Psychology Intro to the Life Span Practice midterm

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A child’s ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called


_____ are marked by excessive guilt, withdrawal, or fearfulness

Internalizing problems

Aggression used to obtain a toy or other object is:


According to traditional behaviorism, personality is:

molded by one’s parents

ew concepts are best learned when they are connected to:

personal and emotional experiences.

By the time children are the age of 10, which statement is true?

Both boys and girls want to have best friends.

Demetrius’s family recently immigrated to the United States from the Ukraine. After he attended kindergarten, his parents noticed that his English was more fluent than his native language. Demetrius was exhibiting:

a language shift.

An asthmatic child gets shots in the doctor’s office during an asthma attack. This is a ______ level of prevention.


Which statement supports the sociocultural perspective of language learning?

over time advantages traits will be found in more of the population… Toddlers….

A child’s passion for continuity and sameness is normal at about _____ year(s) of age.


Baby Hugh enjoys playing with his dad’s keys, but when his dad takes them away, Hugh does not search for them. Piaget would say that is because Hugh does not understand:

object permanence.

Which factor is MOST likely to cause a child’s knowledge base to increase?

personal motivation

Today’s children could become the first generation in more than 100 years to have a shorter lifespan than their parents as a result of:


A child’s cognitive understanding of sex differences would be his or her:

gender schema.

Many obstetricians date the onset of pregnancy from the date:

of the woman’s last menstrual period.

One study found that 98 percent of surveyed children believed that sports teams should exclude:

NOT gender

The foundation of cognitive theory is:

..Behaviorism – science of behavior (stimulus = response)

Based on research, attachment appears to be:

Maternal depression:

can have a long-term impact on the newborn.

What is the third stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory?


The process that first detects an external stimulus is:


Worldwide, only about 15 percent of infants receive daily care from:

a paid, trained, nonrelative caregiver.

According to Piaget, intellectual advancement occurs because of cognitive:

pre-operational – includes language and imagination. includes symbols.

When Japanese students took the TIMSS, 17 percent of them:

underestimated their math skills.

The learned ability to move and control some parts of the body is referred to as:

motor skill.

Three girls spread a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. This is an example of _____ aggression.


About a week after conception, the outer layer of the multiplying cells forms a protective circle, or shell, that will become the:


The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain’s hemispheres is:

the corpus callosum.

Newborn babies do NOT have reflexes designed to:

adjust to the difference between day and night.

Researchers had children sort picture cards by shape. Then they asked the same children to sort the same cards by color. They found that children under the age of 4:

no color only.

Astrid, age 6, helps her aunt make tortillas in the early morning and then she goes to school until noon. In the afternoon, she and her best friend watch their baby brothers while their mothers sell goods at the market. In the evening, her whole family talks and eats together. She knows her parents are proud of her and she feels proud too. According to the text, Astrid’s labor is:

reflecting her culture.

By the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is:

extremely large.

Increased levels of cortisol are associated with an infant’s:


A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:

social referencing.

Freud would attribute an adult’s fingernail biting and overeating to problems during which childhood developmental stage?


Young children usually play best with:

their peers

Social learning is also called:


Bae is a Korean toddler; his cousin Troy is a Korean-American toddler. Bae is learning to speak Korean, while Troy is learning to speak English. What will be the most noticeable difference in Bae’s and Troy’s use of language?

Bae will use more verbs than Troy does.

In Bronfenbrenner’s model, family and peers are part of a person’s:


A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is:


Joel, age 8, lives in a very stressful, chaotic home where he sometimes witnesses his mother being physically abused by her boyfriend. Joel’s problems may be overcome by:

being actively involved in his church.

Family function refers to:

how a family cares for its members.

What is a criticism of Baumrind’s classification of parenting styles?

She focused more on parental attitudes than on daily interactions.

Genetic _____ distinguishes each person and allows for adaptation.


According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:

interacts with a mentor to accomplish a task.

Girls who bully typically:

mock and ridicule their victim.

Researchers have discovered that _____ helps a child to develop theory of mind months ahead of a child who does not.

Living with older siblings

Adrionna has begun to participate in arguments on issues of right and wrong. She is developing her own moral thinking, guided by:

her peers, parents, and culture.

Genetic analysis has confirmed that race is a(n):

social construction.

One of Vygotsky’s most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:

term for the skills- cognitive as well as physical- that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet dependent.

One reason male fetuses are more vulnerable than female fetuses may be that the:

X chromosome seems to have a protective effect.

Bullying differs from ordinary aggression because bullying attacks are:


Compared to vaginal births, C-section births:

increase the risk of complications.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to:

focus on an object with both eyes.

According to the text, race is:

a social construction.

Since 1980 the rate of childhood asthma in the United States has:


The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses is the _____ cortex.


A magician’s goal is to get the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he manipulates another. This is easy to do with preoperational children, as they are fooled by their tendency to:

children can not use logic in this stage

Low folic acid in during pregnancy can result in:

neural-tube defects.

One’s mental age divided by one’s chronological age and multiplied by 100 results in one’s:

intelligence quotient.

Repeated, systematic attacks on those who are unable to defend themselves is the definition of:


Traditionally in the United States, most private schools were operated by:

the Catholic Church.

Compared to children who did not attend an intensive early intervention program, longitudinal studies showed that the children who did participate:

a) consume more high-fat snacks, have higher self esteem, show more leadership

Which statement about the difference between a 4-year-old and a 9-year-old is true?

The 9-year-old can be flexible in classification.

Many parents believe that they mold their children’s personalities. Which research finding challenges this belief?

. More effects on personality come from the nonshared environment than was previously believed.

Preschoolers often have trouble tying their shoelaces because they have inadequate:

fine motor skills.

Any consequence that follows a behavior and makes the person likely to repeat that behavior is called a(n):


Children’s "increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control" contributes to their:


Leon is asked whether a person should steal food if they are starving. Leon says no because it is against the law. Leon is in Kohlberg’s _____ moral reasoning level, in the stage called _____.

conventional; law and order

Which statement is true?

Male embryos are more vulnerable than female embryos therefore less likely to survive prenatally.

A teratogen is any agent or condition that increases the risk for:

prenatal abnormalities.

The _____ starts the sequence of events that prepares the fetus for delivery and starts labor.

fetal brain

_____ is the quickest and least expensive way to study the development of a large group of people.

Survey research

What is the MOST probable reason child abuse is underreported?

NOT correct was – decreased number of kids

Authoritarian parents often:

seem stern to their children.

Many parents believe that they mold their children’s personalities. However, research on twins, siblings, and stepchildren has found that:

genes and the nonshared environment have the most impact on personality.

Children’s ideas about their intelligence, personality, abilities, gender and ethnic background form their:


Abbreviations (such as LOL, BTW, and RU) in text messages and e-mails are examples of:

informal code

In the third stage of labor, the:

the placenta is delivered.

The term "SIDS" refers to the death of a seemingly healthy infant, usually between the ages of _____ and 6 months.

2 months

The process through which unused and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die is called:


Behaviorists believe that psychologists should focus on:

observable behaviors

Pierce is a two-year-old boy who loves his "lellow-lee" (yellow blanket) and won’t take a nap without it. Pierce’s yellow blanket would be considered a(n):

transitional object.

Which scenario best illustrates prosocial behavior?

Bethany feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick.

Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, "Naughty table!" This is an example of:


According to the text, sociodramatic play may help children to develop:

theory of mind

Jennica experienced neglect as an infant while her mother suffered from severe depression and her father was addicted to painkillers. The outcome on Jennica’s development could manifest itself in many different ways. This reflects the developmental principle of:


On the 23rd set of chromosomes, females have:

two x chromosomes

On average, children begin saying recognizable words at around _____ months of age.

12 months of age

Lyrissa lives in Africa. She is 9 months old and does not weigh enough due to malnutrition. Her life is in danger. Lyrissa suffers from:


Any consequence that follows a behavior and makes the person likely to repeat that behavior is called a(n):


During the germinal period of prenatal development, some cells become part of the brain, some become part of the leg, and some become part of the stomach, etc. The term for this process is:


A study shows a weak negative correlation between maternal age and gestational diabetes. Which of these numbers is the correlation?


Jake’s father takes him to the barber for his first real haircut. At first, Jake is excited, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. In spite of his father’s efforts to assure Jake that his hair will grow back, Jake is exhibiting the characteristic known as:


What is replication of a study?

the repetition of a study using different participants

When doing research with anyone under the age of 18, which of the following must be obtained?

the parents’ informed consent

A system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations is the definition of:


Most babies learn to grasp and hold onto objects by about _____ months old.


Clean water, immunizations, and nutritious food have all had a dramatic impact on:

infant and child mortality.

What is a hallmark of close friendships during middle childhood?

same age

Eyeballs change shape at typical stages of development, including puberty and middle adulthood. This makes it more likely that _____ will increase at puberty, and _____ will decrease during middle adulthood.

NOT nearsightedness; farsightedness

On average, fetuses gain about _____ pounds during the last trimester of pregnancy, which brings the average birth weight to about 7.5 pounds.


When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek, they are demonstrating the:


Alma brought her six-month-old son to the doctor for a well-baby visit. The doctor says that her son’s weight is in the 20th percentile. What does this definitely mean?

He is small compared to other 6 month olds.

A person’s macrosystem includes:

political processes.

Pavlov’s experiments with dogs that salivated when they heard a specific noise provide an example of:

classical conditioning.

According to Kohlberg _____ is what advances a person’s morality.

He also felt that the only way to encourage growth through these stages was by discussion of moral dilemmas and by participation in consensus democracy within small group.

Which example best illustrates a sensitive period?

a child learning to speak a second language

Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:


Which factor has NOT been linked to depression?


Thinking about something that has been perceived is:


Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:

experience difficulty in concentrating.

Breast milk:

provides antibodies to fight diseases.

In the science of human development, "nature" refers to:

the genes that people inherit.

Research data that can be categorized, ranked, or numbered is:


A comprehensive, organized explanation of many phenomena is called a:


Learning Circle Preschool emphasizes individual pride and achievement while focusing on teaching young children literacy-related tasks. Learning Circle’s approach seems to most closely resemble a(n) _____ program.


The germinal period ends approximately _____ after conception.

2 weeks

A baby is assessed at one minute after birth according to the Apgar scale. Three of the five vital signs are good, but the baby is weak and inactive and grimaces. The two vital signs the medical team is concerned about are:

muscle tone and reflex irritability.

To understand a child’s development of gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress:

reinforcement and punishment.

Becky is a four-month-old infant whose mother uses a high-pitched voice, simple words or phrases, and lots of repetition when she speaks. Becky delights in her mother’s use of:

child-directed speech.

What is one danger in asking people to reveal their race?

stereotyping people unlike ourselves

Genes are most likely to influence which type of language?


Statistically, which woman is MOST apt to have a baby with LBW?

Kate, who regularly misses meals

Better ventilation in schools and homes, less pollution, fewer antibiotics, and better medical diagnosis would be considered:

primary prevention

According to Piaget, a child between the ages of 6 and 11 can apply logical principles to:

formal operational thought

Over time, the consequences of bullying:

may lead to relationships problems for the bullies and their victims.

Maternal depression:

can have a long-term impact on the newborn.

Which factor is the primary force that drives children’s interest in moral issues?

very young children’s thinking is based on how actions affected them or what the results of an action were. Piaget called this "moral realism with objective responsibility." It explains why young children are concerned with outcomes rather than intentions.

What is the main international test of reading given to students?


Which statement describes the brain’s cortex?

It makes up the outer layers of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing.

According to Freud, boys in the third psychoanalytic stage of development:

secretly want to replace their fathers.

Huan is 20 months old, and his mother is in a hurry. She wants to put his shoes on, but Huan rejects that by squirming and declaring, "No! Me!" It takes him five minutes, and his shoes end up on the wrong feet, but he proudly skips out to the car when he’s done. Huan is in Erikson’s ______ stage

autonomy versus shame and doubt

Social constructions are ideas created by one’s:


An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be:

Ex. For example, if you open a faucet (the independent variable), the quantity of water flowing (dependent variable) changes in response–you observe that the water flow increases. The number of dependent variables in an experiment varies, but there is often more than one.

School-age children would most admire:

Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane.

When biological change is dramatic, such as when a larva becomes a mosquito, it is an example of:

NOT Genetics

A baby born three or more weeks early is called:

Preterm birth

From birth until age two, dendrites in the cortex increase:


Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:


Holly learned from her science teacher that her height resulted from about 180 genes, each contributing a tiny amount of genetic information. Holly learned that her height was due to:

additive genes.

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