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Psychoneuroimmunology is a scientific field involved in the study of the effects of prolonged stress on the immune system.


Stress can cause weight gain and hair loss.


Research on stress and body function have found that prolonged stress

affects the immune response.

During non-REM sleep

body temperature and energy use drop.

To manage stress, the first step is to

identify and assess the stressors in your life

To replenish vital energy stores, which of the following would be particularly helpful?

Getting more sleep and "down time"

Research has shown that laughter results in all of the following EXCEPT

increased risk of heart disease.

A personality trait characterized by control, commitment, and the willingness to embrace new challenges is known as psychological hardiness.


Which of the following statements BEST describes self-esteem?

Self-esteem has to do with one’s confidence and self-satisfaction.

You have to make a college choice by the end of the month, and you have been accepted by three schools. Your parents want you to go to the same state university that they attended, but you are more interested in a small, private college known for their excellent drama department. Which type of stressor is this?


Eating healthy foods helps in managing stress because

they nourish the body and provide stamina for stressful times

Creating pleasant and peaceful mental images is the relaxation technique known as


Of the following choices, the BEST example of conflict is

wanting to go out with friends but needing to study.

A sense of being overwhelmed by perceived obligations to stay connected online is


You really want to buy a new home theater system, but your credit cards are maxed out and the rent is due next week. Which type of stressor is this?


The physiological arousal response that allows us to face or escape from real or perceived threats is the

fight-or-flight response.

A person who has difficulty falling asleep and wakes up frequently is suffering from


One reason why the Type A personality theory has been debated is because

not all Type A people experience negative health consequences.

All of the following are likely to influence your response to stress EXCEPT

your friend’s level of stress.

All of the following are indicators that a person is under sympathetic nervous system control EXCEPT

increased salivation.

Stress caused by not being able to accomplish all tasks and obligations in the time available is known as


During REM sleep

the brain processes and consolidates information.

Which of the following categories describes the small stressors, frustrations, and petty annoyances that collectively can add up to a higher level of stress?


Some scientists believe that REM sleep enhances memorization and learning.


Sleep helps the body to conserve energy.


During a sleep study, a person spends the night in a sleep lab, and his or her body functions are monitored by

sensors and electrodes

A sleep-deprived driver is as impaired as an intoxicated driver.


Cortisol contributes to weight gain by

increasing hunger and activating fat storage enzymes.

Most adults need only 5 to 6 hours of sleep per night, provided it’s high-quality sleep.


An example of an event likely to be associated with distress is

bouncing several checks.

You are focusing on an image of billowing, white clouds while breathing in a slow, controlled manner. Which method are you using to manage stress?


Due to her job, Jessica sleeps 5 to 6 hours per night on weekends. Which of the following is the BEST strategy for her to resolve her sleep debt?

She can sleep 9 hours per night Monday through Friday.

A person who has good coping skills and effectively manages their stress can completely eliminate distress from their life.


Which of the following is a time management tip that can reduce stress?

Make a daily list of tasks and prioritize them.

Deep breathing is a technique used in yoga but not in other mind-body practices.


Which of the following hormones might contribute to the "Freshman 15"the tendency to gain about 15 pounds during the first year of college?


The body’s attempt to restore homeostasis in the aftermath of a stress response is a(n)

adaptive response.

The stress hormone cortisol plays a major role during the stress response in

mobilizing nutrients to meet energy needs.

Which of the following forms of stress management also improves flexibility?


The primary hormone responsible for physiological stress responses such as increased heart and breathing rates is


The process of replacing negative thoughts with positive ones is referred to as

cognitive restructuring.

How we mentally and emotionally react to stress can affect the immune system.


People aged 13 to 29 in the United States are more sleep-deprived than any other age group.


All of the following negatively affect the quality of sleep EXCEPT

getting lots of exercise during the day.

Which of the following forms of stress management is also a Chinese martial art?

Tai chi

After working on a class project all week and only sleeping about four hours per night, Courtney is

compromising her immunity.

All of the following are effective stress management techniques EXCEPT

relaxing with a double espresso at your favorite coffee shop.

The sleep disorder in which breathing is interrupted many times during sleep is

sleep apnea.

The difference between hours of sleep needed and actual hours slept is

sleep debt.

The energizing period of sleep during which dreams occur is

REM sleep.

As part of the stress response, the hormone that stimulates the body to prepare for action is


A person’s 24-hour cycle of sleeping, waking, and performing daily activities is his or her

circadian rhythm.

Improving time management does not seem to have much of an effect on the stress levels of students.


Your roommate just ate the last of your trail mix without asking. Which type of stressor is this?


Obstructive sleep apnea increases a person’s risk for all of the following EXCEPT


Stage 3 is called slow-wave sleep because

the brain generates delta waves.

What role does exposure to sunlight during the day play in improving sleep?

It helps to regulate the circadian rhythm

The majority of nighttime sleep is spent in REM sleep.


The hormone released by the pineal gland that causes drowsiness is


Sleep deficiencies have been linked to increased alcohol abuse.


A pop quiz in class is an example of

a stressor.

The sleep disorder in which a person experiences unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move to relieve the sensations is

restless legs syndrome.

Self-efficacy is the same as self-esteem.


You eat an entire box of cookies the night before you attend a Weight Watchers meeting. This is an example of

inconsistent goals and behavior.

The three phases of the general adaptation syndrome are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.


Which of the following has been recommended by experts in positive psychology as a method for managing stress and increasing happiness?

Keeping a journal about good things that happen every day

The condition that causes people to fall asleep involuntarily during the day is


Stress can have a positive physical impact.


Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a health consequence of chronic stress.


Acute stress is significant, long-term stress that can produce negative effects on multiple body systems.


Lack of sleep can have a detrimental effect on academic performance.


College freshmen living away from home for the first time may face a variety of conflicts due to differences between their own values and beliefs and those of

their parents and new people they encounter.

Which of the following decreases the effect of melatonin?


The physiological state in which all body systems are in balance and functioning normally is


The ability of the immune system to respond to assaults is known as


The shortest stage of sleep is stage 2.


Sometimes anger can be a productive emotion.


Which of the following chiefly accounts for younger Americans’ lack of sleep?

Electronic devices Answers: Correct Electronic devices Failing grades Eating spicy food Exercising at night

What is the main cause of inadequate sleep around the world?


Stress management consists of

finding balance and developing coping strategies.

During which stage of sleep does a person disengage from the environment?


People with high levels of stress are less likely to develop upper respiratory infections.


According to a recent survey, what percentage of American workers report problems at work as a result of sleep issues?

over 30 percent

Which of the following is a useful strategy to prevent explosive anger?

Develop realistic expectations of yourself and others.

You are moving into your first apartment. Which type of stressor is this?


Which of the following statements regarding stress and hair loss is NOT true?

Stress-induced hair loss occurs when colonies of hair are pushed into an active phase.

Hearing ominous footsteps following you late at night on a campus walking path would likely trigger which phase of the general adaptation syndrome?


Type A individuals said to have a "toxic core" and an increased risk of heart disease consistently exhibit which characteristic?


Which of the following is TRUE about stress?

Stress is a mental and physical response to real or perceived changes and challenges.

When you feel groggy and disoriented after a long nap, you are experiencing

sleep inertia.

Meditation has been proven effective in managing stress. Which of the following is NOT true about meditation?

There is only one meditation style that is considered effective

You have been a successful doctor of internal medicine for many years. You recently gave up your large practice in the city to join the staff of a small-town clinic where you will work four days a week. Which method are you using to manage stress?


You’ve misplaced your cell phone and you’re already late for class. Which type of stressor is this?


Intimate relationships can cause stress in all the following ways EXCEPT

aspiring to be the best one can be.

Downshifting refers to the process of

taking steps to simplify one’s life.

Adequate sleep lowers a person’s metabolic rate.


Students who doze off during a lecture are usually in which stage of sleep?


How does sleep deprivation affect drivers?

Impairs motor skills

Which of the following is most likely to cause eustress instead of distress?

An impending promotion

Adequate sleep may enhance intellectual health in all the following ways EXCEPT by

expending energy.

Exercise reduces stress by

increasing endorphins and reducing levels of stress hormones.

Which of the following nightly rituals is likely to harm your quality of sleep?

Exercising strenuously

When we are forced to choose between two or more competing desires, motives, behaviors, or impulses, which process is occurring?


The restful, restorative period of sleep is

non-REM sleep.

Which of the following situations might contribute to impaired immune function?

Your grandmother moves in with your family after being hospitalized due to a stroke.

The part of the brain involved in controlling the body’s overall reaction to stress is the


You have learned how to intentionally slow your heart rate to calm yourself during an exam. Which method are you using to manage stress?


Which of the following characteristics of a Type A personality have been determined to be the most detrimental to health?

Having a tendency toward anger and hostility

The disruption of which factor results in jet lag?

Circadian rhythm

Chronic stress has a strong connection to all of the following medical conditions EXCEPT

tooth decay

According to current research, most adults function best with how many hours of sleep per night?


A person’s perception of stress may have as much impact as an actual stressor.


As part of the stress response, the hormone that makes stored nutrients available for energy is


Stress can negatively affect short-term memory.


During stage 4, a sleeping person releases which of the following hormones?

Growth hormone

Getting enough sleep may reduce a person’s susceptibility to colds.


Insomnia is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

temporary lapses in breathing while asleep.

Naps are most effective for improving alertness if they are longer than 30 minutes.


Two parts of your brain that are critical to regulating circadian rhythm are the hypothalamus and the

pineal body.

Alcohol improves sleep because it enhances relaxation.


Jet lag occurs because travelers take frequent naps while flying.


Caffeine effectively counteracts the negative effects of sleep deprivation.


REM sleep restores the body.


Which of the following BEST describes a Type C personality?


The most common sleep disorders are

insomnia and sleep apnea.

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