Science of Psych Test 2

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If researchers measure every member of a population, they have

Conducted a census See page 183

Which one of the following is the best example of a population of interest?

NOT: All persons who identity as a woman on the Earth

A biased sample consists of too many ________ cases.

NOT: Ideal

Online surveys commonly suffer from which of the following?


If a researcher choses to use it, random assignment would occur AFTER random sampling.


Which of the following does NOT result in a representative sample?

Snowball sample

Which of the following is true regarding interrogating frequency claims?

The chief concern is to evaluate the sampling technique.

The size of the sample affects statistical validity more than it effects external validity.


The most common sampling method in behavioral research is: __________

Convenience sampling

Simple random sampling often not used by researchers because it is difficult and time consuming.


Replicability gives a study credibility.


Omar conducts a study to determine if consuming caffeine causes people to perform better on cognitive tasks. In his study, he gives half of his participants a glass of water and half of his participants a glass of Coca-cola. Each group then attempts to solve math problems. He finds that people who drink caffeine beforehand solve more math problems than those who drink water beforehand.

After finding this, Omar then has participants drink a caffeinated energy drink instead of the Coca-cola to see if he gets the same results. This is an example of:

conceptual replication

Replication-plus-extensions can add any of the following EXCEPT:

A new control variable

Which of the following is true of a scientific literature?

NOT: It comprises studies that have tested the exact same variable.

The file-drawer problem is the impact of unpublished studies (studies that are often unpublished because they examine the null effects).


Responsible journalists do which of the following as it pertains to discussing replicability?

They provide readers with a sense of the entire literature as well as recent studies.

When generalizing the results of a sample to a population, which of the following is the most
important question to ask?

How were the participants sampled?

Which of the following is NOT true of cultural psychology?

It has never found support for a single theory across all cultural contexts.

The "R" in WEIRD stands for Random


Which of the following is an advantage of studies that are conducted in real-world settings?

They are high in ecological validity.

Measuring cost in dollars uses the __ scale of measurement.


Serena plans to interview several teachers about their attitude towards teaching children who have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is an example of what types of measurement?

Self-report measurement

Which of the following is NOT an example of physiological measurement?

Number of panic attacks reported by a participant

The finish position of horses in a race (1st, 2nd, 3rd) uses the ________ scale of measurement.

NOT: Interval

The reliability that measures if scores are consistent regardless of who takes them or who makes the observations is internal reliability.


A correlation-based statistic called ________ is commonly used to determine internal reliability.

Cronbach alpha

Your friend Dominic is complaining about having to take the Graduate Record Examination
(GRE), a test similar to the ACT and SAT that is required to go to graduate school. He complains
that it doesn’t really measure how well he will likely do in graduate school. Dominic is
questioning the ________ of the test.

Criterion Validity

Reliability implies the measure also has validity.


The validity that reflects if your measure is less strongly associated with measure of dissimilar constructs is _____________.

Discriminant validity

The two numbers that a correlation coefficient ranges if 0 and +1.00.


Which of the following r values is the strongest according to the Cohen’s benchmarks?

NOT: r=0.32

Which of the following graph formats is the best way to examine an association claim between a
categorical variable and a quantitative variable?

A bar graph

Causal claims can be supported with correlational data.


What type test do you use to test the difference between means (group averages)?

A t test

Strong effect sizes allow us to make more accurate predications


Which of the following is statistically significant?

r = 0.31, p > 0.05

Statistical significant is the probability that the results came from a population with a zero association.


Correlations do not show cause & effect relationships.


All of the following are true of outliers EXCEPT:

They have the biggest effect when dealing with large sample sizes.

Which of the following is true of moderators?

They can inform external validity.

Which of the following is a necessary component of a longitudinal design?

Measuring the same variables at two points in time

To determine the correlation of one variable with itself, measured at two different times is called cross-lag correlations.


In a multiple regression design, ________ is to independent variable as ________ is to dependent

Predictor variable, criterion variable

Beta is like r in that they both denote both a direction and strength of a relationship.


Which popular press headline might suggest that a multiple regression has been used?

"Vacations are important for life satisfaction, even after correcting for length of vacation."

One of the problems with how journalists present the importance of pattern and
parsimony in research is that they only focus on one study at a time.


Which of the following is NOT true of third variables and mediating variables?

Third variables can be detected using multiple regression techniques, but mediating variables cannot.

If a researcher is asking why the relationship between two variables exists, she is curious about
which of the following?


"Gender moderates the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behaviors"

In the sentence above, the word "moderates" means that gender makes the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behaviors less intense.


"The level of desensitization mediates the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behaviors"

In the sentence above, the level of desensitization is explaining the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behaviors less intense.


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