psychology final

creativity

the ability to generate original ideas of develop novel solutions to problems is known as: convergent thinking insight creativity syllogistic reasoning

you brush your teeth with it

someone relying on convergent thinking would answer _____ to the query "what can you do with a tooth brush?" you brush your teeth with it you use it for painting you use it for cleaning tools you use it to make toys

speech sounds

phonology is the study of combination of words speech sounds word order meaning

learning-theory

the theory that language acquisitions follow the principles of reinforcement and conditioning is known as the ____ approach learning-theory nativist interactionist prescriptive

nativist

the theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development is known as the ____ approach learning-theory nativist interactionist prescriptive

intelligence

psychologists define ____ as the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively cognition intelligence sensation perception

interpersonal

kyana is an excellent salesperson because she can always find a way o connecting with a potential client. based on his information, in which kind of intelligence would gardner expect kyana to be high? analytic bodily kinesthetic interpersonal spatial

motivation

______ refers to the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms development intelligence cognition motivation

motivation

dr. schmidt studies the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. dr. schmidt studies personality intelligence cognition motivation

instincts

when psychologists first tried to explain motivation, they turned to ____ notions instincts incitements stimulates

instincts

inborn biologically determined patterns of behavior are called reflexes instincts notions motives

1940's

drive-reduction approaches first appeared in the psychology of motivation in the 1920's 1940's 1960's 1980's

drive

motivational tension that energizes behavior to fulfill a need is termed a (n) drive reflex incentive instinct

a built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions

what is homeostasis? a theory of need reduction a built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions the psychological representation of a need the diffusion of fluids in a cell

artie, who loves to bungee jump

of the following individuals, whose behavior may most easily be explained using an arousal approach to motivation? artie, who loves to bungee jump barry, who buys an expensive watch he can't resist callista, who studies long hours to earn good grades brooke, who sleeps extra after having a tiring week at work

incentive

______ approached to motivation emphasize the appealing properties of external objects or goals drive-reduction arousal incentive cognitive

theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals

cognitive approaches to motivation are: theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need beliefs that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals

intrinsic

"dance like no one's watching. work like you don't need the money. love like you've never been hurt, "exhorts a sign on dr. elliott's office door. this sign underscores the importance of _____ motivation explicit intrinsic implicit external

actualization

according to maslow, our highest level need is the need for self esteem efficacy love actualization

competence

according to self-determination theory, ____ is the need to produce desired outcomes development autonomy relatedness competence

autonomy

according to self-determination theory, ____ is the perception that we have control over our own lives reliance autonomy relatedness competence

obese

people with a bmi great that 30 are considered overweight obese normal underweight

overweight

people with a bmi between 25 and 30 are considered overweight obese normal underweight

overweight

natalie's bmi is 26. she is best described as overweight obese normal underweight

varies from one culture to another

society's view of the ideal body has always emphasized thinness varies from one culture to another has remained constant over time emphasizes the perfect ratio of height and weight

metabolism

____ is the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body neutralization phagocytosis metabolism emulsification

anorexia nervosa

___ is severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance-which can become skeleton like-, are unusual anorexia nervosa compulsive eating bulimia binge eating

bulimia

____ is a disorder, in which a person binges on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means anorexia nervosa compulsive eating bulimia binge eating disorder

at least 30 consecutive minutes, three times each week

how often should you exercise? at least 30 consecutive minutes, three times each week at least seven hours a week at least 100 minutes every alternate day at least two hours every day

need for achievement

the ____ is a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and meeting challenging goals need for achievement need for survival need for affiliation need for power

fluid

Intelligence that reflects the ability to reason abstractly is termed ____ intelligence fluid reflexive spatial crystallized

affiliation

larissa is highly invested in initiating and maintaining relationships. she is high in the need for association assembly affiliation affinity

need for power

the _____ is a tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as an influential individual. need for achievement need for survival need for power need for affiliation

alcohol consumption

men with high power needs tend to show high levels of alcohol consumption nurturing behavior participation in cultural events concern for other

nurturing behavior

women with high power needs display high levels of alcohol consumption nurturing behavior aggression sexually exploitative mannerisms

sympathetic

"fight or flight" response entail acitivity of the _____ nervous system somatic parasympathetic asympathetic sympathetic

helping us interact more effectively with others

according to the text, the functions of emotions include which of the following? preparing the individual for rest facititating learning shaping our past behavior helping us interact more effectively with others

stress is a very personal thing

which of the following is true of stress? although adaptation is often major, it requires minimal effort when stress is very severe or long lasting stress is a very personal thing positive events never produce stress out attempts to overcome stress may produce biological and psychological responses that improve our overall health

cataclysmic events

which of the following are strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people at once? personal stressors cataclysmic events background stressors daily hassles

being stranded in an earthquake affected area

which of the following would qualify as an example of a cataclysmic event? being stranded in an earthquake affected area getting ready for the first day at work getting irritated due to slow internet connection at work suffering from a severe headache

personal stressor-being fired

which category of stressor is correctly matched with an example? background stressor-the 2010 bp oil spill in the gulf of mexico personal stressor-being fired cataclysmic event-spending time on hold in the phone personal stressor-realizing that there is no fuel in your car when you have to rush to work

16%

approximately how many soldiers returning from iraq show symptoms of ptsd? 50% 25% 20% 16%

background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing

which of the following statements best captures the relationship between background stressors and daily hassles? background stressors are less severe than are daily hassles background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing daily hassles are less severe than background stressors daily hassles are a type of background stressor

background stressor

misplacing one's keys illustrates a personal stressor background stressor cataclysmic event catastrophic event

stress produces both biological and psychological consequences

which of the following is true of the consequences of stress? only negative stressors affect you psychologically stress produces both biological and psychological consequences stress does not have direct physiological results stress increases the immune system response

the general adaptation syndrome

in the psychology of health and stress, hans selye is associated with the study of the hardy personality coping strategies the general adaptation syndrome type a and type b personalities

exhaustion

at which stage of selye's general adaptation model (gas) are individuals the most likely to show negative consequences of stress? exhaustion resistance alarm mobilization

lymphocytes

stress may impair our production of disease-fighting white blood cells called leukocytes lymphocytes monocytes hemocytes

coping

efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress are termed coping adaptation resistance reactance

emotion-focused

eve was stressed as she had got transferred to italy. she decided to look at the brighter side of her relocation by telling herself that it will be a new experience, that she will be able to meet different people, and see new places. eve is observing _____ coping emotion-focused proactive avoidant defensive

avoidant

wishful thinking and the use of drugs exemplify the use of ____ coping problem-focused emotion-focused proactive avoidant

avoidant coping

which of the following is found to be the least successful coping method for dealing with stress? avoidant coping proactive coping emotion-focused coping problem-focused coping

defense mechanisms

which of the following refer to unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others? subjective well-being tactics defense mechanisms cataclysmic events type b behavior patterns

learned helplessness

people sometimes stop even trying to cope with stress if they feel that they have no control over the bad things that happen to them; that is, people might experience emotional insulation learned helplessness avoidant reactance denial

one should change one's appraisal of the situation

which of the following should be followed to cope with a stressful situation? one should stick to one's goal one should change one's appraisal of the situation one should avoid taking physical action one should try to turn a challenge into a threat

proactive

the strategy of preparing for stress before it happens is termed _____ coping anticipatory proactive preventive reactive

hostile

annie is a type a individual. she would be characterized by ______ behavior hostile patient cooperative noncompetitive

type b

the ____ behavior pattern is characterized by a patient and nonaggressive manner type a type b type c type d

cooperation

martha has a type b behavior pattern. which of the following characteristics would be observed in martha? hostility time urgency competitiveness cooperation

nonaggressive

patrick is s typical type b personality. patrick would be characterized by hostile competitive insecure nonaggressive

type b

jane is a calm and composed person, who believes in working patiently. she hates the idea of employees working aggressively to win more incentives than their coworkers. she is cooperative with her coworkers and helps them whenever they are in need. jane is a _____ individual type c type a type b type d

noncompetitive

owen is a type b personality. owen would be characterized by ______ behavior noncompetitive stressful hostile panicky

hostility

the component of the type a pattern most strongly linked to coronary heart disease is that of hostility competitiveness time urgency ambitiousness

produces excessive physiological arousal in stressful situations

the key component of the type a behavior pattern, hostility, is highly toxic because it produces excessive physiological arousal in stressful situations affects the course of cancer through links to the immune system decreases heart rate and blood pressure results in decreased production of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine

75%

approximately what percentage of current smokers report that they would like to quit? 90% 75% 65% 50%

25

approximately ______% of high school students are active cigarette smokers by the time they graduate 10 15 25 35

10%

according to the world health organization, about what percentage of the world's population will die as a result of smoking? 2% 5% 10% 20%

50%

what proportion of patients cannot say how long they are supposed to continue a course of prescribed medication? 10% 20% 35% 50%

25%

what proportion of patients cannot state the purpose of the medication prescribed for them 10% 25% 35% 50%

patients prefer same-sex physician

which of the following statements is true regarding patients' preference for the male or female physicians? patients prefer female physicians patients prefer male physicians patients prefer same-sex physician patients prefer opposite-sex physicians

positively

andrew was told by his physician that he would be able to control his diabetes if he controls his diet and avoids the use of sugar in his diet. andrew was given a (n) _____ framed health message by his physician positively neutrally negatively ambiguously

negatively

tim was told by his doctor that if he did not stop eating fast foods, he would turn diabetic and obese. this is an example of a ______ health message neutrally positively ambiguously negatively

happy people have high self-esteem

which of the following is true of happy people? happy people see themselves as less intelligent happy people feel they are the pawns of others happy people enjoy more as they have less firm sense of control happy people have high self-esteem

abnormality as deviation from the average

______ is a statistically based approach that observes what behaviors are rare or occur infrequently in a specific society or culture and labels those deviations from the norm "abnormal" abnormality as deviation from the average abnormality as deviation from the ideal abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort abnormality as the inability to function effectively

abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort

_____ refers to behavior considered abnormal if it produces a sense of distress, anxiety, or guilt in an individual or if it is harmful to others in some way abnormality as the inability to function effectively abnormality as a legal concept abnormality as deviation from the ideal abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort

cognitive

____ treatment approaches teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional notions about the world and themselves cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

cognitive-behavioral

_____ approach is a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think psychodynamic-cognitive humanistic-behavioral cognitive-behavioral psychodynamic-humanistic

humanistic

___ therapy is therapy in which the underlying rational is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

the inability to find meaning in life and connection to others

according to humanistic therapists, psychological disorders result from the inability to find meaning in life and connection to others unconscious conflicts and early experiences irrational thought patterns faulty learning

humanistic

person-centered therapy is a specific type of ___ therapy cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

depression

transcranial magnetic stimulation (tms) is used to treat depression bipolar disorder schizophrenia obsessive-compulsive disorder

1930s and '40s

in the _____, surgeons performed prefrontal lobotomy on thousands of patients often with little precision 1920s and '30s 1930s and '40s 1940s and '50s 1950s and '60s

five

according to the text, college students in counseling are treated in only _____ sessions on average three five 10 12

legal

insanity is a (n) _____ term legal psychological archaic colloquial

marking two ends of a continuum

it is best to view abnormal behavior and normal behavior as discrete categories two well-demarcated and non-overlapping terms marking two ends of a continuum absolute states

medical perspective

which of the following perspectives on psychological disorders assumes that physiological causes are at the root of psychological disorders? medical perspective psychoanalytic perspective humanistic perspective behavioral perspective

psychoanalytic perspective

which perspective on psychological disorders primary argues that psychological disorders stem from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression? sociocultural perspective medical perspective humanistic perspective psychoanalytic perspective

examining early childhood experiences

psychoanalytic treatment typically involves administering drugs to maintain hormonal balance examining early childhood experiences using electroconvulsive therapy employing trephination techniques

learned responses

the behavioral perspective on psychological disorders assumes that abnormal behaviors are genetic anomalies learned responses hormonal imbalances chemical deficiencies

emphasis on observable behavior

the greatest strength of the behavioral perspective on psychological disorders is its emphasis on observable behavior emphasis on the client's rich inner life focus on childhood conflicts that affect adult behavior explicit recognition of the biological underpinnings of behavior

maladaptive thoughts

the cognitive perspective on psychological disorders assumes that abnormal behaviors are the result of vitamin deficiency maladaptive thoughts hormonal imbalances genetic mutation

explicitly teach new, more adaptive ways of thinking

a primary goal of treatment using the cognitive perspective on psychological disorders is to: explicitly teach new, more adaptive ways of thinking use electroconvulsive therapy detect the genetic anomalies that cause abnormal behaviors use the technique of trephination for the purpose of treating mental illness

abraham maslow

the humanistic perspective on psychological disorders is associated with the work of sigmund freud abraham maslow alfred kinsey carl jung

responsibility people have for anomalies in their own behavior

the humanistic perspective on psychological disorders emphasizes the responsibility people have for anomalies in their own behavior influence of genetic abnormalities that are responsible for anomalies in human behavior impact of hormonal imbalances that bring about changes in human behavior influence of the society that is capable of causing behavioral abnormalities

sociocultural perspective

which perspective on psychological disorders assumes that people's normal and abnormal behavior is shaped by factors such as poverty and prejudice? sociocultural perspective psychoanalytic perspective cognitive perspective medical perspective

poverty

according to the sociocultural perspective on psychological disorders, which of the following factors is viewed as a possible cause of abnormal behavior? genetic mutation poverty maladaptive thoughts chemical deficiency

cognitive; focuses on thoughts and beliefs, not just behaviors

which of the following perspectives on psychological disorders is correctly matched to its strength? behavioral; recognizes that people have rich inner lives psychoanalytic; offers a precise, objective approach to the symptoms of specific disorders humanistic; offers effective drug treatments for many psychological disorders cognitive; focuses on thoughts and beliefs, not just behaviors

intellectual disability

the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition removes the outdates term "mental retardation" with neurocognitive disorder gender dysphoria intellectual disability conversion disorder

anxiety

the feeling of apprehension and tension experienced in reaction to stressful situations is referred to as mania dyslexia anxiety paralysis

phobic disorder

which of the following is major types of anxiety disorder? phobic disorder down syndrome cyclothymic disorder bipolar disorder

phobias

intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations are referred to as compulsions manias phobias obsessions

phobic disorder

brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects. brett is most likely to be diagnosed with manic disorder phobic disorder bipolar disorder cyclothymic disorder

judged or embarrassed by others

social phobia is the fear of being suffocated in confined spaces judged or embarrassed by others attacked by a clown sexually abused

agoraphobia

fear of places, such as unfamiliar or crowded spaces, where help might not be available in case of emergency is referred to as acrophobia claustrophobia xenophobia agoraphobia

there is a specific, identifiable stimulus that sets off the anxiety reaction

phobic disorders differ from generalized anxiety and panic disorders in that they are always preceded by a panic disorder there is a specific, identifiable stimulus that sets off the anxiety reaction the feeling of anxiety lasts longer people experience "free-floating" anxiety

a sense of impending, unavoidable doom

which of the following is a symptom if panic disorder a sense of impending, unavoidable doom the inability to register new information loss of memory loss of motor function

generalized anxiety disorder

thomas has been suffering from insomnia for the last two years. he has also been experiencing tension, headaches, and heart palpitations. his medical reports show that he is not suffering from any physiological or genetic disorder. thomas is most likely suffering from down's syndrome generalized anxiety disorder hemophilia hypochondria

compulsion

an irresistible urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable is referred to as mania hypomanic episode compulsion agnosia

obsessive-compulsive disorder

sam washes his hands very frequently. in spite of this he feels that his hands are not clean and that he might acquire a viral disease due to poor hygiene. given this information, we can conclude that sam has bipolar disorder cyclothymic disorder dyskinesia obsessive-compulsive disorder

any anxiety disorder

posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as any anxiety disorder a type of amnesia a type of somatoform disorder a dissociative disorder

posttraumatic stress disorder

people with _____ typically re-experience a stressful event in vivid flashbacks or dreams agnosia posttraumatic stress disorder dissociative identity disorder anorexia

an overactive autonomic nervous system may be at the root of panic attacks

which of the following is true of the causes of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder? if one member of a pair of identical twins has a panic disorder, the other twin will not have it an overactive autonomic nervous system may be at the root of panic attacks an overstimulated limbic system helps prevent chronic anxiety environmental factors do not play a role in anxiety disorders

thalamus

increased levels of gray matter occur in the ____ in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder as compared to people without it amygdala thalamus hippocampus hypothalamus

hypochondriasis

____ is a disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health akinesia hemophilia hypochondriasis agnosia

she misinterprets minor symptoms as evidence of serious illness

paige has hypochondriasis. this means that she is faking physical symptoms to gain attention she misinterprets minor symptoms as evidence of serious illness she is experiencing an actual, dramatic physical disturbance she is suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder

dissociative disorders

_____ are psychological dysfunctions characterized by the separation of different facets of a person's personality that are normally integrated conversion disorders dissociative disorders chromosomal disorders somatoform disorders

dissociative identity disorder

____ is a disorder in which a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities bipolar disorder conversion disorder cyclothymic disorder dissociative identity disorder

dissociative amnesia

____ is a disorder in which a significant, selective memory loss occurs agnosia anorexia dissociative amnesia conversion disorder

dissociative fugue

_____ is a form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity anorexia conversion disorder bipolar disorder dissociative fugue

they allow people to escape from some anxiety-producing situation

the common thread among dissociative disorders is that they allow people to escape from some anxiety-producing situation people suffering from these disorders experience a significant loss of memory they involve an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to see or hear people suffering from these disorders leave their home to lead a life of anonymity

disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living

mood disorder refers to a form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and assumes a new identity disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ actual loss of information from memory that typically results from a physiological cause

repressed memories

the term _____ is sometimes used to describe the lost memories of people with dissociative amnesia "free-floating" memories la belle indifference repressed memories selective memories

major depression may have no clear trigger and is more intense than normal depression

which of the following is true of major depression? it is abnormal to experience sadness after experiencing disappointment in life people suffering from major depression have high levels of energy major depression may have no clear trigger and is more intense than normal depression for reasons unknown, the rate of depression is decreasing throughout the world

mania

____ is an extended state of intense, wild elation mania depression anxiety insomnia

bipolar disorder

___ is a disorder in which a person typically alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression amnesia conversion disorder bipolar disorder dissociative fugue

bipolar disorder refers to a condition in which a person alternates between periods of depression and mania

which of the following is true of mood disorders? mania refers to a severe state of depression bipolar disorder refers to a condition in which a person alternates between periods of depression and mania dissociative fugue refers to a disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living manic-depressive disorder refers to a severe condition of short-term memory loss

serotonin

which of the following neurotransmitters plays a major role in depression? endorphins serotonin acetylcholine morphine

schizophrenia

____ is a class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs schizophrenia parkinson's disease hypochondriasis bipolar disorder

a severe distortion of reality

which of the following occurs in schizophrenia? an extended sate of intense, wild elation a severe distortion of reality a loss of motor functioning a loss of eyesight

disturbances of thought and speech

a characteristic that reliably distinguishes schizophrenia from other disorders is disturbances of thought and speech improvement from a previous level of functioning lack of emotional disturbances no withdrawal tendency

it has proved more difficult to treat than reactive schizophrenia

which of the following statements is true of process schizophrenia? it is also known as type ii schizophrenia it is primarily characterized by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations it has proved more difficult to treat than reactive schizophrenia it is characterized by sudden and conspicuous onset o symptoms

type ii schizophrenia

in _______, negative symptoms are more prominent reactive schizophrenia process schizophrenia type i schizophrenia type ii schizophrenia

type i schizophrenia

in ______, positive symptoms are dominant type ii schizophrenia reactive schizophrenia process schizophrenia type i schizophrenia

abnormalities in limbic systems

which of the following brain abnormalities is associated with schizophrenia? reduce activity in the brain's dopamine pathways increased activity in the frontal lobe of the brain abnormalities in limbic systems inactive brain receptors related to hearing and color during hallucinations

depression

according to a massive study done on the prevalence of psychological disorders in the us, which of the following is the most common disorder reported? depression alcohol dependence panic disorder posttraumatic stress disorder

48% of those interviewed had experienced a disorder at some point in their lives

based on the study conducted with more than 8,000 men and women between the ages of 15 and 54 in the us, it was found that 48% of those interviewed had experienced a disorder at some point in their lives comorbidity was nonexistent posttraumatic stress disorders were infrequent 30% of those interviewed had experienced narcissistic personality disorder

disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

____ is characterized by temperamental outbursts grossly out of proportion to the situation, both verbally and physically, in children between the ages of 6 and 18 disruptive mood dysregulation disorder somatoform disorder premenstrual dysphoric disorder dissociative identity disorder

psychotherapy

____ is treatment in which a trained professional—a therapist—uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth phototherapy psychotherapy biomedical therapy physiotherapy

biomedical therapy

therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological functioning is referred to as phototherapy psychotherapy biomedical therapy physiotherapy

eclectic

today therapists use a (n) ___ approach to therapy, which means they use a variety of methods with an individual patient existential behavioral psychoanalytical eclectic

clinical psychologists

___ are professionals with a ph.d. or psy.d who have also completed a postgraduate internship. they specialize in assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties, providing psychotherapy and, in some us states, can prescribe drugs psychoanalysts psychiatrists psychiatric social workers clinical psychologists

counseling psychologists

___ are professional with a ph.d. or ed. d who typically treat day-to-day adjustment problems, often in a university mental health clinic counseling psychologists psychiatrists licensed professional counselors psychoanalysts

licensed professional counselors

professionals with a master's degree who provide therapy to individuals, couples, and families and who hold a national or state certification are called counseling psychologists psychiatrists licensed professional counselors psychoanalysts

psychiatric social workers

professionals with a master's degree and specialized training who may provide therapy, usual regarding common family and personal problems are called counseling psychologist psychiatric social workers licensed professional counselors psychoanalysts

psychodynamic

____ therapy seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

the consideration of unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses

psychodynamic therapy involves the consideration of unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses the use of drugs and medical procedures behavioral modification techniques an attempt to challenge the patient's current thinking patterns

repression

the most common defense mechanism is dissociation projection reaction formation repression

manifest

the surface description of a dream is called the ____ content latent philological semiotic manifest

latent

the underlying meaning of a dream which is the true unconscious meaning of the dream is called ____ content latent philological semiotic manifest

resistance

___ is an inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations resistance transference dissociation projection

the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a psychoanalyst

what is transference? the transfer of a learned response from one tsk to another similar task the transfer of irrational cognitions to the self the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a psychoanalyst a behavioral technique invented to facilitate the transfer of learned behaviors from the session to the outside world

it facilitates the development of deep insight into one's life

why has psychodynamic therapy remained a viable approach to psychological treatment, despite criticism of it? it facilitates the development of deep insight into one's life it is brief and inexpensive it is more objective than are some other forms of therapy it doesn't differentiate between articulate and less verbal patients

behavioral

____ treatment approaches make use of the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

aversive conditioning

____ is a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior systematic desensitization aversive conditioning manifest structuring exposure treatment

systematic desensitization

____ is a behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety systematic desensitization aversion conditioning manifest structuring exposure treatment

systematic desensitization

a hierarchy of fears may be used in aversion conditioning systematic desensitization transference manifest structuring

empathetic

which of the following terms most nearly captures the essence of unconditional positive regard? directional empathetic judgmental challenging

group

therapy in which people meet collectively with a therapist to discuss problems is specifically known as ____ therapy client-centered person-centered interpersonal group

self-help

alcoholics anonymous (aa) is an example of ___ therapy client-centered self-help person-centered interpersonal

75-80

according to the text, the effectiveness of various approaches to therapy found that although success rates vary somewhat by treatment form, most treatments show that success rates range from about ____% greater success for treated compared with untreated individuals 15-20 25-30 75-80 90-95

70

according to the text, research shows that behavioral therapy is roughly ____% more effective than no treatment at all 15 25 60 70

50%

approximately what percentage of us families includes a member who has taken an antianxiety drug? 10% 25% 35% 50%

subtle of even unspoken social pressure results in conformity

which of the following is true of conformity? people working on ambiguous tasks and questions (those with no clear answer) are less susceptible to conformity the less attractive a group appears to its members, the greater its ability to produce conformity conformity is considerably lower when people must respond publicly subtle of even unspoken social pressure results in conformity

conformity

____ refers to a change on behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people dissonance conformity schema incongruity

personality

______ refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person Personality Maturation Development Cognition

personality

Ashworth is interested in the pattern of enduring characteristics of people that produce consistency and individuality in a given person. Ashworth is interested in people's _____ personality perception emotions cognitive growth

psychodynamic

_____ approaches to personality are approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control humanistic behavioral evolutionary psychodynamic

psychodynamic

Dr. Chase believes that one's personality largely reflects inner forces over which one has not control. Dr. Chase appears to take a (n) _______ approach to personality humanistic behavioral psychodynamic evolutionary

conscious experience

According to Freud's theory, _____ is only a small part of our psychological makeup and experience unconscious conflicts preconscious processes conscious experience instinctual drive

the unconscious

According to Freud, much of our behavior is motivated by the unconscious semi-conscious processes conscious experience the subconscious mind

unconscious

The _____ is part o the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware. semi-conscious conscious subconscious unconscious

unconscious

To Freud, much of our personality is determined by our unconscious semi-conscious conscious subconscious

preconscious

The ____ contains material tha tis not threatening and is easily brought to mind, such as the knowledge that 2+2=4 preconscious semi-conscious conscious subconscious

unconscious

the ____ provides a "safe haven" for our recollections of threatening events semi-conscious unconscious conscious subconscious

id

The ___ is the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses ego id superego conscience

pleasure

The id operates according to the _____ principle in which the goal is the immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction pleasure reciprocity attitude reality

ego

The ____ is part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world ego alter ego superego conscience

reality

The ego operates according to the _____ principle in which instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the individual's safety and to help integrate the person into society pleasure reciprocity attitude reality

ego

Which of the following components of personality is related to the reality principle? ego id superego conscience

superego

The ____ is the final personality structure to develop in childhood, represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person's parents, teachers, and other significant individuals ego alter ego superego id

superego

The ____ includes the conscience, which prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way by making us feel guilty if we do wrong ego alter ego superego id

they are both unrealistic

What do the id and the superego have in common they both reflect society's rules and constraints they are both unrealistic they are both motivated by primitive drives they are direct opposites

psychosexual

Developmental periods tha children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges are known as _____ stages psychosexual behavioral cognitive socio-culture

fixations

In Freud's theory, concerns tha tpersist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur are termed fixations defense mechanisms complexes conflicts

oral

According to Freud, the ___ stage is a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months, in which an infant's center of pleasure is the mouth oral phallic anal genital

phallic

According to Freud, a period beginning around age 3 during which a child's pleasure focuses on the genitals is known as the ____ stage oral phallic anal gential

phallic

According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development? oral genital anal phallic

identification

Young children resolve the Oedipus conflict by wanting to be as much like the same sex parent as possible, a process termed identification projection reflection sublimation

identification

____ is the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitation that person's behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values identification projection reflection sublimation

latency

After the resolution of the Oedipal conflict, typically around age 5 or 6, children move into the ____ period, which lasts until puberty oral genital anal latency

genital

According to Freud, the ____ stage is the period from puberty until death, marked by mature sexual behavior (that is, sexual intecourse) oral genital anal phallic

genital stage

In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, mature adult sexuality develops during the latency period genital stage phallic stage oral stage

defense mechanisms

In order to protect herself from experiecing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her won unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a (n) self-actualization principle fixation process defense mechanisms preconscious process

repression

Probably the most primary of the defense mechanisms is that of denial repression projection sublimination

repression

______ is the primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious denial repression projection sublimation

anna freud

The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only wih Sigmund Freud but also with bertha pappenheim alfred adler davis buss anna freud

behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development

When regression is used as a defense mechanism people divert unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else

reaction formation

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, whereas on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as repression reaction formation projection rationalization

rationalization

Which of following defense mechanisms is used when people provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior? rationalization reaction formation projection sublimation

archetypes

According to Jung, ______ are universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience (such as good and evil) prototypes archetypes stereotypes subtypes

jung's

The Myers-Briggs type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimatley, it seems from ______ theory. freud's jung's adler's erikson's

karen horney

_______ is often considered the first feminist psychologist karen horney mary calkins mertha pappenheim anna freud

1930's and 1940's

Karen Horeny's conceptualizations were developed in the 1920's 1930's and 1940's 1950's 1960's and 1970's

adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority

According the _____, parents can facilitate their childrens development by: adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority horney; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training horney; providing consistently and adequately for their needs adler; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training

cardinal

A _____ trait is a single characteristic that directs most of a person's activities. secondaru central primary cardinal

secondary

_____ traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than other traits secondary central primary cardinal

factor

A graduate student is using a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. She is performing a _____ analysis trend matrix factor correlation

trait

Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality and consistencies in individuals' behaviors. Dr. Montgomery is a (n) ______ theorist trait psychosexual humanistic cognitive

openness

Garner is imaginative, independent, and prefers variety. Brandy is is conventional, down to earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high while Brandy scores low on the Big Five personality dimensions of neuroticism openness extraversion agreeableness

bandura's social cognitive approach

Which approach to personality emphasizes the role play by self-efficacy bandura's social cognitive approach skinner's behaviorist approach allport's trait theory roger's humanistic theory

self-efficacy

_____ is the belief that we have the persona; capabilities to master a situation ad produce positive outcomes self-efficacy self-regulation self-esteem self-actualization

efficacy

Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high self- esteem efficacy actualization awareness

efficacy

Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her student's math assignments. She wants her students to have faith in their abilities to produce positive outcomes. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students' self- awareness regulation efficacy actualization

self-esteem

______ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations self-regulation self-esteem self-actualization self-awareness

biological and evolutionary

________ approaches to personality are theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited biological and evolutionary trait and learning humanistic and trait learning and evolutionary

temperament

the inborn behavioral style and characteristic way of responding that emerges early in life is known as outlook attachment style trait temperament

temperament

Baby Celeste is busy, active, and sleeps fitfully; her sister, by contrast, was calm and placid as a baby. this vignette illustrates differences in outlook intelligence temperament attachment style

thrill-seeking

According to the text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of thrill-seeking conscientiousness intuitiveness aggressiveness

dopamine

The text suggests that the neurotransmitter most closely related to individual differences in thrill- or sensations-seeking is norepinephrine serotonin acetylcholine dopamine

humanistic

_____ approaches to personality emphasizes peropl's inherent goodness and their tendency to move toward higher levels of functioning evolutionary humanistic learning biological

humanistic

Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of people's nature- that individuals are essentially good evolutionary humanistic learning biological

rogers

______ is a prominent psychologist associated with the humanistic perspective bandura skinner rogers freud

actualization

Humunistic psychologist suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential, each in a unique way; that is. people have a fundamental drive toward self- regulation esteem actualization efficacy

yields consistent measurements

A psychological test is reliable when it measures what it is suppose to measure has been normed using a sample representative of those for whom the test has been designed yields consistent measurements measures the positives

was discontinued in the early 1990's

Because of federal legislation, race norming on tests such as the General Aptitude Test Battery was discontinued in the 1970's continues today was discontinued in the early 1990's was reinstated in the 1980's

projective

The TAT and the Rorschach are ____ tests of personality objective reflective projective self-report

observing people in their own settings

Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on the use of ambiguous stimuli observing people in their own settings the rigorous standardization of personality questionnaires the interpretive skill of the examiner

cognitive

_____ Psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and judging Clinical Developmental Cognitive Evolutionary

concepts

Mental groupings of objects, events, or people that share common features are called Concepts Ideas Heuristics Algorithms

the most typical or highly representative example of a concept

A prototype is The most typical or highly representative example of a concept The first example of a concept that one encounters The most frequent or common example of a concept The most unusual or distinctive example of a concept

algorithm

A rule that guarantees the solution to a problem when it is correctly applied is termed as a (n) Heuristic Algorithm Premise Syllogism

assuming that something is typical of its class

When you use the representativeness heuristic, you are: Making frequency estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind Overcoming a mental set Mistaking visual images and other forms of mental representations for reality Assuming that something is typical of its class

availability

The _____ heuristic involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory Availability Representativeness Confirmation Frequency

trial and error

Thomas Edison invented the light bulb only because he experimented with thousands of different kinds of materials for a filament before he found one that worked (carbon). This shows that at the most basic level, we can solve problems through The availability heuristic Means-ends analysis Insight Trial and error

means-ends analysis

______ involve repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists Forming sub goals Means-ends analysis Insight Trial and error

insight

___ is defined as a sudden awareness of the relationship among problem elements; it is thought to lead rapidly to the problem's solution Convergent thinking Divergent thinking Insight Creativity

may rest in part on the foundation of trial and error

According to the text, the apparent suddenness of insightful problem solutions: May rest in part on the foundation of trial and error May be based on the availability heuristic Has been affirmed by empirical research Requires the application of confirmation bias

mental set

____ refers to the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist Mental set Representativeness heuristic Availability heuristic Syllogistic frame

the confirmation bias

Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to ignore editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to: Functional fixedness Mental set The confirmation bias The representativeness heuristic

exposure

___ is a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted either suddenly or gradually with a stimulus that they fear aversion conditioning systematic desensitization transference exposure

the token system

_____ rewards a person for desired behavior with a poker chip or some kind of play money the token system contingency contracting observational learning the appraisal technique

contingency contracting

in ___ the therapist and client (or teacher and student or parent and child) draw up a written agreement the token system contingency contracting observational learning the appraisal technique

observational learning

_____ is the process in which the behavior of other people is modeled, to systematically teach people new skills and ways of handling their fears and anxieties the token system contingency contracting observational learning the appraisal technique

dialectical behavior therapy

___ is a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to change their behavior and view of themselves by accepting who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal observational learning contingency contracting dialectical behavior therapy behavioral activation

atypical

the newest antipsychotics are called _____ antipsychotics depot atypical tricyclic typical

antipsychotic drug

prozac is an example of a (n) antipsychotic drug antidepressant drug mood stabilizer antianxiety drug

antidepressant drugs

____ are a class of medications used in cases of severe depression to improve a patient's mood and feeling of well-being mood stabilizers antianxiety drugs antipsychotic drugs antidepressant drugs

antianxiety drugs

drugs that reduce the level of worry or tension a person experiences essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-being are known as mood stabilizers antianxiety drugs antipsychotic drugs antidepressant drugs

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creativity

the ability to generate original ideas of develop novel solutions to problems is known as: convergent thinking insight creativity syllogistic reasoning

you brush your teeth with it

someone relying on convergent thinking would answer _____ to the query "what can you do with a tooth brush?" you brush your teeth with it you use it for painting you use it for cleaning tools you use it to make toys

speech sounds

phonology is the study of combination of words speech sounds word order meaning

learning-theory

the theory that language acquisitions follow the principles of reinforcement and conditioning is known as the ____ approach learning-theory nativist interactionist prescriptive

nativist

the theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development is known as the ____ approach learning-theory nativist interactionist prescriptive

intelligence

psychologists define ____ as the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively cognition intelligence sensation perception

interpersonal

kyana is an excellent salesperson because she can always find a way o connecting with a potential client. based on his information, in which kind of intelligence would gardner expect kyana to be high? analytic bodily kinesthetic interpersonal spatial

motivation

______ refers to the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms development intelligence cognition motivation

motivation

dr. schmidt studies the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. dr. schmidt studies personality intelligence cognition motivation

instincts

when psychologists first tried to explain motivation, they turned to ____ notions instincts incitements stimulates

instincts

inborn biologically determined patterns of behavior are called reflexes instincts notions motives

1940’s

drive-reduction approaches first appeared in the psychology of motivation in the 1920’s 1940’s 1960’s 1980’s

drive

motivational tension that energizes behavior to fulfill a need is termed a (n) drive reflex incentive instinct

a built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions

what is homeostasis? a theory of need reduction a built-in tendency to regulate bodily conditions the psychological representation of a need the diffusion of fluids in a cell

artie, who loves to bungee jump

of the following individuals, whose behavior may most easily be explained using an arousal approach to motivation? artie, who loves to bungee jump barry, who buys an expensive watch he can’t resist callista, who studies long hours to earn good grades brooke, who sleeps extra after having a tiring week at work

incentive

______ approached to motivation emphasize the appealing properties of external objects or goals drive-reduction arousal incentive cognitive

theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people’s thoughts, expectations, and goals

cognitive approaches to motivation are: theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need beliefs that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people’s thoughts, expectations, and goals

intrinsic

"dance like no one’s watching. work like you don’t need the money. love like you’ve never been hurt, "exhorts a sign on dr. elliott’s office door. this sign underscores the importance of _____ motivation explicit intrinsic implicit external

actualization

according to maslow, our highest level need is the need for self esteem efficacy love actualization

competence

according to self-determination theory, ____ is the need to produce desired outcomes development autonomy relatedness competence

autonomy

according to self-determination theory, ____ is the perception that we have control over our own lives reliance autonomy relatedness competence

obese

people with a bmi great that 30 are considered overweight obese normal underweight

overweight

people with a bmi between 25 and 30 are considered overweight obese normal underweight

overweight

natalie’s bmi is 26. she is best described as overweight obese normal underweight

varies from one culture to another

society’s view of the ideal body has always emphasized thinness varies from one culture to another has remained constant over time emphasizes the perfect ratio of height and weight

metabolism

____ is the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body neutralization phagocytosis metabolism emulsification

anorexia nervosa

___ is severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance-which can become skeleton like-, are unusual anorexia nervosa compulsive eating bulimia binge eating

bulimia

____ is a disorder, in which a person binges on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means anorexia nervosa compulsive eating bulimia binge eating disorder

at least 30 consecutive minutes, three times each week

how often should you exercise? at least 30 consecutive minutes, three times each week at least seven hours a week at least 100 minutes every alternate day at least two hours every day

need for achievement

the ____ is a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and meeting challenging goals need for achievement need for survival need for affiliation need for power

fluid

Intelligence that reflects the ability to reason abstractly is termed ____ intelligence fluid reflexive spatial crystallized

affiliation

larissa is highly invested in initiating and maintaining relationships. she is high in the need for association assembly affiliation affinity

need for power

the _____ is a tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as an influential individual. need for achievement need for survival need for power need for affiliation

alcohol consumption

men with high power needs tend to show high levels of alcohol consumption nurturing behavior participation in cultural events concern for other

nurturing behavior

women with high power needs display high levels of alcohol consumption nurturing behavior aggression sexually exploitative mannerisms

sympathetic

"fight or flight" response entail acitivity of the _____ nervous system somatic parasympathetic asympathetic sympathetic

helping us interact more effectively with others

according to the text, the functions of emotions include which of the following? preparing the individual for rest facititating learning shaping our past behavior helping us interact more effectively with others

stress is a very personal thing

which of the following is true of stress? although adaptation is often major, it requires minimal effort when stress is very severe or long lasting stress is a very personal thing positive events never produce stress out attempts to overcome stress may produce biological and psychological responses that improve our overall health

cataclysmic events

which of the following are strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people at once? personal stressors cataclysmic events background stressors daily hassles

being stranded in an earthquake affected area

which of the following would qualify as an example of a cataclysmic event? being stranded in an earthquake affected area getting ready for the first day at work getting irritated due to slow internet connection at work suffering from a severe headache

personal stressor-being fired

which category of stressor is correctly matched with an example? background stressor-the 2010 bp oil spill in the gulf of mexico personal stressor-being fired cataclysmic event-spending time on hold in the phone personal stressor-realizing that there is no fuel in your car when you have to rush to work

16%

approximately how many soldiers returning from iraq show symptoms of ptsd? 50% 25% 20% 16%

background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing

which of the following statements best captures the relationship between background stressors and daily hassles? background stressors are less severe than are daily hassles background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing daily hassles are less severe than background stressors daily hassles are a type of background stressor

background stressor

misplacing one’s keys illustrates a personal stressor background stressor cataclysmic event catastrophic event

stress produces both biological and psychological consequences

which of the following is true of the consequences of stress? only negative stressors affect you psychologically stress produces both biological and psychological consequences stress does not have direct physiological results stress increases the immune system response

the general adaptation syndrome

in the psychology of health and stress, hans selye is associated with the study of the hardy personality coping strategies the general adaptation syndrome type a and type b personalities

exhaustion

at which stage of selye’s general adaptation model (gas) are individuals the most likely to show negative consequences of stress? exhaustion resistance alarm mobilization

lymphocytes

stress may impair our production of disease-fighting white blood cells called leukocytes lymphocytes monocytes hemocytes

coping

efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress are termed coping adaptation resistance reactance

emotion-focused

eve was stressed as she had got transferred to italy. she decided to look at the brighter side of her relocation by telling herself that it will be a new experience, that she will be able to meet different people, and see new places. eve is observing _____ coping emotion-focused proactive avoidant defensive

avoidant

wishful thinking and the use of drugs exemplify the use of ____ coping problem-focused emotion-focused proactive avoidant

avoidant coping

which of the following is found to be the least successful coping method for dealing with stress? avoidant coping proactive coping emotion-focused coping problem-focused coping

defense mechanisms

which of the following refer to unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others? subjective well-being tactics defense mechanisms cataclysmic events type b behavior patterns

learned helplessness

people sometimes stop even trying to cope with stress if they feel that they have no control over the bad things that happen to them; that is, people might experience emotional insulation learned helplessness avoidant reactance denial

one should change one’s appraisal of the situation

which of the following should be followed to cope with a stressful situation? one should stick to one’s goal one should change one’s appraisal of the situation one should avoid taking physical action one should try to turn a challenge into a threat

proactive

the strategy of preparing for stress before it happens is termed _____ coping anticipatory proactive preventive reactive

hostile

annie is a type a individual. she would be characterized by ______ behavior hostile patient cooperative noncompetitive

type b

the ____ behavior pattern is characterized by a patient and nonaggressive manner type a type b type c type d

cooperation

martha has a type b behavior pattern. which of the following characteristics would be observed in martha? hostility time urgency competitiveness cooperation

nonaggressive

patrick is s typical type b personality. patrick would be characterized by hostile competitive insecure nonaggressive

type b

jane is a calm and composed person, who believes in working patiently. she hates the idea of employees working aggressively to win more incentives than their coworkers. she is cooperative with her coworkers and helps them whenever they are in need. jane is a _____ individual type c type a type b type d

noncompetitive

owen is a type b personality. owen would be characterized by ______ behavior noncompetitive stressful hostile panicky

hostility

the component of the type a pattern most strongly linked to coronary heart disease is that of hostility competitiveness time urgency ambitiousness

produces excessive physiological arousal in stressful situations

the key component of the type a behavior pattern, hostility, is highly toxic because it produces excessive physiological arousal in stressful situations affects the course of cancer through links to the immune system decreases heart rate and blood pressure results in decreased production of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine

75%

approximately what percentage of current smokers report that they would like to quit? 90% 75% 65% 50%

25

approximately ______% of high school students are active cigarette smokers by the time they graduate 10 15 25 35

10%

according to the world health organization, about what percentage of the world’s population will die as a result of smoking? 2% 5% 10% 20%

50%

what proportion of patients cannot say how long they are supposed to continue a course of prescribed medication? 10% 20% 35% 50%

25%

what proportion of patients cannot state the purpose of the medication prescribed for them 10% 25% 35% 50%

patients prefer same-sex physician

which of the following statements is true regarding patients’ preference for the male or female physicians? patients prefer female physicians patients prefer male physicians patients prefer same-sex physician patients prefer opposite-sex physicians

positively

andrew was told by his physician that he would be able to control his diabetes if he controls his diet and avoids the use of sugar in his diet. andrew was given a (n) _____ framed health message by his physician positively neutrally negatively ambiguously

negatively

tim was told by his doctor that if he did not stop eating fast foods, he would turn diabetic and obese. this is an example of a ______ health message neutrally positively ambiguously negatively

happy people have high self-esteem

which of the following is true of happy people? happy people see themselves as less intelligent happy people feel they are the pawns of others happy people enjoy more as they have less firm sense of control happy people have high self-esteem

abnormality as deviation from the average

______ is a statistically based approach that observes what behaviors are rare or occur infrequently in a specific society or culture and labels those deviations from the norm "abnormal" abnormality as deviation from the average abnormality as deviation from the ideal abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort abnormality as the inability to function effectively

abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort

_____ refers to behavior considered abnormal if it produces a sense of distress, anxiety, or guilt in an individual or if it is harmful to others in some way abnormality as the inability to function effectively abnormality as a legal concept abnormality as deviation from the ideal abnormality as a sense of personal discomfort

cognitive

____ treatment approaches teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional notions about the world and themselves cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

cognitive-behavioral

_____ approach is a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think psychodynamic-cognitive humanistic-behavioral cognitive-behavioral psychodynamic-humanistic

humanistic

___ therapy is therapy in which the underlying rational is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

the inability to find meaning in life and connection to others

according to humanistic therapists, psychological disorders result from the inability to find meaning in life and connection to others unconscious conflicts and early experiences irrational thought patterns faulty learning

humanistic

person-centered therapy is a specific type of ___ therapy cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

depression

transcranial magnetic stimulation (tms) is used to treat depression bipolar disorder schizophrenia obsessive-compulsive disorder

1930s and ’40s

in the _____, surgeons performed prefrontal lobotomy on thousands of patients often with little precision 1920s and ’30s 1930s and ’40s 1940s and ’50s 1950s and ’60s

five

according to the text, college students in counseling are treated in only _____ sessions on average three five 10 12

legal

insanity is a (n) _____ term legal psychological archaic colloquial

marking two ends of a continuum

it is best to view abnormal behavior and normal behavior as discrete categories two well-demarcated and non-overlapping terms marking two ends of a continuum absolute states

medical perspective

which of the following perspectives on psychological disorders assumes that physiological causes are at the root of psychological disorders? medical perspective psychoanalytic perspective humanistic perspective behavioral perspective

psychoanalytic perspective

which perspective on psychological disorders primary argues that psychological disorders stem from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression? sociocultural perspective medical perspective humanistic perspective psychoanalytic perspective

examining early childhood experiences

psychoanalytic treatment typically involves administering drugs to maintain hormonal balance examining early childhood experiences using electroconvulsive therapy employing trephination techniques

learned responses

the behavioral perspective on psychological disorders assumes that abnormal behaviors are genetic anomalies learned responses hormonal imbalances chemical deficiencies

emphasis on observable behavior

the greatest strength of the behavioral perspective on psychological disorders is its emphasis on observable behavior emphasis on the client’s rich inner life focus on childhood conflicts that affect adult behavior explicit recognition of the biological underpinnings of behavior

maladaptive thoughts

the cognitive perspective on psychological disorders assumes that abnormal behaviors are the result of vitamin deficiency maladaptive thoughts hormonal imbalances genetic mutation

explicitly teach new, more adaptive ways of thinking

a primary goal of treatment using the cognitive perspective on psychological disorders is to: explicitly teach new, more adaptive ways of thinking use electroconvulsive therapy detect the genetic anomalies that cause abnormal behaviors use the technique of trephination for the purpose of treating mental illness

abraham maslow

the humanistic perspective on psychological disorders is associated with the work of sigmund freud abraham maslow alfred kinsey carl jung

responsibility people have for anomalies in their own behavior

the humanistic perspective on psychological disorders emphasizes the responsibility people have for anomalies in their own behavior influence of genetic abnormalities that are responsible for anomalies in human behavior impact of hormonal imbalances that bring about changes in human behavior influence of the society that is capable of causing behavioral abnormalities

sociocultural perspective

which perspective on psychological disorders assumes that people’s normal and abnormal behavior is shaped by factors such as poverty and prejudice? sociocultural perspective psychoanalytic perspective cognitive perspective medical perspective

poverty

according to the sociocultural perspective on psychological disorders, which of the following factors is viewed as a possible cause of abnormal behavior? genetic mutation poverty maladaptive thoughts chemical deficiency

cognitive; focuses on thoughts and beliefs, not just behaviors

which of the following perspectives on psychological disorders is correctly matched to its strength? behavioral; recognizes that people have rich inner lives psychoanalytic; offers a precise, objective approach to the symptoms of specific disorders humanistic; offers effective drug treatments for many psychological disorders cognitive; focuses on thoughts and beliefs, not just behaviors

intellectual disability

the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition removes the outdates term "mental retardation" with neurocognitive disorder gender dysphoria intellectual disability conversion disorder

anxiety

the feeling of apprehension and tension experienced in reaction to stressful situations is referred to as mania dyslexia anxiety paralysis

phobic disorder

which of the following is major types of anxiety disorder? phobic disorder down syndrome cyclothymic disorder bipolar disorder

phobias

intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations are referred to as compulsions manias phobias obsessions

phobic disorder

brett has an intense, irrational fear of needles and other sharp objects. brett is most likely to be diagnosed with manic disorder phobic disorder bipolar disorder cyclothymic disorder

judged or embarrassed by others

social phobia is the fear of being suffocated in confined spaces judged or embarrassed by others attacked by a clown sexually abused

agoraphobia

fear of places, such as unfamiliar or crowded spaces, where help might not be available in case of emergency is referred to as acrophobia claustrophobia xenophobia agoraphobia

there is a specific, identifiable stimulus that sets off the anxiety reaction

phobic disorders differ from generalized anxiety and panic disorders in that they are always preceded by a panic disorder there is a specific, identifiable stimulus that sets off the anxiety reaction the feeling of anxiety lasts longer people experience "free-floating" anxiety

a sense of impending, unavoidable doom

which of the following is a symptom if panic disorder a sense of impending, unavoidable doom the inability to register new information loss of memory loss of motor function

generalized anxiety disorder

thomas has been suffering from insomnia for the last two years. he has also been experiencing tension, headaches, and heart palpitations. his medical reports show that he is not suffering from any physiological or genetic disorder. thomas is most likely suffering from down’s syndrome generalized anxiety disorder hemophilia hypochondria

compulsion

an irresistible urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable is referred to as mania hypomanic episode compulsion agnosia

obsessive-compulsive disorder

sam washes his hands very frequently. in spite of this he feels that his hands are not clean and that he might acquire a viral disease due to poor hygiene. given this information, we can conclude that sam has bipolar disorder cyclothymic disorder dyskinesia obsessive-compulsive disorder

any anxiety disorder

posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as any anxiety disorder a type of amnesia a type of somatoform disorder a dissociative disorder

posttraumatic stress disorder

people with _____ typically re-experience a stressful event in vivid flashbacks or dreams agnosia posttraumatic stress disorder dissociative identity disorder anorexia

an overactive autonomic nervous system may be at the root of panic attacks

which of the following is true of the causes of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder? if one member of a pair of identical twins has a panic disorder, the other twin will not have it an overactive autonomic nervous system may be at the root of panic attacks an overstimulated limbic system helps prevent chronic anxiety environmental factors do not play a role in anxiety disorders

thalamus

increased levels of gray matter occur in the ____ in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder as compared to people without it amygdala thalamus hippocampus hypothalamus

hypochondriasis

____ is a disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health akinesia hemophilia hypochondriasis agnosia

she misinterprets minor symptoms as evidence of serious illness

paige has hypochondriasis. this means that she is faking physical symptoms to gain attention she misinterprets minor symptoms as evidence of serious illness she is experiencing an actual, dramatic physical disturbance she is suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder

dissociative disorders

_____ are psychological dysfunctions characterized by the separation of different facets of a person’s personality that are normally integrated conversion disorders dissociative disorders chromosomal disorders somatoform disorders

dissociative identity disorder

____ is a disorder in which a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities bipolar disorder conversion disorder cyclothymic disorder dissociative identity disorder

dissociative amnesia

____ is a disorder in which a significant, selective memory loss occurs agnosia anorexia dissociative amnesia conversion disorder

dissociative fugue

_____ is a form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity anorexia conversion disorder bipolar disorder dissociative fugue

they allow people to escape from some anxiety-producing situation

the common thread among dissociative disorders is that they allow people to escape from some anxiety-producing situation people suffering from these disorders experience a significant loss of memory they involve an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to see or hear people suffering from these disorders leave their home to lead a life of anonymity

disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living

mood disorder refers to a form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and assumes a new identity disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ actual loss of information from memory that typically results from a physiological cause

repressed memories

the term _____ is sometimes used to describe the lost memories of people with dissociative amnesia "free-floating" memories la belle indifference repressed memories selective memories

major depression may have no clear trigger and is more intense than normal depression

which of the following is true of major depression? it is abnormal to experience sadness after experiencing disappointment in life people suffering from major depression have high levels of energy major depression may have no clear trigger and is more intense than normal depression for reasons unknown, the rate of depression is decreasing throughout the world

mania

____ is an extended state of intense, wild elation mania depression anxiety insomnia

bipolar disorder

___ is a disorder in which a person typically alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression amnesia conversion disorder bipolar disorder dissociative fugue

bipolar disorder refers to a condition in which a person alternates between periods of depression and mania

which of the following is true of mood disorders? mania refers to a severe state of depression bipolar disorder refers to a condition in which a person alternates between periods of depression and mania dissociative fugue refers to a disturbance in emotional experience that is strong enough to intrude on everyday living manic-depressive disorder refers to a severe condition of short-term memory loss

serotonin

which of the following neurotransmitters plays a major role in depression? endorphins serotonin acetylcholine morphine

schizophrenia

____ is a class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs schizophrenia parkinson’s disease hypochondriasis bipolar disorder

a severe distortion of reality

which of the following occurs in schizophrenia? an extended sate of intense, wild elation a severe distortion of reality a loss of motor functioning a loss of eyesight

disturbances of thought and speech

a characteristic that reliably distinguishes schizophrenia from other disorders is disturbances of thought and speech improvement from a previous level of functioning lack of emotional disturbances no withdrawal tendency

it has proved more difficult to treat than reactive schizophrenia

which of the following statements is true of process schizophrenia? it is also known as type ii schizophrenia it is primarily characterized by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations it has proved more difficult to treat than reactive schizophrenia it is characterized by sudden and conspicuous onset o symptoms

type ii schizophrenia

in _______, negative symptoms are more prominent reactive schizophrenia process schizophrenia type i schizophrenia type ii schizophrenia

type i schizophrenia

in ______, positive symptoms are dominant type ii schizophrenia reactive schizophrenia process schizophrenia type i schizophrenia

abnormalities in limbic systems

which of the following brain abnormalities is associated with schizophrenia? reduce activity in the brain’s dopamine pathways increased activity in the frontal lobe of the brain abnormalities in limbic systems inactive brain receptors related to hearing and color during hallucinations

depression

according to a massive study done on the prevalence of psychological disorders in the us, which of the following is the most common disorder reported? depression alcohol dependence panic disorder posttraumatic stress disorder

48% of those interviewed had experienced a disorder at some point in their lives

based on the study conducted with more than 8,000 men and women between the ages of 15 and 54 in the us, it was found that 48% of those interviewed had experienced a disorder at some point in their lives comorbidity was nonexistent posttraumatic stress disorders were infrequent 30% of those interviewed had experienced narcissistic personality disorder

disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

____ is characterized by temperamental outbursts grossly out of proportion to the situation, both verbally and physically, in children between the ages of 6 and 18 disruptive mood dysregulation disorder somatoform disorder premenstrual dysphoric disorder dissociative identity disorder

psychotherapy

____ is treatment in which a trained professional—a therapist—uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth phototherapy psychotherapy biomedical therapy physiotherapy

biomedical therapy

therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological functioning is referred to as phototherapy psychotherapy biomedical therapy physiotherapy

eclectic

today therapists use a (n) ___ approach to therapy, which means they use a variety of methods with an individual patient existential behavioral psychoanalytical eclectic

clinical psychologists

___ are professionals with a ph.d. or psy.d who have also completed a postgraduate internship. they specialize in assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties, providing psychotherapy and, in some us states, can prescribe drugs psychoanalysts psychiatrists psychiatric social workers clinical psychologists

counseling psychologists

___ are professional with a ph.d. or ed. d who typically treat day-to-day adjustment problems, often in a university mental health clinic counseling psychologists psychiatrists licensed professional counselors psychoanalysts

licensed professional counselors

professionals with a master’s degree who provide therapy to individuals, couples, and families and who hold a national or state certification are called counseling psychologists psychiatrists licensed professional counselors psychoanalysts

psychiatric social workers

professionals with a master’s degree and specialized training who may provide therapy, usual regarding common family and personal problems are called counseling psychologist psychiatric social workers licensed professional counselors psychoanalysts

psychodynamic

____ therapy seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

the consideration of unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses

psychodynamic therapy involves the consideration of unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses the use of drugs and medical procedures behavioral modification techniques an attempt to challenge the patient’s current thinking patterns

repression

the most common defense mechanism is dissociation projection reaction formation repression

manifest

the surface description of a dream is called the ____ content latent philological semiotic manifest

latent

the underlying meaning of a dream which is the true unconscious meaning of the dream is called ____ content latent philological semiotic manifest

resistance

___ is an inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations resistance transference dissociation projection

the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a psychoanalyst

what is transference? the transfer of a learned response from one tsk to another similar task the transfer of irrational cognitions to the self the transfer of strong feelings about parents or authority figures to a psychoanalyst a behavioral technique invented to facilitate the transfer of learned behaviors from the session to the outside world

it facilitates the development of deep insight into one’s life

why has psychodynamic therapy remained a viable approach to psychological treatment, despite criticism of it? it facilitates the development of deep insight into one’s life it is brief and inexpensive it is more objective than are some other forms of therapy it doesn’t differentiate between articulate and less verbal patients

behavioral

____ treatment approaches make use of the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned cognitive psychodynamic behavioral humanistic

aversive conditioning

____ is a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior systematic desensitization aversive conditioning manifest structuring exposure treatment

systematic desensitization

____ is a behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety systematic desensitization aversion conditioning manifest structuring exposure treatment

systematic desensitization

a hierarchy of fears may be used in aversion conditioning systematic desensitization transference manifest structuring

empathetic

which of the following terms most nearly captures the essence of unconditional positive regard? directional empathetic judgmental challenging

group

therapy in which people meet collectively with a therapist to discuss problems is specifically known as ____ therapy client-centered person-centered interpersonal group

self-help

alcoholics anonymous (aa) is an example of ___ therapy client-centered self-help person-centered interpersonal

75-80

according to the text, the effectiveness of various approaches to therapy found that although success rates vary somewhat by treatment form, most treatments show that success rates range from about ____% greater success for treated compared with untreated individuals 15-20 25-30 75-80 90-95

70

according to the text, research shows that behavioral therapy is roughly ____% more effective than no treatment at all 15 25 60 70

50%

approximately what percentage of us families includes a member who has taken an antianxiety drug? 10% 25% 35% 50%

subtle of even unspoken social pressure results in conformity

which of the following is true of conformity? people working on ambiguous tasks and questions (those with no clear answer) are less susceptible to conformity the less attractive a group appears to its members, the greater its ability to produce conformity conformity is considerably lower when people must respond publicly subtle of even unspoken social pressure results in conformity

conformity

____ refers to a change on behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people dissonance conformity schema incongruity

personality

______ refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person Personality Maturation Development Cognition

personality

Ashworth is interested in the pattern of enduring characteristics of people that produce consistency and individuality in a given person. Ashworth is interested in people’s _____ personality perception emotions cognitive growth

psychodynamic

_____ approaches to personality are approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control humanistic behavioral evolutionary psychodynamic

psychodynamic

Dr. Chase believes that one’s personality largely reflects inner forces over which one has not control. Dr. Chase appears to take a (n) _______ approach to personality humanistic behavioral psychodynamic evolutionary

conscious experience

According to Freud’s theory, _____ is only a small part of our psychological makeup and experience unconscious conflicts preconscious processes conscious experience instinctual drive

the unconscious

According to Freud, much of our behavior is motivated by the unconscious semi-conscious processes conscious experience the subconscious mind

unconscious

The _____ is part o the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware. semi-conscious conscious subconscious unconscious

unconscious

To Freud, much of our personality is determined by our unconscious semi-conscious conscious subconscious

preconscious

The ____ contains material tha tis not threatening and is easily brought to mind, such as the knowledge that 2+2=4 preconscious semi-conscious conscious subconscious

unconscious

the ____ provides a "safe haven" for our recollections of threatening events semi-conscious unconscious conscious subconscious

id

The ___ is the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses ego id superego conscience

pleasure

The id operates according to the _____ principle in which the goal is the immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction pleasure reciprocity attitude reality

ego

The ____ is part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world ego alter ego superego conscience

reality

The ego operates according to the _____ principle in which instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the individual’s safety and to help integrate the person into society pleasure reciprocity attitude reality

ego

Which of the following components of personality is related to the reality principle? ego id superego conscience

superego

The ____ is the final personality structure to develop in childhood, represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person’s parents, teachers, and other significant individuals ego alter ego superego id

superego

The ____ includes the conscience, which prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way by making us feel guilty if we do wrong ego alter ego superego id

they are both unrealistic

What do the id and the superego have in common they both reflect society’s rules and constraints they are both unrealistic they are both motivated by primitive drives they are direct opposites

psychosexual

Developmental periods tha children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges are known as _____ stages psychosexual behavioral cognitive socio-culture

fixations

In Freud’s theory, concerns tha tpersist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur are termed fixations defense mechanisms complexes conflicts

oral

According to Freud, the ___ stage is a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months, in which an infant’s center of pleasure is the mouth oral phallic anal genital

phallic

According to Freud, a period beginning around age 3 during which a child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals is known as the ____ stage oral phallic anal gential

phallic

According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development? oral genital anal phallic

identification

Young children resolve the Oedipus conflict by wanting to be as much like the same sex parent as possible, a process termed identification projection reflection sublimation

identification

____ is the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitation that person’s behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values identification projection reflection sublimation

latency

After the resolution of the Oedipal conflict, typically around age 5 or 6, children move into the ____ period, which lasts until puberty oral genital anal latency

genital

According to Freud, the ____ stage is the period from puberty until death, marked by mature sexual behavior (that is, sexual intecourse) oral genital anal phallic

genital stage

In Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, mature adult sexuality develops during the latency period genital stage phallic stage oral stage

defense mechanisms

In order to protect herself from experiecing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her won unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a (n) self-actualization principle fixation process defense mechanisms preconscious process

repression

Probably the most primary of the defense mechanisms is that of denial repression projection sublimination

repression

______ is the primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious denial repression projection sublimation

anna freud

The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only wih Sigmund Freud but also with bertha pappenheim alfred adler davis buss anna freud

behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development

When regression is used as a defense mechanism people divert unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else

reaction formation

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, whereas on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as repression reaction formation projection rationalization

rationalization

Which of following defense mechanisms is used when people provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior? rationalization reaction formation projection sublimation

archetypes

According to Jung, ______ are universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience (such as good and evil) prototypes archetypes stereotypes subtypes

jung’s

The Myers-Briggs type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimatley, it seems from ______ theory. freud’s jung’s adler’s erikson’s

karen horney

_______ is often considered the first feminist psychologist karen horney mary calkins mertha pappenheim anna freud

1930’s and 1940’s

Karen Horeny’s conceptualizations were developed in the 1920’s 1930’s and 1940’s 1950’s 1960’s and 1970’s

adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority

According the _____, parents can facilitate their childrens development by: adler; helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority horney; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training horney; providing consistently and adequately for their needs adler; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training

cardinal

A _____ trait is a single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities. secondaru central primary cardinal

secondary

_____ traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than other traits secondary central primary cardinal

factor

A graduate student is using a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. She is performing a _____ analysis trend matrix factor correlation

trait

Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality and consistencies in individuals’ behaviors. Dr. Montgomery is a (n) ______ theorist trait psychosexual humanistic cognitive

openness

Garner is imaginative, independent, and prefers variety. Brandy is is conventional, down to earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high while Brandy scores low on the Big Five personality dimensions of neuroticism openness extraversion agreeableness

bandura’s social cognitive approach

Which approach to personality emphasizes the role play by self-efficacy bandura’s social cognitive approach skinner’s behaviorist approach allport’s trait theory roger’s humanistic theory

self-efficacy

_____ is the belief that we have the persona; capabilities to master a situation ad produce positive outcomes self-efficacy self-regulation self-esteem self-actualization

efficacy

Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high self- esteem efficacy actualization awareness

efficacy

Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her student’s math assignments. She wants her students to have faith in their abilities to produce positive outcomes. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students’ self- awareness regulation efficacy actualization

self-esteem

______ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations self-regulation self-esteem self-actualization self-awareness

biological and evolutionary

________ approaches to personality are theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited biological and evolutionary trait and learning humanistic and trait learning and evolutionary

temperament

the inborn behavioral style and characteristic way of responding that emerges early in life is known as outlook attachment style trait temperament

temperament

Baby Celeste is busy, active, and sleeps fitfully; her sister, by contrast, was calm and placid as a baby. this vignette illustrates differences in outlook intelligence temperament attachment style

thrill-seeking

According to the text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of thrill-seeking conscientiousness intuitiveness aggressiveness

dopamine

The text suggests that the neurotransmitter most closely related to individual differences in thrill- or sensations-seeking is norepinephrine serotonin acetylcholine dopamine

humanistic

_____ approaches to personality emphasizes peropl’s inherent goodness and their tendency to move toward higher levels of functioning evolutionary humanistic learning biological

humanistic

Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of people’s nature- that individuals are essentially good evolutionary humanistic learning biological

rogers

______ is a prominent psychologist associated with the humanistic perspective bandura skinner rogers freud

actualization

Humunistic psychologist suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential, each in a unique way; that is. people have a fundamental drive toward self- regulation esteem actualization efficacy

yields consistent measurements

A psychological test is reliable when it measures what it is suppose to measure has been normed using a sample representative of those for whom the test has been designed yields consistent measurements measures the positives

was discontinued in the early 1990’s

Because of federal legislation, race norming on tests such as the General Aptitude Test Battery was discontinued in the 1970’s continues today was discontinued in the early 1990’s was reinstated in the 1980’s

projective

The TAT and the Rorschach are ____ tests of personality objective reflective projective self-report

observing people in their own settings

Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on the use of ambiguous stimuli observing people in their own settings the rigorous standardization of personality questionnaires the interpretive skill of the examiner

cognitive

_____ Psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and judging Clinical Developmental Cognitive Evolutionary

concepts

Mental groupings of objects, events, or people that share common features are called Concepts Ideas Heuristics Algorithms

the most typical or highly representative example of a concept

A prototype is The most typical or highly representative example of a concept The first example of a concept that one encounters The most frequent or common example of a concept The most unusual or distinctive example of a concept

algorithm

A rule that guarantees the solution to a problem when it is correctly applied is termed as a (n) Heuristic Algorithm Premise Syllogism

assuming that something is typical of its class

When you use the representativeness heuristic, you are: Making frequency estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind Overcoming a mental set Mistaking visual images and other forms of mental representations for reality Assuming that something is typical of its class

availability

The _____ heuristic involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory Availability Representativeness Confirmation Frequency

trial and error

Thomas Edison invented the light bulb only because he experimented with thousands of different kinds of materials for a filament before he found one that worked (carbon). This shows that at the most basic level, we can solve problems through The availability heuristic Means-ends analysis Insight Trial and error

means-ends analysis

______ involve repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists Forming sub goals Means-ends analysis Insight Trial and error

insight

___ is defined as a sudden awareness of the relationship among problem elements; it is thought to lead rapidly to the problem’s solution Convergent thinking Divergent thinking Insight Creativity

may rest in part on the foundation of trial and error

According to the text, the apparent suddenness of insightful problem solutions: May rest in part on the foundation of trial and error May be based on the availability heuristic Has been affirmed by empirical research Requires the application of confirmation bias

mental set

____ refers to the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist Mental set Representativeness heuristic Availability heuristic Syllogistic frame

the confirmation bias

Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to ignore editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to: Functional fixedness Mental set The confirmation bias The representativeness heuristic

exposure

___ is a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted either suddenly or gradually with a stimulus that they fear aversion conditioning systematic desensitization transference exposure

the token system

_____ rewards a person for desired behavior with a poker chip or some kind of play money the token system contingency contracting observational learning the appraisal technique

contingency contracting

in ___ the therapist and client (or teacher and student or parent and child) draw up a written agreement the token system contingency contracting observational learning the appraisal technique

observational learning

_____ is the process in which the behavior of other people is modeled, to systematically teach people new skills and ways of handling their fears and anxieties the token system contingency contracting observational learning the appraisal technique

dialectical behavior therapy

___ is a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to change their behavior and view of themselves by accepting who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal observational learning contingency contracting dialectical behavior therapy behavioral activation

atypical

the newest antipsychotics are called _____ antipsychotics depot atypical tricyclic typical

antipsychotic drug

prozac is an example of a (n) antipsychotic drug antidepressant drug mood stabilizer antianxiety drug

antidepressant drugs

____ are a class of medications used in cases of severe depression to improve a patient’s mood and feeling of well-being mood stabilizers antianxiety drugs antipsychotic drugs antidepressant drugs

antianxiety drugs

drugs that reduce the level of worry or tension a person experiences essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well-being are known as mood stabilizers antianxiety drugs antipsychotic drugs antidepressant drugs

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