Public Speaking Chapter 17

According to your textbook, people are persuaded by a speaker, in part, because

they are convinced by the speaker's reasoning; they perceive the speaker as having high credibility; they are won over by the speaker's evidence

According to your textbook, listeners are persuaded by a speaker for one or more of four major reasons. Which of the following is among those reasons

the audience's emotions are touched by the speaker's ideas or language; the audience perceives the speaker as having high credibility

According to your textbook, listeners are persuaded by a speaker for one or more of four major reasons. Which of the following is among those reasons

the audience is won over by the speaker's evidence

According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are

competence and character

According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are competence and

character

According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are character and

competence

As explained in your textbook, the credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to speak is called _________ credibility

initial

According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech is called _________ credibility

terminal

According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker produced by everything the speaker says or does during the speech itself is called

derived credibility

What contemporary researchers term credibility, Aristotle termed

ethos

According to your textbook, when is it especially important for a persuasive speaker to establish common ground with the audience

at the beginning of the speech

To create common ground with an audience in the introduction of a persuasive speech, your textbook recommends that you

show the audience that you share their values

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech

explain your expertise on the speech topic; deliver your speeches fluently and expressively; establish common ground with your audience

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech

establish common ground with your audience

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech

deliver your speeches with genuine conviction

According to your textbook, research has shown that

speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently and expressively

Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true

the same speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience

Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true

A speaker's credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker's competence and character

Efram's audience was persuaded by his speech because they perceived him to be sincere, trustworthy, and to have their best interests at heart. Which factor of credibility influenced Efram's audience

character

A local landlord with a reputation for failing to return security deposits at the end of a lease has been invited to present his viewpoint at a meeting of the local tenants' union. To everyone's surprise, the landlord accepts the invitation despite the fact that he will be facing an audience with a decidedly negative view of his integrity. What factor will the landlord have to overcome if his speech is to have any chance of being persuasive

low initial credibility

Developer Martin Cray had low credibility when he began his speech to a neighborhood group opposed to a new shopping center he hoped to build. During the speech, his credibility increased because his audience was impressed with his command of the facts and his willingness to work with the neighborhood on plans for the shopping center. According to your textbook, the credibility produced by everything Martin said and did during the speech is called _________ credibility

derived

Audience members were unsure about the credibility of Jim Gilchrist, founder of the Minuteman Project border patrol group, when he came to speak on campus. As he spoke, he built his credibility by using high-quality evidence and relating to the concerns of his audience. After the speech, students agreed they would like to have him visit campus again for a roundtable discussion. According to your textbook, the credibility that Gilchrist produced by the end of his speech is called _________ credibility

terminal

Evidence and reasoning are the two major elements of persuasion that Aristotle called

logos

According to your textbook, using evidence in a persuasive speech can

increase the speaker's credibility; inoculate listeners against counter-persuasion

Using evidence is especially critical in a persuasive speech when your target audience

opposes your point of view

When giving a persuasive speech to an audience that opposes your point of view, it is especially important that you use _________ to answer their objections to your views

evidence

According to your textbook, it is especially important to use evidence in a persuasive speech in order to

answer listerner's objections

Studies have found that public speakers will usually be more persuasive when they

present evidence in specific rather than general terms

As your textbook explains, studies have found that public speakers will usually be more persuasive when they

use specific evidence; use evidence from credible sources; use evidence that is new to the audience

As your textbook explains, when you use evidence in a persuasive speech, you should

use evidence from credible sources; tell the audience what the evidence proves

According to your textbook, all of the following are tips for using evidence in a persuasive speech except

balance the amount of evidence used to support each main point

According to your textbook, as a persuasive speaker, your two major concerns with respect to reasoning are to

make sure your reasoning is sound and convincing

According to your textbook, when you reason from specific instances in a persuasive speech, you should

reinforce your argument with statistics and testimony; avoid drawing conclusions from too few instances

When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, you should be careful to

use specific instances that are typical

According to your textbook, when reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, it is particularly important to

reinforce the specific instances with statistics and testimony

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement.
In recent years there have been a number of highly publicized cases of sexual harassment in business, government, and education. Thus we can conclude that sexual harassment continues to be a problem for women in the workplace

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
In recent months, newspapers have carried reports of vicious dogs attacking people in Los Angeles, St. Louis, Boston, and Orlando. These reports show that dog attacks are an increasingly serious problem nationwide

reasoning from specific instances

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Last summer, a five-year-old boy in Seattle was killed by his brother when the two were playing with their father's gun. Last month, four-year-old Dylan Jackson accidentally killed himself after finding a loaded gun at a friend's home during a birthday party. In Tampa, Florida, a two-year-old shot himself in the chest with a pistol left in the family couch. Clearly, children in America are at risk from gun accidents

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
In the 1770s, the American colonists boycotted British tea and had a big impact on British trade. In 1993, manufacturers in Bangladesh released 150,000 child laborers as a result of threatened boycotts against their products. More recently, Colgate has stopped animal testing for its personal care products in response to consumer boycotts. It is clear from these examples that boycotts have long been used as an instrument of social change

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
The income of male accountants is 20 percent higher than the income of female accountants. There is a similar difference between the income of male and female lawyers. Even among doctors, we find an income gap of 20 percent or more within most medical specialties. It is clear that in many professions women continue to earn less than men

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
A sexual encounter with someone who does not consent to it is rape. A person who is incapacitated by alcohol cannot consent to sex. Therefore, a sexual encounter with a person incapacitated by alcohol is rape

reasoning from principle

As your textbook explains, when reasoning from principle in a persuasive speech, it is particularly important that you

assess whether you need to support your general principle with evidence

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Providing a quality education is one of the fundamental responsibilities of any nation. Thousands of American students are stuck in poor-performing schools that barely provide minimal skills. Therefore, the United States is failing to fulfill one of its fundamental obligations as a nation

reasoning from principle

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
We should be taking every step we can to protect our health. Getting vaccinated against bacterial meningitis will help protect our health. Therefore, each of us should get vaccinated against bacterial meningitis

reasoning from principle

In her speech on chewing tobacco, Catherine made the following argument:
To be effective, laws governing chewing tobacco sales to minors must be enforced and must have adequate penalties for people who violate the law. My proposal will significantly increase both enforcement provisions and penalties for violators. Therefore, my plan will be effective.
What kind of reasoning did Catherine use

reasoning from principle

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Politicians who are guilty of corruption do not deserve to be reelected. Last year our U.S. representative was proved to be corrupt by using campaign donations for personal financial gain. Therefore, our U.S. representative does not deserve to be reelected

reasoning from principle

According to your textbook, what error in reasoning should a speaker watch out for when using causal reasoning in a persuasive speech

claiming a causal link between two events when they are merely coincidental; assuming that events have only one cause when there may be multiple causes

Which of the following does your textbook say about causal reasoning

causal reasoning can be tricky because the relationship between causes and effects is not always clear

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
If you're frequently bothered by nightmares, you might want to change your sleeping position. An article in Prevention magazine reports that a study of 700 people showed that sleeping on your stomach produces the scariest and strangest dreams. Therefore, if you are a stomach-sleeper and are having nightmares, the solution is simple—roll over

causal reasoning

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
U.S. children raised in two-parent families with incomes below the poverty line have a greater incidence of school absences, lower test scores, and less chance of finishing high school than do children raised in one-parent households with incomes at least 10 percent above the poverty line. We can see, therefore, that it is the economic stability of the family, not its family structure, that determines a child's ability to succeed in school

causal reasoning

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
We do not have to look very far to find reasons for the explosion in the number of violent crimes committed by teenagers in the United States. Not only are guns readily available to teenagers, but today's teenagers have grown up in a culture that glamorizes violence in television and films. The average child in the U.S. has seen more than 20,000 murders on television by the time he or she turns eighteen. Is it any wonder that many of those children are now committing violent crimes themselves

causal reasoning

What kind of reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?
According to a study by the University of Michigan, married men in the United States earn an average of 31 percent more money than unmarried men. It seems clear, then, that for many men being married is a major factor in financial success

causal reasoning

When reasoning analogically, you infer that

what is true in one case will also be true in a similar case

According to your textbook, the most important question to ask when assessing analogical reasoning in a persuasive speech is

whether the two cases being compared are essentially alike

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
Alton Elementary School in Washington, D.C., has had great success getting kids to eat vegetables at lunch by allowing them to taste-test different recipes before putting specific vegetables on the menu. If that plan has worked at Alton, it can work at other schools, too

analogical reasoning

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
Trying to prevent the use of drugs by criminalizing them is like trying to prevent the use of alcohol through Prohibition in the 1920s—doomed to failure from the beginning. History should have taught us by now that when people want something badly enough, they will find a way to get it, whether it is legal or not

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
According to the Washington Post, more than 400 large military drones have crashed around the world, including 49 in the United States. If military drones are crashing in such large numbers, how can we expect to be safe when thousands of civilian drones are unleashed into our skies

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
Parents have found that getting the right help for their children who have learning disabilities can an arduous chore. It's like trying to make your way through a maze with no way out. Every time you think you're making progress, you run into another brick wall

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Requiring students to sign an honor code has reduced the amount of cheating at dozens of schools. If we adopt such a code at our school, it will help us reduce the amount of cheating, too

analogical

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Five years ago, we came together as a community by voting to build a new elementary school. Today we are asking you to come together again, this time to build a new recreational facility. If we did it before, we can do it again

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
In Germany, female employees can take up to 18 weeks of maternity leave with full pay. If such a plan can work in a prosperous nation such as Germany, surely it can work throughout the United States

analogical

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Colorizing old movies such as Casablanca is like repainting the Mona Lisa

reasoning from analogy

The following statement is an example of reasoning from _________
This program was implemented in Philadelphia two years ago and has provided housing for more than 2,000 people at little cost to the city. If it can work there, it can work here, too

analogy

In her speech arguing for the elimination of pennies from the U.S. money supply, Susan demonstrated that her plan will work by showing that a similar plan worked when the U.S. eliminated the half penny in 1857. What kind of reasoning did Susan use in her argument

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Local control of the school system is the most effective way to educate our children. Therefore, local control of the health care system is the most effective way to maintain the health of our citizens

analogical reasoning

According to your textbook, an error in reasoning is called a

fallacy

According to your textbook, a fallacy is a

an error in reasoning

When reasoning from specific instances, a persuasive speaker should be especially careful to avoid the fallacy of

hasty generalization

The fallacy of hasty generalization occurs when a speaker

jumps to a conclusion on the basis of too few instances; generalizes on the basis of atypical cases

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
A random survey of 20 adults coming out of subway stations in New York City revealed that 16 considered owning a car to be of little importance. Clearly, 80 percent of Americans don't care much about owning cars

hasty generalization

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
My Volkswagen constantly needs repairs, and so does my roommate's Mazda. We can see, then, that all foreign cars are unreliable

hasty generalization

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
Both of my roommates drink at least three cans of soda every day and neither of them is overweight, so all those studies that link soda consumption to obesity must be wrong

hasty generalization

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning "after this, therefore because of this," is a fallacy associated with _________ reasoning

causal

When committing the fallacy of false cause, a speaker assumes

that when one thing follows another, the first is the cause of the second

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
In high school I didn't have to study at all and I earned good grades in all my classes, so I'm sure I don't need to study to do well in my college classes

invalid analogy

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
Recent studies have shown that hurricanes with female names result in more deaths and injuries than hurricanes with male names. So if the next hurricane to come your way is named Mary, you can be sure it will be worse than one named Mark

false cause

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
I always wear my blue sweater when I take an exam, but I couldn't find it yesterday. If I had worn it yesterday, I would not have flunked my accounting exam

false cause

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
The New England Journal of Medicine has discovered that countries that consume the most chocolate have produced over time the greatest number of Nobel Prize winners. Therefore, if you want to increase your chances of winning a Nobel Prize, you should eat plenty of chocolate

false cause

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following passage?
Home sales were 30 percent higher in the summer of 2011, when temperatures averaged 95 degrees, than they were in the summer of 2010, when the average temperature was only 83 degrees. Clearly, then, hot temperatures make people more inclined to buy a house

false cause

The bandwagon fallacy

assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The United States is one of only four countries in the world with a minimum legal drinking age of 21. Clearly, then, we should change our drinking age

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
There can't be anything wrong with cheating on exams if 75 percent of college students do it

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Every presidential administration in recent memory has engaged in questionable fundraising activities, so I don't see any reason why it is wrong for the current administration to do so

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Instituting a national sales tax must be a bad idea. Polls show that 66 percent of Americans oppose it

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The best-tasting cola is obviously Coke. More people buy Coke than any other brand

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The mayor was re-elected with a large majority and continues to have high popularity in the polls. Clearly, then, he has the correct policy on police-community relations

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Everyone runs red lights when they're in a hurry, so there's no reason I shouldn't do it, too

bandwagon

According to your textbook, a fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion is called a

red herring

A red herring fallacy

introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can you worry about cruelty to animals when spousal abuse occurs every day

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can we be so concerned about shielding children in the U.S. from Internet pornography when millions of children around the world continue to be sold into slavery every year

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Why should we be concerned about Siberian tigers becoming extinct when there are more and more homeless people who need our support

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We are spending too much time talking about regulating the cable TV industry while other countries are beating us in technological development

red herring

The fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute is referred to as

ad hominem

The ad hominem fallacy

attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?

The mayor's plan to turn the rundown section of the city into a park will never work. Don't forget that she was involved in a scandal last year

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Councilman Stewart's recommendations for a wind farm might work, but do you want to take advice from a man who was caught cheating on his wife

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Of course, Senator Davis opposes serious tax reform. Before going into politics, he was a corporate lawyer who defended several companies that have since been implicated in unethical financial dealings

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
People who say Barbie dolls are bad for girls' self-esteem are a bunch of liberal do-gooders who don't want anybody to have fun

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Representative Thompson's school proposal may be first rate, but don't forget that he never attended college himself

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Hannah makes a good argument in favor of providing economic benefits for same-sex couples, but what else would you expect from someone who is openly gay

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
People who oppose the governor's new welfare program are all a bunch of selfish rich people who don't have any concern for those less fortunate than themselves

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
What does the mayor know about cutting down on crime? After all, he was accused of shoplifting when he was in college

ad hominem

As your textbook explains, the either-or fallacy is often referred to as a(n)

false dilemma

An either-or fallacy

forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We have only two choices. Either we agree to a 25 percent increase in the price of food in the school cafeteria, or we'll have to close the cafeteria for good

either-or

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We have only two choices. We can either adopt a year-round school system or raise a nation of second-rate intellects

either-or

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
You can either double the size of the police department or let criminals roam the streets

...

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Either we all sign organ donor cards or medical facilities will start cloning people just to sell their body parts

either-or

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We must either support the governor's plan to reduce spending on education or we will never be able to balance the state budget

either-or

A slippery slope fallacy

assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented

According to your textbook, how can you avoid the slippery slope fallacy if you think that taking a first step will lead to disastrous consequences

use evidence or reasoning to prove that the consequences will occur

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If we allow the government to restrict the sale of semiautomatic weapons, before we know it, there will be a ban on ownership of handguns and even hunting rifles. And once our constitutional right to bear arms has been compromised, the right of free speech will be the next to go

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you let the postal service eliminate Saturday delivery, then it's only a matter of time until there's no mail delivery at all

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Once society recognizes same-sex marriages, all traditional values will be destroyed

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If we give students vouchers to attend private schools, it won't be long until the entire public school system is eliminated

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Once the city cuts back on trash pickup from twice a week to once a week, it's only a matter of time until we have to take all our trash to the dump ourselves

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If we allow the government to require healthy meals in school cafeterias, then it's only a matter of time before the government tells us everything we can and cannot eat

slippery slope

What fallacy is exemplified by the following statement?
If we approve a construction permit for this home, the next thing you know other people will want to build in our valley. Then they will pave new roads and put in gas stations and other businesses. Before you know it, all of our beautiful land will be turned into a parking lot for a giant shopping mall

slippery slope

The fallacy of appeal to tradition

assumes that something old is automatically better than something new

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The Travelers Insurance Company has been in business since the Lincoln administration. That tells you it has to be a top-notch insurance company

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The university has been using the same admissions standards for the past 120 years. If they were good enough 120 years ago, they are good enough today

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The federal government has been using essentially the same methods to measure poverty since 1965. If those measures were appropriate then, they are appropriate now

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Reading an actual book is obviously superior to reading on e-readers or tablets. Books have been around for hundreds of years

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We've been using pennies for more than two hundred years. We can't get rid of them now

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
There is no need to change our company's manufacturing process. Our assembly line has worked for the past 80 years, and it will work just fine for the next 80 years

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
There's nothing wrong with capital punishment. After all, it's been around for thousands of years

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Since the first Tournament of Roses game in 1916, the college bowl system has been a national institution. Changing it now is unthinkable

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the fallacy of appeal to novelty assumes

that something new is automatically better than something old

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you're looking for a house, you want to buy a new one. New construction and design techniques have to be better than old ones

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Did you hear about the new vacuum cleaner on the market? We should get it, because it's has to be better than the older ones

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you really want to lose weight, make sure you use the newest diet on the market. In weight-loss plans, as in everything else, newer is always better

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you want the most reliable air conditioner, you always should buy the newest model

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The U.S. Constitution is a relic of the past. We should feel free to change it whenever we want, because new ideas will always serve us better than old principles

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
It is time to abolish the electoral college. Something new is bound to work better than something that has been around for more than 200 years

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Of course we should use the latest innovations in testing for high-school students. If the testing methods are new, they will inevitably be better than older methods

appeal to novelty

Appeals to audience emotions such as fear, compassion, guilt, or pride are the kinds of appeals that Aristotle referred to as

pathos

According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true

a public speaker should not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning; emotional appeal is usually inappropriate in a persuasive speech on a question of fact

According to your textbook, emotional appeal is usually inappropriate in a persuasive speech on a question of

fact

According to your textbook, emotional appeal is

Often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action.

As your textbook explains, when using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech, you should

make sure it is appropriate to your speech topic; use it in combination with evidence and reasoning

According to your textbook, when using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech, you should

let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content

According to your textbook, the strongest source of emotional appeal in persuasive speaking is

the speaker's sincerity and conviction

As your textbook explains, _________ are usually the most effective supporting materials if you want to increase the emotional appeal of a persuasive speech

examples

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a method for generating emotional appeal in a persuasive speech

develop vivid examples; speak with sincerity and conviction

Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a method for generating emotional appeal in a persuasive speech

develop vivid examples

What does your textbook advise regarding the ethical use of emotional appeals in a persuasive speech

use emotional appeals to supplement your evidence and reasoning

In her persuasive speech, Kari wants to generate emotional appeal to help convince her classmates to sign up as organ donors. According to your textbook, how can Kari create this emotional appeal

use emotional language; develop vivid examples; speak with sincerity and conviction

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According to your textbook, people are persuaded by a speaker, in part, because

they are convinced by the speaker’s reasoning; they perceive the speaker as having high credibility; they are won over by the speaker’s evidence

According to your textbook, listeners are persuaded by a speaker for one or more of four major reasons. Which of the following is among those reasons

the audience’s emotions are touched by the speaker’s ideas or language; the audience perceives the speaker as having high credibility

According to your textbook, listeners are persuaded by a speaker for one or more of four major reasons. Which of the following is among those reasons

the audience is won over by the speaker’s evidence

According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are

competence and character

According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are competence and

character

According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a persuasive speaker are character and

competence

As explained in your textbook, the credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to speak is called _________ credibility

initial

According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech is called _________ credibility

terminal

According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker produced by everything the speaker says or does during the speech itself is called

derived credibility

What contemporary researchers term credibility, Aristotle termed

ethos

According to your textbook, when is it especially important for a persuasive speaker to establish common ground with the audience

at the beginning of the speech

To create common ground with an audience in the introduction of a persuasive speech, your textbook recommends that you

show the audience that you share their values

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech

explain your expertise on the speech topic; deliver your speeches fluently and expressively; establish common ground with your audience

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech

establish common ground with your audience

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your credibility in a persuasive speech

deliver your speeches with genuine conviction

According to your textbook, research has shown that

speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently and expressively

Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true

the same speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience

Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true

A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s competence and character

Efram’s audience was persuaded by his speech because they perceived him to be sincere, trustworthy, and to have their best interests at heart. Which factor of credibility influenced Efram’s audience

character

A local landlord with a reputation for failing to return security deposits at the end of a lease has been invited to present his viewpoint at a meeting of the local tenants’ union. To everyone’s surprise, the landlord accepts the invitation despite the fact that he will be facing an audience with a decidedly negative view of his integrity. What factor will the landlord have to overcome if his speech is to have any chance of being persuasive

low initial credibility

Developer Martin Cray had low credibility when he began his speech to a neighborhood group opposed to a new shopping center he hoped to build. During the speech, his credibility increased because his audience was impressed with his command of the facts and his willingness to work with the neighborhood on plans for the shopping center. According to your textbook, the credibility produced by everything Martin said and did during the speech is called _________ credibility

derived

Audience members were unsure about the credibility of Jim Gilchrist, founder of the Minuteman Project border patrol group, when he came to speak on campus. As he spoke, he built his credibility by using high-quality evidence and relating to the concerns of his audience. After the speech, students agreed they would like to have him visit campus again for a roundtable discussion. According to your textbook, the credibility that Gilchrist produced by the end of his speech is called _________ credibility

terminal

Evidence and reasoning are the two major elements of persuasion that Aristotle called

logos

According to your textbook, using evidence in a persuasive speech can

increase the speaker’s credibility; inoculate listeners against counter-persuasion

Using evidence is especially critical in a persuasive speech when your target audience

opposes your point of view

When giving a persuasive speech to an audience that opposes your point of view, it is especially important that you use _________ to answer their objections to your views

evidence

According to your textbook, it is especially important to use evidence in a persuasive speech in order to

answer listerner’s objections

Studies have found that public speakers will usually be more persuasive when they

present evidence in specific rather than general terms

As your textbook explains, studies have found that public speakers will usually be more persuasive when they

use specific evidence; use evidence from credible sources; use evidence that is new to the audience

As your textbook explains, when you use evidence in a persuasive speech, you should

use evidence from credible sources; tell the audience what the evidence proves

According to your textbook, all of the following are tips for using evidence in a persuasive speech except

balance the amount of evidence used to support each main point

According to your textbook, as a persuasive speaker, your two major concerns with respect to reasoning are to

make sure your reasoning is sound and convincing

According to your textbook, when you reason from specific instances in a persuasive speech, you should

reinforce your argument with statistics and testimony; avoid drawing conclusions from too few instances

When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, you should be careful to

use specific instances that are typical

According to your textbook, when reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, it is particularly important to

reinforce the specific instances with statistics and testimony

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement.
In recent years there have been a number of highly publicized cases of sexual harassment in business, government, and education. Thus we can conclude that sexual harassment continues to be a problem for women in the workplace

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
In recent months, newspapers have carried reports of vicious dogs attacking people in Los Angeles, St. Louis, Boston, and Orlando. These reports show that dog attacks are an increasingly serious problem nationwide

reasoning from specific instances

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Last summer, a five-year-old boy in Seattle was killed by his brother when the two were playing with their father’s gun. Last month, four-year-old Dylan Jackson accidentally killed himself after finding a loaded gun at a friend’s home during a birthday party. In Tampa, Florida, a two-year-old shot himself in the chest with a pistol left in the family couch. Clearly, children in America are at risk from gun accidents

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
In the 1770s, the American colonists boycotted British tea and had a big impact on British trade. In 1993, manufacturers in Bangladesh released 150,000 child laborers as a result of threatened boycotts against their products. More recently, Colgate has stopped animal testing for its personal care products in response to consumer boycotts. It is clear from these examples that boycotts have long been used as an instrument of social change

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
The income of male accountants is 20 percent higher than the income of female accountants. There is a similar difference between the income of male and female lawyers. Even among doctors, we find an income gap of 20 percent or more within most medical specialties. It is clear that in many professions women continue to earn less than men

reasoning from specific instances

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
A sexual encounter with someone who does not consent to it is rape. A person who is incapacitated by alcohol cannot consent to sex. Therefore, a sexual encounter with a person incapacitated by alcohol is rape

reasoning from principle

As your textbook explains, when reasoning from principle in a persuasive speech, it is particularly important that you

assess whether you need to support your general principle with evidence

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Providing a quality education is one of the fundamental responsibilities of any nation. Thousands of American students are stuck in poor-performing schools that barely provide minimal skills. Therefore, the United States is failing to fulfill one of its fundamental obligations as a nation

reasoning from principle

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
We should be taking every step we can to protect our health. Getting vaccinated against bacterial meningitis will help protect our health. Therefore, each of us should get vaccinated against bacterial meningitis

reasoning from principle

In her speech on chewing tobacco, Catherine made the following argument:
To be effective, laws governing chewing tobacco sales to minors must be enforced and must have adequate penalties for people who violate the law. My proposal will significantly increase both enforcement provisions and penalties for violators. Therefore, my plan will be effective.
What kind of reasoning did Catherine use

reasoning from principle

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Politicians who are guilty of corruption do not deserve to be reelected. Last year our U.S. representative was proved to be corrupt by using campaign donations for personal financial gain. Therefore, our U.S. representative does not deserve to be reelected

reasoning from principle

According to your textbook, what error in reasoning should a speaker watch out for when using causal reasoning in a persuasive speech

claiming a causal link between two events when they are merely coincidental; assuming that events have only one cause when there may be multiple causes

Which of the following does your textbook say about causal reasoning

causal reasoning can be tricky because the relationship between causes and effects is not always clear

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
If you’re frequently bothered by nightmares, you might want to change your sleeping position. An article in Prevention magazine reports that a study of 700 people showed that sleeping on your stomach produces the scariest and strangest dreams. Therefore, if you are a stomach-sleeper and are having nightmares, the solution is simple—roll over

causal reasoning

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
U.S. children raised in two-parent families with incomes below the poverty line have a greater incidence of school absences, lower test scores, and less chance of finishing high school than do children raised in one-parent households with incomes at least 10 percent above the poverty line. We can see, therefore, that it is the economic stability of the family, not its family structure, that determines a child’s ability to succeed in school

causal reasoning

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
We do not have to look very far to find reasons for the explosion in the number of violent crimes committed by teenagers in the United States. Not only are guns readily available to teenagers, but today’s teenagers have grown up in a culture that glamorizes violence in television and films. The average child in the U.S. has seen more than 20,000 murders on television by the time he or she turns eighteen. Is it any wonder that many of those children are now committing violent crimes themselves

causal reasoning

What kind of reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?
According to a study by the University of Michigan, married men in the United States earn an average of 31 percent more money than unmarried men. It seems clear, then, that for many men being married is a major factor in financial success

causal reasoning

When reasoning analogically, you infer that

what is true in one case will also be true in a similar case

According to your textbook, the most important question to ask when assessing analogical reasoning in a persuasive speech is

whether the two cases being compared are essentially alike

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
Alton Elementary School in Washington, D.C., has had great success getting kids to eat vegetables at lunch by allowing them to taste-test different recipes before putting specific vegetables on the menu. If that plan has worked at Alton, it can work at other schools, too

analogical reasoning

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
Trying to prevent the use of drugs by criminalizing them is like trying to prevent the use of alcohol through Prohibition in the 1920s—doomed to failure from the beginning. History should have taught us by now that when people want something badly enough, they will find a way to get it, whether it is legal or not

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
According to the Washington Post, more than 400 large military drones have crashed around the world, including 49 in the United States. If military drones are crashing in such large numbers, how can we expect to be safe when thousands of civilian drones are unleashed into our skies

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
Parents have found that getting the right help for their children who have learning disabilities can an arduous chore. It’s like trying to make your way through a maze with no way out. Every time you think you’re making progress, you run into another brick wall

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Requiring students to sign an honor code has reduced the amount of cheating at dozens of schools. If we adopt such a code at our school, it will help us reduce the amount of cheating, too

analogical

According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Five years ago, we came together as a community by voting to build a new elementary school. Today we are asking you to come together again, this time to build a new recreational facility. If we did it before, we can do it again

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?
In Germany, female employees can take up to 18 weeks of maternity leave with full pay. If such a plan can work in a prosperous nation such as Germany, surely it can work throughout the United States

analogical

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Colorizing old movies such as Casablanca is like repainting the Mona Lisa

reasoning from analogy

The following statement is an example of reasoning from _________
This program was implemented in Philadelphia two years ago and has provided housing for more than 2,000 people at little cost to the city. If it can work there, it can work here, too

analogy

In her speech arguing for the elimination of pennies from the U.S. money supply, Susan demonstrated that her plan will work by showing that a similar plan worked when the U.S. eliminated the half penny in 1857. What kind of reasoning did Susan use in her argument

analogical reasoning

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Local control of the school system is the most effective way to educate our children. Therefore, local control of the health care system is the most effective way to maintain the health of our citizens

analogical reasoning

According to your textbook, an error in reasoning is called a

fallacy

According to your textbook, a fallacy is a

an error in reasoning

When reasoning from specific instances, a persuasive speaker should be especially careful to avoid the fallacy of

hasty generalization

The fallacy of hasty generalization occurs when a speaker

jumps to a conclusion on the basis of too few instances; generalizes on the basis of atypical cases

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
A random survey of 20 adults coming out of subway stations in New York City revealed that 16 considered owning a car to be of little importance. Clearly, 80 percent of Americans don’t care much about owning cars

hasty generalization

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
My Volkswagen constantly needs repairs, and so does my roommate’s Mazda. We can see, then, that all foreign cars are unreliable

hasty generalization

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
Both of my roommates drink at least three cans of soda every day and neither of them is overweight, so all those studies that link soda consumption to obesity must be wrong

hasty generalization

Post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning "after this, therefore because of this," is a fallacy associated with _________ reasoning

causal

When committing the fallacy of false cause, a speaker assumes

that when one thing follows another, the first is the cause of the second

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
In high school I didn’t have to study at all and I earned good grades in all my classes, so I’m sure I don’t need to study to do well in my college classes

invalid analogy

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
Recent studies have shown that hurricanes with female names result in more deaths and injuries than hurricanes with male names. So if the next hurricane to come your way is named Mary, you can be sure it will be worse than one named Mark

false cause

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
I always wear my blue sweater when I take an exam, but I couldn’t find it yesterday. If I had worn it yesterday, I would not have flunked my accounting exam

false cause

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?
The New England Journal of Medicine has discovered that countries that consume the most chocolate have produced over time the greatest number of Nobel Prize winners. Therefore, if you want to increase your chances of winning a Nobel Prize, you should eat plenty of chocolate

false cause

What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following passage?
Home sales were 30 percent higher in the summer of 2011, when temperatures averaged 95 degrees, than they were in the summer of 2010, when the average temperature was only 83 degrees. Clearly, then, hot temperatures make people more inclined to buy a house

false cause

The bandwagon fallacy

assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The United States is one of only four countries in the world with a minimum legal drinking age of 21. Clearly, then, we should change our drinking age

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
There can’t be anything wrong with cheating on exams if 75 percent of college students do it

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Every presidential administration in recent memory has engaged in questionable fundraising activities, so I don’t see any reason why it is wrong for the current administration to do so

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Instituting a national sales tax must be a bad idea. Polls show that 66 percent of Americans oppose it

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The best-tasting cola is obviously Coke. More people buy Coke than any other brand

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The mayor was re-elected with a large majority and continues to have high popularity in the polls. Clearly, then, he has the correct policy on police-community relations

bandwagon

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Everyone runs red lights when they’re in a hurry, so there’s no reason I shouldn’t do it, too

bandwagon

According to your textbook, a fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion is called a

red herring

A red herring fallacy

introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can you worry about cruelty to animals when spousal abuse occurs every day

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can we be so concerned about shielding children in the U.S. from Internet pornography when millions of children around the world continue to be sold into slavery every year

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Why should we be concerned about Siberian tigers becoming extinct when there are more and more homeless people who need our support

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We are spending too much time talking about regulating the cable TV industry while other countries are beating us in technological development

red herring

The fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute is referred to as

ad hominem

The ad hominem fallacy

attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?

The mayor’s plan to turn the rundown section of the city into a park will never work. Don’t forget that she was involved in a scandal last year

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Councilman Stewart’s recommendations for a wind farm might work, but do you want to take advice from a man who was caught cheating on his wife

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Of course, Senator Davis opposes serious tax reform. Before going into politics, he was a corporate lawyer who defended several companies that have since been implicated in unethical financial dealings

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
People who say Barbie dolls are bad for girls’ self-esteem are a bunch of liberal do-gooders who don’t want anybody to have fun

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Representative Thompson’s school proposal may be first rate, but don’t forget that he never attended college himself

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Hannah makes a good argument in favor of providing economic benefits for same-sex couples, but what else would you expect from someone who is openly gay

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
People who oppose the governor’s new welfare program are all a bunch of selfish rich people who don’t have any concern for those less fortunate than themselves

ad hominem

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
What does the mayor know about cutting down on crime? After all, he was accused of shoplifting when he was in college

ad hominem

As your textbook explains, the either-or fallacy is often referred to as a(n)

false dilemma

An either-or fallacy

forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We have only two choices. Either we agree to a 25 percent increase in the price of food in the school cafeteria, or we’ll have to close the cafeteria for good

either-or

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We have only two choices. We can either adopt a year-round school system or raise a nation of second-rate intellects

either-or

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
You can either double the size of the police department or let criminals roam the streets

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Either we all sign organ donor cards or medical facilities will start cloning people just to sell their body parts

either-or

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We must either support the governor’s plan to reduce spending on education or we will never be able to balance the state budget

either-or

A slippery slope fallacy

assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented

According to your textbook, how can you avoid the slippery slope fallacy if you think that taking a first step will lead to disastrous consequences

use evidence or reasoning to prove that the consequences will occur

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If we allow the government to restrict the sale of semiautomatic weapons, before we know it, there will be a ban on ownership of handguns and even hunting rifles. And once our constitutional right to bear arms has been compromised, the right of free speech will be the next to go

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you let the postal service eliminate Saturday delivery, then it’s only a matter of time until there’s no mail delivery at all

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Once society recognizes same-sex marriages, all traditional values will be destroyed

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If we give students vouchers to attend private schools, it won’t be long until the entire public school system is eliminated

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Once the city cuts back on trash pickup from twice a week to once a week, it’s only a matter of time until we have to take all our trash to the dump ourselves

slippery slope

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If we allow the government to require healthy meals in school cafeterias, then it’s only a matter of time before the government tells us everything we can and cannot eat

slippery slope

What fallacy is exemplified by the following statement?
If we approve a construction permit for this home, the next thing you know other people will want to build in our valley. Then they will pave new roads and put in gas stations and other businesses. Before you know it, all of our beautiful land will be turned into a parking lot for a giant shopping mall

slippery slope

The fallacy of appeal to tradition

assumes that something old is automatically better than something new

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The Travelers Insurance Company has been in business since the Lincoln administration. That tells you it has to be a top-notch insurance company

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The university has been using the same admissions standards for the past 120 years. If they were good enough 120 years ago, they are good enough today

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The federal government has been using essentially the same methods to measure poverty since 1965. If those measures were appropriate then, they are appropriate now

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Reading an actual book is obviously superior to reading on e-readers or tablets. Books have been around for hundreds of years

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
We’ve been using pennies for more than two hundred years. We can’t get rid of them now

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
There is no need to change our company’s manufacturing process. Our assembly line has worked for the past 80 years, and it will work just fine for the next 80 years

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
There’s nothing wrong with capital punishment. After all, it’s been around for thousands of years

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Since the first Tournament of Roses game in 1916, the college bowl system has been a national institution. Changing it now is unthinkable

appeal to tradition

According to your textbook, the fallacy of appeal to novelty assumes

that something new is automatically better than something old

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you’re looking for a house, you want to buy a new one. New construction and design techniques have to be better than old ones

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Did you hear about the new vacuum cleaner on the market? We should get it, because it’s has to be better than the older ones

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you really want to lose weight, make sure you use the newest diet on the market. In weight-loss plans, as in everything else, newer is always better

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
If you want the most reliable air conditioner, you always should buy the newest model

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
The U.S. Constitution is a relic of the past. We should feel free to change it whenever we want, because new ideas will always serve us better than old principles

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
It is time to abolish the electoral college. Something new is bound to work better than something that has been around for more than 200 years

appeal to novelty

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Of course we should use the latest innovations in testing for high-school students. If the testing methods are new, they will inevitably be better than older methods

appeal to novelty

Appeals to audience emotions such as fear, compassion, guilt, or pride are the kinds of appeals that Aristotle referred to as

pathos

According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true

a public speaker should not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning; emotional appeal is usually inappropriate in a persuasive speech on a question of fact

According to your textbook, emotional appeal is usually inappropriate in a persuasive speech on a question of

fact

According to your textbook, emotional appeal is

Often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action.

As your textbook explains, when using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech, you should

make sure it is appropriate to your speech topic; use it in combination with evidence and reasoning

According to your textbook, when using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech, you should

let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content

According to your textbook, the strongest source of emotional appeal in persuasive speaking is

the speaker’s sincerity and conviction

As your textbook explains, _________ are usually the most effective supporting materials if you want to increase the emotional appeal of a persuasive speech

examples

Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a method for generating emotional appeal in a persuasive speech

develop vivid examples; speak with sincerity and conviction

Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a method for generating emotional appeal in a persuasive speech

develop vivid examples

What does your textbook advise regarding the ethical use of emotional appeals in a persuasive speech

use emotional appeals to supplement your evidence and reasoning

In her persuasive speech, Kari wants to generate emotional appeal to help convince her classmates to sign up as organ donors. According to your textbook, how can Kari create this emotional appeal

use emotional language; develop vivid examples; speak with sincerity and conviction

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