psychology chapter 14

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Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

an individual does something that is personally disagreeable.

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by:

cognitive dissonance theory.

Based on findings from Milgram’s obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter’s orders when:

they saw another subject disobey instructions.

In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when:

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

Participants in Milgram’s obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of:


Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the:

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that:

actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.

Which of the following is true?

Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions.

Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if:

she is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting.

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must:

express its position as consistently as possible.

Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which:

individuals share a similar opinion.

When pressured to conform, people may do the opposite of what is expected in order to increase their sense of:

personal control.

Deindividuation refers to:

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Which of the following most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?

Crowding sometimes intensifies people’s reactions.

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest cognitive dissonance?

A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with.

The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by:

the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.

In Milgram’s obedience experiments, "teachers" were most likely to deliver high levels of shock when:

the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects:

complied with all the demands of the experiment.

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:

role-playing on attitudes.

University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates:

social loafing.

Social loafing is most likely to occur among:

audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram’s initial obedience experiment because:

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?

group polarization

Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?

"We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there’s no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."

When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of:


Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n):


Having observed participants in his simulated prison study, Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo’s explanation best exemplified:

a situational attribution.

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.


Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?

Group polarization is evident.

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:


Which of the following is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?

Birds of a feather flock together.

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of:

the mere exposure effect.

Svetlana, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.

be perceived as more socially skilled

Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation the presence of others often:

leads to all of the alternatives.

When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in:

the bystander effect.

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

Which of the following is true of non-Western cultures, as compared to Western cultures? They have:

lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage.

The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as:

companionate love.

After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women’s sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman’s friendliness as sexual interest.

more; more

Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that:

many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

Most researchers agree that:

media violence is a factor in aggressive behavior.

People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other.

similar to; different from

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates:

an ingroup bias.

Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying:

social inequalities.

Ahmed and Monique are on a blind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?

their physical attractiveness

Four equally attractive women silently attended a 200-student class for zero, 5, 10, or 15 class sessions. When shown slides of each woman, students in the class rated the women who had attended ________ class sessions as the most attractive.


Increasing the number of people who are present during an emergency tends to:

decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in:

the bystander effect.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.

In an experiment by Dutton and Aron, one group of men were asked by an attractive woman to complete a short questionnaire immediately after they had crossed a swaying footbridge suspended 230 feet above the Capilano River. This experiment was designed to study the factors that contribute to:

passionate love.

After watching a large number of violent pornographic movies, Ollie will probably be:

less likely to believe that women are seriously harmed by rape.

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, "What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment." This reaction is best explained in terms of:

the just-world phenomenon.

The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________.

companionate; there is equity between the partners

In laboratory experiments, merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim. This reaction is best explained in terms of

role-playing aggression.

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________.

different from one another; similar to one another

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:

may produce all of these effects.

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people:

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar.

Makato, a 21-year-old university junior, is physically unattractive. Compared to good-looking students, Makato is more likely to:

have difficulty making a favorable impression on potential employers.

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:

emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

Repeated exposure to pornographic films causes viewers to:

see their partners as less attractive and to be more accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists.

Joel’s sexually violent behavior is influenced by his unrealistic sexual scripts, his repeated experience of ostracism, and his persistent abuse of alcohol. An integrated understanding of Joel’s behavior within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by:

a biopsychosocial approach.

Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students’ failure to help is best explained in terms of:

diffusion of responsibility.

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared to men who had not been aroused, these men:

reported more positive feelings toward the woman.

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of:


We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel:

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

People’s physical attractiveness is unrelated to their:


Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renée notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote:

increased self-awareness.

After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of:


Aggression is defined as behavior that:

is intended to hurt another person.

Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is:

increased by exposure to pornography.

Experimental studies indicate that college men who are randomly assigned to play a violent video game:

experience increasing levels of arousal and become increasingly likely to hurt a fellow student.

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the:

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as:

social loafing.

Jane and Sandy were best friends as freshmen. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn’t. By the end of their senior year, they found that they had less in common with each other than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

group polarization

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