..?

air gap

What is the only completely reliable method for preventing backflow?

4 inches

When installing tabletop equipment on legs, the space between the base of the equipment and the tabletop must be at least?

at least 100 degrees

How hot should the hot water at a handwashing station get?

NSF

Foodservice equipment that has been certified as meeting certain standards may be stamped with the ______ mark?

water temp, conveyor speed, and water pressure

What information should be posted on or near a dishwasher?

shields on heat lamps

To keep food from being contaminated by lighting use..?

kept covered with tight-fitting lids

Outdoor garbage containers should be?

link between sources of safe and dirty water

What is a cross-connection?

flows opposite its normal direction because of water pressure

Backflow is when water…?

reducing pathogens to safe levels

What is sanitizing?

every 4 hours

If food-contact surfaces are in constant use, how often must they be cleaned and sanitized?

check with the local regulatory authority

How can foodservice managers find out which chemical sanitizers are appropriate for their operations?

follow label instructions and any regulatory requirements that apply

What should be done when throwing away chemicals?

kept so employees can access them

Material safety data sheets (MSDS) should be..?

wash, rinse, sanitize, air-dry

What is the correct way to clean and sanitize a prep table?

pest control operator

Who should apply pesticides?

warm, moist, and dark

Cockroaches typically are found in places that are?

strong, oily

What kind of odor is a sign that roaches might be present?

1. deny pests access to the operation, 2. deny pests food, water, and a nesting or hiding place, 3. work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter

Three basic rules of an integrated pest management program are..?

washed, rinsed, and sanitized

After pesticides have been applied, food-contact surfaces should be..?

in a secure location, away from food

If pesticides are stored in the operation, where should they be kept?

closure of the operation by the regulatory authority

A backup of raw sewage and significant lack of refrigeration can result in..?

inspector’s ID

A person shows up at a restaurant claiming to be a health inspector, what should the manager ask for?

state and local regulatory authority

Which agency enforces food safety in a restaurant?

when an employee is hired, and then periodically after that

When should staff receive food safety training?

make sure that staff have the knowledge and skills to keep food safe

The manager’s responsibility for staff food safety training is to..?

safe chemical handling

All new staff should receive training on..?

guided discussion

In which training method does a trainer ask a series of questions to draw on the knowledge and experience of the learners?

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