Psychology Ch. 9

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At age 6, the average North American child weighs _____ pounds and is _____ feet tall.

45; 3½

2) After age 8, girls __________ than boys.

D) begin accumulating fat at a faster rate

3) As muscles adapt to an enlarging skeleton, children often experience

B) nighttime "growing pains."

4) Between the ages of 6 and 12, __________ primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent ones.

C) 20

5) Among school-age children from middle- to high-SES families, insufficient dietary iron and folate predicted

A) slightly lower mental test performance.

6) Research on nutrition indicates that

D) malnutrition that persists from infancy or early childhood into the school years usually leads to permanent physical and mental damage.

7) A body mass index (BMI) above the __________ percentile for a child’s age and sex is considered overweight, a BMI above the __________ percentile obese.

B) 75th; 85th

8) Which of the following statements about obesity rates in China is true?

B) Chinese boys are more likely than Chinese girls to be obese.

9) Research shows that obesity has caused a dramatic rise in cases of __________ in children.

B) diabetes

10) Which of the following statements is supported by research on childhood obesity?

B) Overweight children tend to have overweight parents.

11) Obese children tend to

C) be less responsive than normal-weight children to internal hunger cues.

12) Inactivity is __________ excessive weight gain in children.

B) both a cause and consequence of

13) Which of the following statements about the consequences of obesity is true?

C) Obese children are stereotyped as lazy, self-doubting, and deceitful.

14) Which of the following is regarded as one of the most effective interventions for treating childhood obesity?

D) a family-based approach focused on changing behaviors

15) The most common vision problem in middle childhood is

C) myopia.

16) Middle-ear infections become __________ frequent in middle childhood because the Eustachian tube becomes __________.

A) less; longer, narrower, and more slanted

17) By far, the most common chronic disease or condition of children in the United States is

B) asthma.

18) Which of the following is supported by research on unintentional injuries in middle childhood?

D) Use of protective helmets leads to a 25 percent reduction in risk of head injury.

19) Along with body growth, __________ plays a vital role in improved motor performance in middle childhood.

B) more efficient information processing

20) Paul is concerned because his 6-year-old son prints using large letters and numbers. You can tell Paul that his son’s writing is large because he

C) makes strokes with his entire arm rather than just the wrist and fingers.

21) Research on sex differences in motor skills during middle childhood indicates that

A) they become more pronounced in some instances.

22) Research confirms that __________ plays a large role in accounting for boys’ gross-motor superiority.

B) the social environment

23) Gains in __________ contribute to a child’s ability to play games with rules.

C) perspective taking

24) __________ contribute greatly to emotional and social development and are rarely contests of individual ability.

A) Child-invented games

25) During middle childhood, child-invented games usually involve

A) simple physical skills and a sizable element of luck.

26) Ten-year-old Nadia enjoys making up games and playing them with her friends. Playing these child-invented games probably allows Nadia to

D) try out different styles of cooperating and competing with little personal risk.

27) One valid criticism of youth sports is that

B) they overemphasize competition and substitute adult control for children’s natural experimentation with rules and strategies.

28) Which of the following statements about children’s rough-and-tumble play is true?

A) It helps children form a dominance hierarchy.

29) Which of the following statements is supported by research on recess?

B) Elementary school students are more attentive in the classroom after recess than before it.

30) Teacher ratings of classroom disruptive behavior decline for children who have

C) more than 15 minutes of recess a day.

31) Many experts believe that schools should not only offer more physical education classes but should put less emphasis on __________ and more emphasis on __________ in their physical education programs.

C) competitive sports; informal games and individual exercise

32) According to Piaget, thought in middle childhood is far more __________ than in early childhood.

B) logical

33) During a conservation-of-water experiment, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emme is capable of

D) decentration.

34) Jamal is able to think through a series of steps and then mentally return to the starting point. Therefore, Jamal is capable of

A) reversibility.

35) Margerite passed Piaget’s class inclusion problem. This indicates that Margerite can

B) focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time.

36) Seven-year-old Paolo can efficiently arrange a series of sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest. Paolo has developed an ability called

D) seriation.

37) A concrete operational child can __________ mentally, an ability called __________.

B) seriate; transitive inference

38) Kim Lee is able to mentally represent her neighborhood and describe it to others. Kim Lee’s representation is known as a

D) cognitive map.

39) Which of the following statements about children’s map-making abilities is true?

A) Cultural frameworks influence children’s map making.

40) Although 8-year-old Claire can easily arrange sticks of differing lengths from shortest to tallest, she cannot solve the following problem: "Jack is taller than Sam, and Sam is taller than Max. Who is the tallest?" This is because Claire’s concrete mental operations work poorly with

A) abstract ideas.

41) School-age children master concrete operational tasks

B) gradually, in a continuum of acquisition.

42) The very experience of __________ seems to promote mastery of Piagetian tasks.

C) going to school

43) Some investigators have concluded that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously but, rather, are

A) heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.

44) In Robbie Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, repeated practice of cognitive schemes

D) leads them to become more automatic.

45) In Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, children acquire central conceptual structures

B) once cognitive schemes are sufficiently automatic.

46) Hannah listens to and tells stories but rarely draws pictures. According to Case’s neo-Piagetian theory, Hannah probably displays

C) more advanced central conceptual structures in storytelling.

47) The information-processing perspective

A) examines separate aspects of thinking.

48) Children with persistent learning difficulties in reading and math are often deficient in

D) working-memory capacity.

49) Heritability evidence suggests __________ genetic influences on various aspects of executive function, including combining information in working memory, controlling attention, and inhibiting inappropriate responses.

D) substantial

50) Dr. Goldberg introduces irrelevant stimuli into a task and records how well children attend to its central elements. Dr. Goldberg is probably studying

C) selectivity of attention.

51) Which of the following statements about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is true?

C) Boys are diagnosed with ADHD about four times as often as girls.

52) Research on the origins of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicates that

A) ADHD is highly heritable.

53) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

B) is usually a lifelong disorder.

54) When Taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over. Which memory strategy did Taylor use?

C) rehearsal

55) When Mike had to learn the state capitals, he grouped the states by region to assist his memory. Which memory strategy did Mike use?

B) organization

56) To help herself remember that she needed cat food and gloves at the store, Cheryl imagined a cat wearing gloves. Which memory strategy did Cheryl use?

A) elaboration

57) Children who are expert in an area

D) are usually highly motivated.

58) Cross-cultural research on memory indicates that

A) people in non-Western cultures who lack formal schooling do not use or benefit from instruction in memory strategies.

59) Research on metacognitive development shows that preschoolers

C) view the mind as a passive container of information.

60) Nine-year-old Brett views his mind as an active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information. Brett’s awareness of thought is known as

C) metacognition.

61) Research on metacognitive development shows that school-age children know that

D) people can extend their knowledge by making mental inferences.

62) In a study of rural children in Cameroon, Africa, those who __________ performed much better on theory-of-mind tasks.

A) attended school

63) Quinn knows that he should group items when memorizing lists, but he does not always do so. Quinn is not yet good at

D) cognitive self-regulation.

64) Throughout elementary and secondary school, __________ predicts academic success.

C) self-regulation

65) Children who acquire effective self-regulatory skills develop a sense of

C) academic self-efficacy.

66) As children make the transition from emergent literacy to conventional reading, __________ continues to predict reading and spelling progress.

A) phonological awareness

67) Educators who advocate a whole-language approach argue that

A) from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language.

68) Educators who advocate a phonics approach argue that

D) children should learn the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given complex reading material.

69) Many studies show that

D) combining phonics with whole language is the best approach for teaching beginning reading.

70) With regard to teaching mathematics, most experts agree that

A) a blend of both drill in computing and "number sense," or understanding, is most beneficial.

71) Children who learn how to solve math problems by rote

D) have difficultly applying "math rules" to new problems.

72) Which of the following contributes to the superiority of Chinese over U.S. children’s math knowledge?

A) Chinese parents provide their preschoolers with extensive practice in counting and adding.

73) IQ often enters into educational decisions because it

C) predicts school performance and educational attainment.

74) Researchers use a complicated statistical technique called factor analysis to

A) evaluate a child’s behavior during an intelligence test.

75) The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler intelligence tests

C) are often used to identify highly intelligent children and to diagnose children with learning problems.

76) The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition,

A) contains nonverbal subtests that do not require spoken language.

77) Which intellectual factor of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, is the most likely to contain culturally biased problems?

B) quantitative reasoning

78) The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

D) was the first test to be standardized on children representing the total population of the United States.

79) Componential analysis involves

A) examining relationships between aspects of information processing and children’s intelligence test scores.

80) Individuals whose __________ systems function more efficiently appear to have an edge in intellectual skills.

B) nervous

81) A major shortcoming of the componential approach is that it

B) regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child.

82) In Sternberg’s triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing __________ intelligences.

D) analytical, creative, and practical

83) According to Sternberg’s triarchic theory, applying strategies and engaging in self-regulation are examples of __________ intelligence.

C) analytical

84) Which of the following individuals would be the most likely to mention cognitive traits when asked to describe an intelligent first grader?

A) Barbara, a Caucasian

85) Gardner believes that

D) each intelligence has a unique biological basis and a distinct course of development.

86) According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences,

C) education often interferes with the transformation of raw potential into a mature social role.

87) A major shortcoming of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is that

A) neurological evidence for the independence of his abilities is weak.

88) Which of the following statements is supported by research on emotional intelligence?

B) Emotional intelligence is positively associated with self-esteem and prosocial behavior.

89) Mrs. Ritchie wants to foster her students’ emotional intelligence. Her lesson plans should use active learning techniques that provide skill practice in __________ and __________.

A) respect and caring for others; resistance to unfavorable peer pressure

90) Which of the following statements is supported by research on group differences in IQ?

C) Differences in SES do not fully explain the IQ gap between black and white American children.

91) Arthur Jensen’s 1969 monograph, "How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?" was controversial because he argued that

B) heredity is largely responsible for individual, ethnic, and SES variations in intelligence.

92) Herrnstein and Murray’s 1994 book, The Bell Curve, implies that

C) heredity plays a sizable role in the black-white IQ gap.

93) On the basis of twin studies and other kinship evidence, researchers estimate that about __________ of the differences in IQ among children can be traced to their genetic makeup.

C) half

94) Adoption studies reveal that

D) when children of low-IQ mothers are adopted at birth by parents who are well above average in income and education, they score above average in IQ during the school years.

95) Dr. Whittier believes that many intelligence tests sample knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had equal opportunity to learn. Dr. Whittier’s belief reflects the controversial question that ethnic differences in IQ have to do with

C) test bias.

96) An observational study carried out in low-SES African-American homes in a southeastern U.S. city revealed that black parents rarely asked their children

B) knowledge-training questions.

97) Many ethnic minority parents without extensive schooling prefer a(n) __________ style of communication when completing tasks with children.

D) collaborative

98) With increasing education, parents establish a __________ style of communication, like that of classrooms and tests

C) hierarchical

99) Which of the following statements is supported by research on intelligence test bias?

B) Low-income minority children, who often grow up in more "people-oriented" than "object-oriented" homes, may lack toys and games that promote certain intellectual skills.

100) Carter, an 8-year-old African-American boy, is told by a researcher that certain verbal tasks are "not a test." He is told that other verbal tasks are "a test of how good children are at school problems." If Carter is aware of ethnic stereotypes, which of the following is probably true?

C) He will perform far worse in the "test" condition.

101) Research shows that __________ predicts school performance at least as well as, and sometimes better than, IQ does.

A) self-discipline

102) Which of the following statements is supported by research on dynamic assessment?

B) Children’s capacity to transfer what they have learned to novel problems contributes substantially to gains in intelligence test performance.

103) Which of the following statements regarding intelligence tests in schools is true?

D) Intelligence tests are useful when interpreted carefully by psychologists and educators who are sensitive to cultural influences on test performance.

104) School-age children’s attitude toward language undergoes a fundamental shift when they

A) develop language awareness.

105) During the elementary school years, on average, children learn about _____ new words each day.

C) 20

106) Research shows that children who engage in as little as 21 minutes of independent reading per day

A) are exposed to nearly 2 million words per year.

107) Which of the following statements about language development during middle childhood is true?

B) School-age children’s more reflective, analytical approach to language permits them to appreciate the multiple meanings of words.

108) African-American children’s narratives are usually longer and more complex than those of white children because African-American children

C) tend to use a topic-associating narrative style.

109) Children of bilingual parents who teach them both languages in infancy and early childhood

D) separate the language systems early on and attain early language milestones according to a typical timetable.

110) Yolanda and Steve want their son, Manny, to attain full proficiency in English and Spanish. To achieve this goal, Manny’s mastery of the second language should begin

D) sometime in childhood.

111) Research on bilingual education shows that

C) a strategy that promotes children’s native-language skills while they learn English is most effective for non-English-speaking minority children.

112) According to research on class size, in which of the following elementary classrooms will children likely score the highest in reading and math achievement?

A) a class of 13 to 17 students with only one teacher

113) Research on educational philosophies indicates that

C) constructivist classrooms are associated with gains in critical thinking and greater social and moral maturity.

114) In social-constructivist classrooms,

D) students’ learning is jointly constructed with the teacher and peers.

115) Which of the following statements about cooperative learning is true?

A) When more expert students cooperate with less expert students, both benefit in achievement and self-esteem.

116) Studies show that educational self-fulfilling prophecies are especially strong

D) when teachers emphasize competition and publicly compare children.

117) Which of the following statements about racial integration in U.S. schools today is true?

A) African-American children are just as likely to attend a school that serves a mostly black population as they were in the 1960s.

118) Magnet schools

B) emphasize a specific area of interest.

119) Compared to single-grade classrooms, multigrade classrooms

A) produce students who perform better academically.

120) Which of the following statements about inclusion is true?

B) Children with special needs often do best when they receive instruction in a resource room for part of the day and in the regular classroom for the remainder.

121) Rochelle is taking a test in which she is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. This is most likely a test of

B) divergent thinking.

122) Which of the following statements about gifted children is true?

B) Many gifted children are socially isolated.

123) Which of the following statements about gifted education is true?

C) Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has inspired several model programs that provide enrichment to all students in diverse disciplines.

124) Which of the following is Tord most likely to experience in his Finnish classroom?

C) a nationally mandated curriculum aimed at cultivating creativity

125) Cross-cultural research shows that

C) Asian parents devote many more hours than American parents to helping their children with homework.

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