# Science- Chapter 2

Total word count: 802
Pages: 3

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 Force a push or pull How are forces described? velocity and strength Net Force the overall force on an object after all the forces are added together What three things can unbalanced forces cause an object to do? start moving, stop moving, change direction True/False Unbalances forces acting on an object will change the object’s motion True Balanced Forces Equal forces acting on one object in opposite directions True/False Balanced forces acting on an object will change the object’s motion False What has to act on an object in order to make it stay in motion? Force True/False Once an object is in its natural resting place, it cannot move by itself True Inertia the tendency of an object to resist change in its motion Mass the amount of matter in an object What is the SI unit of mass? kilograms What does the amount of inertia an object has depend on? mass How can mass be defined in terms of inertia? the greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia What is the equation that describes the relationship among quantities of force, mass, and acceleration? Force= Mass x Acceleration How does an increase in force affect acceleration? it causes an increase in acceleration What are two ways you can increase the acceleration of an object? – Increase the force used – Change the mass How does an increase of mass affect acceleration? it causes a decrease in accleration True/False One way to increase the force used to pull a wagon is to decrease the mass in the wagon True True/False When two surfaces rub, the irregularities of one surface get caught on those of the other surface True Friction acts in a direction _____ to the object’s direction of motion opposite The strength of the force of friction depends on what two factors? – the types of surfaces involved -how hard the surfaces push together Fluid Friction an object moves through fluid Sliding Friction solid surfaces slide over each other Rolling Friction an object rolls over a surface Gravity the force that puuls objects toward each other When is an object said to be in free fall? when it is being forced upon by gravity Near the surface of Earth, what is the acceleration of an object due to the force of gravity? 9.8 m/s squared Projectile an object that is thrown True/False An object that is dropped will hit the ground before and object that is thrown horizontally False Air Resisitence objects falling through air experience this type of fluid friction True/False The greater the surface area of an object, the greater the air resistence True Terminal Velocity the greatest velocity a falling object reaches Weight the force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet How is weight different than mass? weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object; mass is a measure of the amount of matter that is in an object What is weight usually measure in? Newtons True/False The force that makes an apple fall to the ground is the same force that keeps Earth orbiting the sun True What does the universal law of gravitation state? the force of gravity acts between all objects in the universe True/False On the moon, your mass would be less than it is on Earth, but your weight would be the same False The mass of attraction between two objects varies with what two factors? mass and square of distance The law of universal gravitation the force of gravity acts between all objects in the universe Newton’s First Law an object at rest will remain at rest and an object that is moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at constant velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force Newton’s Second Law Force= Mass x Acceleration Newton’s Third Law if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction on the first object What did Newton call the force exerted by the first object on a second object? action What did Newton call the force exerted by the second object back on the first object? reaction The action and reaction forces in any situation will always be ____ and ____. equal opposite The product of an object’s mass and velocity is its…? momentum What is the unit of measurement for momentum? kilograms x meters per second (kg x mls) What does the law of conservation of momentum state? the total momentum of the objects that interact does not change; the quantity of momentum is the same before and after they interact Friction the force that one surface exerts o another surface when the two rub against each other

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