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As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following "enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society"?

sociological imagination

Feeling discomfort about rural Chinese society, where many generations of a family sleep in the same bed is known as;


How does the textbook author use dialogue from Pulp Fiction, in which the characters discuss how in Holland people put mayonnaise on their french fries?

to explain the sociological imagination

A female manager is attempting to climb her way to the top of the corporate ladder. She works as hard, if not harder, than her male colleagues, but nothing she seems to do helps her advance. She begins to notice that males are being promoted, but females tend to be overlooked for advancements. The realization that many women in her circumstance are experiencing the same discrimination is an example of:

sociological imagination

Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as:

the returns to schooling

After doing some sociological math, what is the net difference between the annual earnings of the average high school versus college graduate?

about $15,000 per year

According to Randall Collins’s (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is:

a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education.

According to research used to question credentialism, what might it cost to buy a college diploma online?


In today’s society, Randall Collins might suggest that getting a "piece of paper" is more important to many than actually having the knowledge to do a job. He calls the priority placed on formal education:


All of the following are examples of social institutions used to prevent websites from undermining colleges’ degree-conferring abilities EXCEPT:


Which of the following is defined as a set of stories embedded within a social network about the standard ways a society meets its needs?

a social institution

The author of your text states that the most age-segregated social institution in our society is:

a four-year college.

A family, as a group of people living together sharing individual stories makes up a(n);

social institution

The Phillip Morris Company changed its name to Altira in an attempt to start a new:

social identity

The "grand narrative" that constitutes a social identity:

is nothing more than a sum of individual stories told between pairs of individuals.

As a formal field, sociology is a relatively ____________ discipline, as discussed in Chapter 1.


Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology?

Harriet Martineau

In the book How to Observe Morals and Manners, the institution of marriage is criticized as:

based on an assumption of the inferiority of women.

Which of the following sociologists developed the theory of positivism?

Auguste Comte

Positivism is best defined as:

the idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them.

According to Comte, positivism arose out of a need to make ____________ sense of the social order in a time of declining religious authority.


The person that is often considered to be the founding father of positivism is:

Émile Durkheim.

All of the following are known as the three epistemological stages of human society, as explained by Comte, EXCEPT:

the post-scientific stage.

Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte explain was highlighted by Enlightenment thinking such as Rousseau’s, Mill’s, and Hobbes’s beliefs in biological causes for human behavior?

the metaphysical stage

Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte claim was characterized by the development of social physics to explain human behavior?

the scientific stage

Which of the three historical epistemological stages did Comte argue would explain human society by consulting the Bible or other religious texts?

the theological stage

Which of the following are known as "the founding fathers of the sociological discipline"?

Durkheim, Marx, and Weber

Which of the following founders of sociology is known, in part, for having his writings become the basis of Communism?

Karl Marx

To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. He referred to this large number of workers as:


Karl Marx would argue that the types of social institutions in a society were the result of the economic makeup of that society. Max Weber, however, argued that:

there are multiple influences (e.g., religion) on how social institutions are created.

Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class as explanations for human behavior, and advocated sociological analyses that allowed for multiple influences?

Max Weber

Who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?

Max Weber

The author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as:


Max Weber would say we need to understand, from their perspective, not from our own, why many generations of Chinese sleep together in rural China. He called this:


Which of the following is the study of social meanings that emphasizes subjectivity in understanding human behavior?

interpretive sociology

The Division of Labor in Society was the first of many sociological contributions from:

Emile Durkheim

According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine:

the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained.

Which of the following sociologists wrote Suicide in 1897?

Emile Durkeim

According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called


American sociology in the United States began at which of the following universities?

University of Chicago

The basic premise of the Chicago School was that human behaviors and personalities are shaped by social and physical environments. This is known as:

Social Ecology

Which early U.S. sociologist told other sociologists in the Chicago School to "go out and get the seats of [their] pants dirty in real research"?

Louis Wirth

The Chicago School’s main laboratory for sociological research was:

a city of Chicago itself

Chicago School researcher Louis Wirth’s essay, "Urbanism as a Way of Life," might be classified as which of the following today?

Cultural sociology

"If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences" is the theory of which of the following Chicago School theorists?

W. I. Thomas

The Chicago School was a good place to study community-based social ecology. Why?

The population was rapidly growing due to foreign immigration and the influx of African Americans from the rural South.

Charles H. Cooley argued that the "self" emerges from how an individual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He calls this:

The looking-glass self

George H. Mead described how the "self" internalizes the views of society as a whole, transcending the individual and particular situations. He calls this larger society:

The generalized other

The Chicago School’s Jane Addams founded the first American settlement house, an institution to help the poor by offering aid, educational services, and more. This house is known as:

the Hull House.

Which of the following was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University?

W.E.B. Du Bois

Which of the following applied Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain crime rates among African Americans after the abolition of slavery in the United States?

W. E. B. Du Bois

A white person goes into an upscale shop to look at clothes. (S)he is excited to see that there is a sale and gathers a huge pile of clothes to take into the dressing room. An African American goes into the store and is excited about the sale, but hesitates to take many clothes into the dressing room, afraid that staff will think he or she might shoplift. W. E. B. Du Bois would say that the African American has:

double consciousness

Which of the following modern sociological theories states that the best way to analyze society is to identify the purpose that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society?


he intended purpose of desegregation of schools in the 1950s was to make education equal for everyone. What was not intended was that many racial minority teachers and principals lost their jobs. This unintended purpose was called a(n) ____________ function by functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons.


In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?

conflict theory

The two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are:

competition versus consensus.

The functionalist paradigm went largely unchallenged in the United States until around the 1950s. C. Wright Mills criticized Talcott Parsons for:

supporting the dominant class structure and the inequalities associated with it.

Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as:

dramaturgical theory

Which feminist sociologist wrote Sex, Gender, and Society (1972), in which she or he argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization?

Ann Oakley

What do symbolic interactionists study?

shared meaning

Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?


Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?

symbolic interactionism

Which of the following modern sociological theories argues that there are no shared, objective meanings?


Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all "facts" are really:

social constructs

Explaining unique cases is the focus of most historians, whereas the comparative method is the staple of the sociologist. This comparative method is also known as:

the nomothetic approach.

Some postmodern sociologists work to show us how all social phenomena are created arbitrarily by people with varying degrees of power. This is known as:


Robert Merton’s modern sociological theory focused on attempting to predict how certain social institutions function between microsociology and macrosociology. This is known as:

midrange theory

In the discipline of history, focusing on historical figures such as Adolf Hitler is known as:

"great man" theories.

Native Americans may see the history of the United States differently than white Europeans. Which theory is concerned with the fact that history may be interpreted differently by these dissimilar groups?


Which area within the discipline of anthropology is most similar to sociology?

cultural anthropology

In sociology’s "cousin," psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above or beyond the individual, on group-level dynamics and social structures. This is known as:


Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?


Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?


Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________:

rational actors; emotional motivations.

While historians are more likely to focus on the unique case, sociologists would more likely focus on:


Sociology is the study of:

group-level dynamics and social structures.

The examination of human behavior within a rational actor model is the focus of which of the following "cousins" of sociology?


Perhaps the largest division within the discipline of sociology exists between which of the following?

interpretive and positivist sociology

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