science chapter 23

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One of the planets known to have rings is ____. a. Venus c. Uranus b. Mars d. Pluto


Which of the following is NOT a Jovian planet? a. Earth c. Neptune b. Saturn d. Uranus


Which of the following is NOT a terrestrial planet? a. Mercury c. Mars b. Earth d. Jupiter


The most obvious difference between the terrestrial and the Jovian planets is ____. a. color c. orbital velocity b. size d. length of day

thin atmospheres

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the Jovian planets? a. large size c. thin atmospheres b. composed mainly of gases and ices d. located beyond the orbit of Mars


In an astronomical sense, which of the following is NOT considered an ice? a. water c. carbon dioxide b. hydrogen d. ammonia

Nebular theory

The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of dust and gases is called the ____. a. protoplanet theory c. planetesimal theory b. nebular theory d. solar theory


Which of the following is NOT considered part of the solar system? a. terrestrial planets c. galaxies b. Jovian planets d. sun

Hydrogen and Helium

The Jovian planets contain a large percentage of the gases ____. a. nitrogen and argon c. oxygen and nitrogen b. hydrogen and helium d. hydrogen and oxygen

silicate minerals

Which of the following is proportionally more abundant on terrestrial planets than on Jovian planets? a. hydrogen c. methane b. silicate minerals d. ammonia ice


Which planet shows evidence of water erosion? a. Mars c. Jupiter b. Venus d. Mercury


Which planet has a cratered surface similar to Earth’s moon? a. Mars c. Mercury b. Venus d. Saturn


The planet with the greatest temperature extremes is ____. a. Earth c. Mars b. Venus d. Mercury


Which planet has a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and high surface temperatures? a. Venus c. Mars b. Earth d. Mercury


On which thickly clouded planet has radar mapping revealed a varied topography consisting of plains, highlands, and thousands of volcanic structures? a. Mercury c. Neptune b. Venus d. Jupiter


How many known satellites does Mars have? a. 1 c. 5 b. 2 d. 0

carbon dioxide

The atmosphere of Venus is composed primarily of ____. a. water vapor c. hydrogen b. oxygen d. carbon dioxide


Mons Olympus, a volcano the size of Ohio, is found on ____. a. Earth c. Mercury b. Mars d. Saturn


Which of the following planets does NOT have rings? a. Mars c. Neptune b. Uranus d. Saturn


Which planet, when viewed through a telescope, appears as a reddish ball interrupted by some permanent dark regions that change intensity? a. Mercury c. Mars b. Earth d. Saturn


Which of the following is currently responsible for shaping Mars’ surface? a. wind c. water b. volcanoes d. tectonics

gullies and streamlike channels

Which features on Mars point to the possibility of liquid water on the planet? a. mountain ranges with faults c. volcanic cones with craters b. gullies and streamlike channels d. impact craters with sharp rims


Which planet is second only to the moon in brilliance in the night sky? a. Mercury c. Jupiter b. Mars d. Venus


Which planet has a greater mass than the combined mass of all the remaining planets and their moons? a. Venus c. Jupiter b. Saturn d. Pluto


Which of Jupiter’s moons is volcanically active? a. Callisto c. Ganymede b. Europa d. Io


Which planet might best be described as a large, dirty iceball? a. Mercury c. Pluto b. Venus d. Mars


Which planet is associated with the Great Dark Spot? a. Neptune c. Mars b. Jupiter d. Saturn


What is the smallest planet? a. Saturn c. Mars b. Pluto d. Mercury


Which planet’s axis of rotation lies nearly parallel with the plane of its orbit? a. Mercury c. Uranus b. Earth d. Saturn


According to a relatively recent discovery, which planet has one satellite? a. Neptune c. Mercury b. Pluto d. Mars


Which moon has a substantial atmosphere? a. Io c. Titan b. Miranda d. Europa


The lowest surface temperature in the solar system (-200C) occurs on ____. a. Titan c. Triton b. Pluto d. Neptune

neptune is extremely windy

What characteristic distinguishes Neptune from the other planets? a. Neptune is blue. c. Neptune is the largest planet. b. Neptune is extremely cold. d. Neptune is extremely windy.

cyclonic storm

Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is believed to be a ____. a. volcanic area b. large desert c. cyclonic storm d. zone of high ammonia concentration

all of the above

Which of the following is a characteristic of Jupiter? a. huge rotating storms c. thin ring system b. dense atmosphere d. all of the above


Which satellite of Uranus has the greatest variety of landforms of any satellite yet examined? a. Phobos c. Europa b. Miranda d. Titan


The relatively small, rocky bodies generally found orbiting between Mars and Jupiter are known as ____. a. comets c. satellites b. asteroids d. meteoroids

it landed on an asteroid

What feat did the spacecraft Near Shoemaker accomplish? a. It discovered the moon Charon. b. It discovered rings on Neptune. c. It landed on an asteroid. d. It voyaged out of the solar system.

mars and jupiter

Most asteroids lie between the orbits of ____. a. Mercury and Venus c. Earth and Mars b. Venus and Earth d. Mars and Jupiter

away from the sun

A comet’s tail always points ____. a. away from the sun c. sideways b. toward the sun d. downward


The glowing head of a comet is known as the ____. a. coma c. tail b. nucleus d. asteroid

kuiper belt

Comets with short orbital periods are located in what region? a. Kuiper belt c. inner solar system b. Oort cloud d. none of the above


The small particles that produce a streak of light upon entering Earth’s atmosphere are called ____. a. comets c. satellites b. meteors d. asteroids


The remains of extraterrestrial particles that are found on Earth’s surface are called ____. a. comets c. meteoroids b. asteroids d. meteorites


Most meteor showers are associated with the orbits of ____. a. satellites c. planets b. comets d. meteorites


__________ is the planet that cannot be classified as either a terrestrial or a Jovian planet


The densities of the ____________________ planets are about five times the density of water.


A planet’s ability to retain an atmosphere depends on its ____________________ and temperature.


A cloud of dust and gas in space is called a(n) ______


Planets originally formed when bits of matter collided and clumped together to form ____________________.


Because of its similarities to Earth, the planet ____________________ has been called "Earth’s twin."

water, ice, carbon dioxide

The Martian polar caps are made of ____________________, covered by a thin layer of frozen ____________________.


Although the atmosphere of ____________________ is very thin, extensive dust storms with wind speeds in excess of 270 kilometers per hour do occur.


With at least 28 moons, the planet ____________________ and its satellites resemble a miniature solar system.


The most prominent feature of ____________________ is its system of rings.


_____ are small rocky bodies that have been likened to "flying mountains."


The total mass of all asteroids is estimated to be only 1/1000 that of __________


According to Figure 23-1, the ____________________ of the comet is labeled D


According to Figure 23-1, the ____________________ of the comet is labeled A.


A meteoroid that reaches Earth’s surface is called a(n) ___________

size, density, chemical makeup, and rate of rotation

In what four ways do terrestrial planets differ from Jovian planets?

the speed that any material must reach in order to escape a planet’s gravitational pull and go into space

What is escape velocity?


According to Figure 23-2, what materials contributed to the formation of the Jovian planets?


According to Figure 23-2, which materials have the highest melting points?


According to Figure 23-2, what is the relationship between planet formation and distance from the sun?

Venus has extremely high surface temperatures.

Why is it unlikely that life could exist on Venus?


Pluto’s unusual orbit causes it to occasionally travel inside the orbit of which planet?

tidal energy generated by a relentless "tug of war" between Jupiter and the other Galilean moons

What is the heat source for volcanic activity on the moon Io?

Pluto is small and located within a swarm of similar icy objects.

Why do some astronomers argue that Pluto should be reclassified as a minor planet?

between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

Where are most asteroids found?

pieces of rocky and metallic materials held together by frozen gases

What are comets?

a spherical shell around the solar system formed by comets with long orbital periods

What is the Oort cloud?

radiation pressure and solar wind

What two forces affect the tail of a comet?

Most meteoroids originate from interplanetary debris that was not swept up by the planets during the
formation of the solar system, material from the asteroid belt, or the solid remains of comets that once
traveled near Earth’s orbit.

Most meteoroids originate from what three sources?

They burn up.

What happens to most meteoroids when they enter Earth’s atmosphere?

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