Psychology of Sport and Exercise CH 12

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Which of the following is NOT a phase in Smith’s cognitive-affective stress management training?

post treatment assessment

Progressive relaxation was developed by

Edmund Jacobson

Stress inoculation training focuses on which of the following mental techniques to reduce stress?

imagery and self-talk

Athletes should make sure that when they are performing a skill under pressure, they

breathe out during execution of the skill

The elements necessary to achieve the relaxation response include

a quiet environment, a passive attitude, a mental device, a comfortable position

Both Ron Smith’s cognitive-affective stress management training and Don Meichenbaum’s stress inoculation training are examples of ___________ anxiety programs.


Which of the following levels of effort produced the fastest running times of 400-meter runners?


Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding research findings on coping in sport?

athletes use both adaptive and nonadaptive coping strategies, athletes who had more adaptive coping strategies had higher performance

Which of the following is (are) NOT a basic tenet of progressive relaxation?

tension and relaxation can occur simultaneously

Which of the following can be useful as an on-site strategy to help reduce tension?

smile when the pressure is coming on, slow down, stay focused in the present

An athlete who is under activated commonly experiences which of the following?

heavy feeling in the legs, mind wandering

The suggested ratio for the time of inhalation to exhalation when using breath control as a relaxation device is


Before starting progressive relaxation you should

dim the lights, lie down in a comfortable position

Which of the following is NOT a phase in the hypnosis process?

autogenic phase

Relaxation (anxiety reduction) techniques are usually classified as

cognitive and somatic

Which of the following is (are) NOT among the interventions for cognitive-affective stress management training?

systematic desensitization

The two sensations that are emphasized in autogenic training are

warmth and heaviness

Autogenic training was developed by

Schultz and Luthe

Which of the following statements regarding hypnosis is (are) true?

the more open individuals are to receiving suggestions, the more likely they will benefit from hypnosis, negative suggestions almost always result in a decrease in performance, the deeper the trance, the more likely the hypnosis will be effective

A good way to increase awareness of psychological states in sport is to

monitor and record your psychological states immediately after practice and competition

Which of the following is (are) NOT a stage in autogenic training?

cooling of the extremities

The two most widely accepted coping categories are known as

problem-focused and emotion-focused coping

Excess anxiety can produce

inappropriate muscle tension, inappropriate thoughts, somatic (physiological) reactions

A good starting point for increasing awareness of arousal states is to

visualize your best and worst performances

Which of the following is NOT a coping strategy typically employed by elite athletes?


The matching hypothesis refers to

matching the type of anxiety management technique to the specific anxiety problem of each individual athlete

Ost has developed an applied relaxation technique using progressive relaxation that can be done at competitions in

20 to 30 seconds

The basic premise of stress inoculation training is to

expose the individual to increasing amounts of stress, thereby enhancing the person’s immunity to stress

According to the research on biofeedback by Landers and his colleagues,

biofeedback provides a mechanism for coping with precompetitive anxiety, biofeedback can improve the performance of rifle shooters, biofeedback provides shooters with a greater awareness of their heart and respiration rates

According to the study by Eubank and Collins, individuals perceiving their anxiety as

facilitative (as opposed to debilitative) use more, emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping

Cognitive restructuring attempts to

identify and modify stress-inducing self-statements

The state of mind produced by the relaxation response is similar to that described during

transcendental meditation

The relaxation response was developed by

Herbert Benson

Using an electronic monitoring device that can detect and amplify internal responses not ordinarily available to us is known as


According to research by Gould and colleagues with elite athletes, athletes

prepared for unexpected events, placed a great deal of importance on mental training

Effective breathing occurs from the


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