Respiratory System

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Respiratory System

The organs ensure that oxygen enters the body and carbon dioxide leaves the body.

Inspiration (inhalation)

air is conducted from the atomsphere to the lungsby a series of cavities, tubes, and openings.


exhalation, air is conducted from the lungs to the atmosphere by way of the same structures.

The respiratory tract

extends from the nose to the lungs.


another term for breathing that includes both inspiration and expiration

Importance of gas exchange

Because the cells of the body carry out cellular respiration to make energy in the form of ATP. During, cells use up O2 and produce CO2. The respiratory system provides these cells with O2 and removes CO2.

The upper respiratory tract

The nasal cavities, pharynx and larynx

Auditory Tubes

Air in nasal cavities passes into the nasopharynx, the upper portion of the pharynx. Connected to the nasopharynx are ____

The pharynx

aka the throat, is a funnel shaped passage way that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx.

3 parts of the pharynx

Nasopharynx – where the nasal cavities open above the soft palate Oropharynx- where oral cavity opens Laryngopharynx – which opens into the larynx


The ___ form a protective ring at the junction of the oral ccavity and pharynx. The tonsil, which are comprised of lymphoid tissue, are actually part of the immune system. They contain lymphocytes, which protect against invasion of inhaled foreign antigens.


is a cartilagionous structure that serves as a passageway for air between the pharynx and the trachea. The larynx can be pictured as a triangular box whose apex, the adams apple(larygeal prominence) voice box

Voice box (vocal cords)

____ are mucosal folds supported by elastic ligaments, and slit between the vocal cords is called the glottis,


a flap of tissue that prevents food from passing into the larynx

When food is swallowed..

the larynx moves upward against the epiglottis


Windpipe, is a tube connecting the larynx to the primary bronchi.



Become thinner until the small rings of cartilage are no longer present


Each bronchiole leads to an elongated space enclosed bt a multitude of air pockets or sacs

Active Phase of ventilation

inspiration because this is a phase in which the diapphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract. In its relaxed state, the diaphragm is dome shaped. During Inspiration it contracts and becomes a flattened sheet of muscle. Also the ecternal intercostal muscles contract, causing the rib cage to move upward and outward. Following contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles, the volume of the thoracic cavity is larger than it was before. AS the thoracic volume increases, the lungs increase in volume as well, becasue the lung adheres to the wall of the thoracic cavity as the lung volume increases, the air pressure in the alveoili decreases, creating a partial vacuum. in other words, alveolar pressure is now less than atmospheric pressure (air pressure outside the lungs) air will naturally flow from outside the body into respiratory passages and into the alveoli because a continous column of air reaches into the lungs.

External respiration

refers to the exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries.

Internal Respiration

Refers to the exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissue cells.

Order where air travels

nasal cavity, pharynx,larynx,bronchus, bronchiles, alveoli


Under submocosa they help warm and moisten the air that comes in

ciliated cells in nasal cavities

oder receptors


capture pollen and dust


helps trap dust and move it to the pharnx where it can be coughed or spit out


The cartilaginous organ between the pharynx and the trachea, contains the vocal cords in humans, is call the ___

Boyles law

Which states that at a constant temperature the pressure of a give quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

Tidal Volume

When people are relaxed only a small ammount of air moves in and out with each breath, similar perhaps to the tide at the beach. its only about 500 ml

Vital capacity

The maximum volume of air that can be moved in plus the maximum amount that can be moved out durig a single breath

Inspiratory reserve volume

forced inpiration usually adds another 2900 ml of inhaled air. it is a definite increase over the tidal reserve volume.

Expiratory Reserve volume

increased expirtion can be done by contracting the abdominal and thoracic muscles. which is about 14000 ml of air

Dead air space

Some air just takes up space in naval cavities and never reach lungs.

Residual volume

is the amount of air that can be exhaled from the lungs

Principal of diffusion

___ govern whether o2 or co2 enters or leaves the blood in the lungs and in the tissues. Gases exert pressure, and the amount of pressure each gas extets is called its partial pressure, symbolized as Po2 and Pcoo2. If the partial pressure of o2 differs across a membreane o2 will diffuese from the higher to lower partial pressure,

External respiration refers to the exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Blood on the pulmonary capillaries has a higher pco2 than atmospheric air. There, CO2 diffuses out of the plasma into the lungs. Most of co2 is carried in plasma as bicarbonate ion.

In the low pco2 environment of the lungs the reaction proceeds to the right

Carbonic anhydrase

speeds the breakdown of carbonic acid in red blood cells


The oxygen-loaded form of hemoglobin, the predominant protein in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein molecule that binds to oxygen.

Internal respiration

__ refers to the exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the tissue cells.


is a compound of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide, and is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood.

Gas exchange between air in the alveoli and the blood in pulmonary capillaries is called


When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is greater in the blood than in the alveolar air..

When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is greater in the blood than in the alveolar air.. carbon dioxide will diffuse out of the blood.

When someone hyperventalates

breathing becomes inhibited, the blood has fewer hydrogen ions, dizziness may occur

Most o2 in the blood is carried…

In red blood cells; attached to oxyhemoglobin

the partial pressure of oxygen in the tissue fluid is lower than that of the tissue cells are using oxygen as a reactant in

cellular respiration

After carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood, most enters the red blood cell where a small amount is taken up by a hemoglobin forming


Gas exchange that occurs between tissues of the body and the blood is called

internal respiration

Upper respitoary tract

Nose,pharnyx, larynx


opening between the cords

how does nose filter hairs

hairs mucus

How does nose warms hair?

Vascular submucosa since blood is carrying heat to the nose air will be warmed before going to lungs

Lower respirtory tract

Trachea, Bhronchial tree, lungs


Trachea is a tube, often called the windpipe, that connects the larynx with the primary bronchi

what is trachea made out of

connective tissue smooth muscle and cartilagionous rings theres room to swallow in the esphogus when swallowing.

How does trachea protect>

The trachea is lined with ciliua and muucus helps clean the lungs

The lungs

The right lungs has 3 lobes while the left lung has 2 lungs because of heart

quick facts about alveoi

300 million, one layer of epithelium that allows gas exchange



alveoli are lined with surfactant that act as a film to keep alveoli open.

Mechanism of breathing ( Inspiration)

Gases high pressure -> low pressure When the size of of thoracic cavity then the pressure in theocratic pressure is lower. Pressure external is high and pressure internal is low so hair moves out > in 1. Contract diagraprahm – moves down 2. Moves ribs outward

Mechanism of breathing ( expiration)

size of thoracic cavity goes down and then pressure in the thoracic cavity increases 1. relax diaphram 2. ribs in

Respiratory rate

reggion of the brain that autmatically regulates in the brain

How is breathing chemically controlled

2 sets of chemorrecptors sense the drop in ph: one set is in the brain and the other in the circulatory system. Both are sensitive to CO2 levels that change blood ph due to metabolism Decrease ph > increase rate and depth of breathing gets rid carbon dioxide

Exchange of gases by ____



have high concentration of co2 because it is a product of cellular respiration

External respiration

at is, the alveolar air – is actually outside of the body. As blood flows through the pulmonary capillaries, oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolar gas.

Internal respiration

Inhalation the steps

1. if you increase the size of thoracic cavity then there will be less pressure. 2. Than pressure(gas) is higher outside the body than in. Rules- gases move high pressure to low pressure 3. air moves into thoratic cavity


surfactant decreases the surface area of alveloi to keep them open

Respiaroty control center

brain stem (medulla and pons)

Intercostal muscles

Whats the difference between right and left lung?

The left lung is divided by oblique fissure into two lobes; superior & inferior. It is longer and lighter than the right lung and has a cardiac notch at its mediastinal/anterior border. The right lung is divided by oblique and horizontal fissures into three lobes; superior, middle, and inferior. It is shorter and heavier than the left lung

Muscle contraction is required for expiration. t or f

Expiration is the passive part of ventilation when the muscles relax. so false

Which part of the respiratory system is composed of skeletal muscle?

The diaphragm is a skeletal muscle that functions in ventilation

Which part of the respiratory system carries out gas exchange?

lungs; the lungs contain alveoli which carry out gas exchange

Which respiratory structure is used to produce sound?


Which part of the lower respiratory tract is intimately in contact with the cardiovascular system?

The lungs contain the alveoli where gas exchange occurs between the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system.

What does ventilation include?

Ventilation is another term for breathing that includes both inspiration and expiration.

When the pH of the blood becomes more acidic, the respiratory center

The respiratory center increases both the rate and depth of breathing to remove more carbon dioxide from the blood. When the pH of the blood becomes more acidic, the respiratory center..

How are internal and external respiration alike?

Both involve an EXCHANGE OF GASES. In external respiration, carbon dioxide diffuses into the lungs and oxygen into the blood, and in internal respiration, carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood and oxygen into the tissue.

The respiratory is unlike the digestive system in that air comes in and out the same opening. t or f


What do inspiration and expiration have in common?

Inspiration and expiration utilize the same pathway, just in opposite directions

Which of the following is not a part of inspiration?

During inspiration, the pressure in the lungs decreases.

If it were not for the nasal cavity

more debris would enter the lungs.

Dalton’s law of partial pressures is based on the fact that _______

when two gases are mixed together, the gas particles tend to act independently of each other


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