Psychology Chapter 11

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Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as:

the body’s tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

Mary loves hang-gliding. It would be most difficult to explain Mary’s behavior according to:

drive-reduction theory.

Positive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are called:


Which of the following is inconsistent with the drive-reduction theory of motivation?

Monkeys will work puzzles even if not given a food reward.

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:

a drive.

Which of the following is not an example of homeostasis?

feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food

By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to:

maintain homeostasis.

One problem with the idea of motivation as drive reduction is that:

because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction.

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

need; drive

The role of learning in motivation is most obvious from the influence of:


Basal metabolic rate is the body’s resting rate of:

energy expenditure.

Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus will cause an animal to:

begin eating.

Research on the physiological basis of hunger has indicated that:

hunger continues in humans whose cancerous stomachs have been removed.

Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to:

cause the rat to become extremely fat.

The brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating is the:

ventromedial hypothalamus.

Leptin, a hunger-dampening protein, is secreted by:

fat cells.

Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat. This procedure is likely to:

cause the rat to begin eating.

Hunger is increased by ________ but it is decreased by ________.

cause the rat to begin eating.

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet:

lost interest in sex and social activities.

An explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis is best illustrated by the concept of:

set point.

Need is to ________ as drive is to ________.

food deprivation; hunger

Lack of body fluids is to cold water as ________ is to ________.

need; incentive

On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of:


Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of:

drive-reduction theory.

For a hungry person, the consumption of food serves to:

maintain homeostasis.

Randy, who has been under a lot of stress lately, has intense cravings for sugary junk foods, which tend to make him feel more relaxed. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for his craving?

The extra sugar tends to lower blood insulin level, which promotes relaxation.

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.

lateral hypothalamus

Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to:

cause the rat to become extremely fat.

An animal’s stomach and intestines will process food more rapidly and the animal will become extremely fat if its:

ventromedial hypothalamus is destroyed.

Hunger is increased by ________ but it is decreased by ________.

stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus; stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus

Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the "________-destruction" cage, while the underweight rat goes in the "________-destruction" cage.

ventromedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamus

Increases in the hormone insulin lead to:

decreasing blood glucose levels.

The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of:


A need refers to:

a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n):


Some students work hard in school in order to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:


Ali’s parents have tried hard to minimize their son’s exposure to sweet, fattening foods. If Ali has the occasion to taste sweet foods in the future, which of the following is likely:

He will display a preference for sweet tastes.

Increases in insulin will:

lower blood sugar and trigger hunger.

The set point is:

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.

The relative risk of death among healthy nonsmokers is highest for:

overweight men.

In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants’ willingness to hire the applicants revealed:

greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.

By dramatically reducing her daily caloric intake, Marilyn plans to reduce her normal body weight by 10 to 15 percent. Research suggests that after three or four weeks of sustained dieting, Marilyn will:

have a lower resting metabolic rate.

Given an obese parent, boys are at an ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a ________ risk for obesity.

increased; increased

The number of fat cells a person has is influenced by:

all of the alternatives.

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n):

decrease in their metabolic rate.

In animals, destruction of the lateral hypothalamus results in ________, whereas destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus results in ________.

loss of hunger; overeating

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that:

no matter how carefully people diet, they can never lose fat cells.

According to health psychologists, which of the following would be the best advice or encouragement to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?

Reduce your weight gradually over a period of several months."

The correct order of the stages of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle is:

excitement; plateau; orgasm; resolution

Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because:

they have mistaken ideas about effective birth control methods.

The refractory period is the:

time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.

Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that:

women’s sexual interests are only loosely linked to the phases of their menstrual cycles.

Of the following parts of the world, teen intercourse rates are highest in:

Western Europe.

Kamil, a 33-year-old lawyer, experiences premature ejaculation. Through behaviorally oriented therapy, he would most likely learn to minimize his problem by:

learning ways to control his urge to ejaculate.

Which of the following was not identified as a contributing factor in the high rate of unprotected sex among adolescents?


Evidence that brain differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals influence sexual orientation is provided by the fact that these differences:

originate at about the time of birth.

Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that:

the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.

Why do people with a high need for achievement prefer moderately difficult tasks?

Moderately difficult tasks present an attainable goal in which success is attributable to their own skill.

Psychologist Henry Murray asked research participants to invent stories about ambiguous pictures. The stories were then scored for content related to acts of heroism, pride, and other signs of:

achievement motivation.

The health risks associated with obesity are generally the greatest for those who carry their excess weight around their:


New research has linked women’s obesity to their risk of late-life:

Alzheimer’s disease.

Lucille has been sticking to a strict diet but can’t seem to lose weight. What is the most likely explanation for her difficulty?

Her prediet weight was near her body’s set point.

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that:

Student Response

no matter how carefully people diet, they can never lose fat cells.

The text suggests that a neophobia for unfamiliar tastes:

protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances.

Having lost weight, formerly obese individuals have ________ fat cells and ________ metabolic rates.

smaller; slower

After an initial rapid weight loss, a person on a diet loses weight much more slowly. This slowdown occurs because:

when a person diets, metabolism decreases.

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?

the resolution phase

Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that:

enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable conception.

During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in physiological arousal if:

they have just experienced orgasm.

Compared to European teens, American teens have ________ rates of sexual intercourse and ________ rates of abortion.

lower; higher

A problem that consistently interferes with one’s ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called:

a sexual disorder.

Which of the following is not true with respect to sexual orientation?

With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation

A homosexual orientation is:

very persistent and difficult to change.

People who are high in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks; people who are low in achievement motivation prefer ________ tasks.

moderately difficult; very easy or very difficult

Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand hunger motivation. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize that eating disorders are influenced by:

mass media standards of appearance.

The tendency to overeat when food is plentiful:

emerged in our prehistoric ancestors as an adaptive response to alternating periods of feast and famine.

Researchers have observed that the incidence of obesity and diabetes among 50,000 nurses was predicted by their:

TV viewing habits.

The descriptions of orgasm written by men and women are ________, and the subcortical brain regions active in men and women during orgasm are ________:

similar; similar

Which of the following statements concerning homosexuality is true?

New research indicates that sexual orientation may be at least partly physiological.

Sexual orientation refers to

a person’s enduring sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender.

Which of the following suggestions would be the worst advice for a dieter?

"Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."

When an organism’s weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n):

increase in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.

increase in hunger and a decrease in its metabolic rate.

In order to treat yourself to one ‘normal’ meal each day, eat very little until the evening meal."

According to Masters and Johnson, the sexual response of males is most likely to differ from that of females during:

the resolution phase.

The removal of a woman’s ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _______.

testosterone; lowered

Teens who use alcohol prior to sexual intercourse experience:

reduced self-awareness and are less likely to use condoms.

Ted is an amateur golfer who has a high need for achievement. Research suggests that Ted most likely prefers playing golf on courses that for him are:

moderately difficult.

Homeostasis refers to:

the tendency to maintain a steady internal state.

In order to encourage achievement motivation in the classroom, students should be taught to attribute their good grades to:

their own hard work.

Which of the following is not necessarily a reason that obese people have trouble losing weight?

Obese people tend to lack willpower.

Although John has been obese for as long as he can remember, he is determined to lose excess weight with a special low-calorie diet. John is likely to have difficulty losing weight while dieting because:

fat tissue can be maintained by fewer calories than can other body tissues.

Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that:

obesity is more common today than it was 40 years ago.

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