Psychology Ch 3

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Total word count: 1939
Pages: 7

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Ernest Weber provided a formulation that is used to determine the ________.
Select one:
a. largest detectable stimulus
b. smallest detectable stimulus
c. largest detectable difference between two stimuli
d. smallest detectable difference between two stimuli

smallest detectable difference between two stimuli

The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the ________ and the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the ________.
Select one:
a. absolute threshold; just noticeable difference
b. base value; just noticeable difference (jnd)
c. response criterion; sensory constant
d. difference threshold; absolute threshold

absolute threshold; just noticeable difference

In nerve hearing impairment, the problem lies in ________.
Select one:
a. either the inner ear or the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain
b. the outer or middle ear
c. the pontine nucleus
d. the occipital lobe

either the inner ear or the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain

The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ________.
Select one:
a. absolute threshold
b. range threshold
c. difference threshold
d. noticeable threshold

absolute threshold

Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue. "Girl," she says, "you sure have a lot of ________."
Select one:
a. olfactory receptors
b. taste buds
c. papillae
d. taste receptors

papillae

The term just noticeable difference is synonymous with ________.
Select one:
a. separation threshold
b. response threshold
c. difference threshold
d. absolute threshold

difference threshold

Flavor arises from:
Select one:
a. taste only.
b. taste and sight.
c. taste and texture.
d. taste and smell.

taste and smell.

The human olfactory system contains about ________ olfactory receptors.
Select one:
a. 100,000
b. 1,000,000
c. 10,000,000
d. 100,000,000

10,000,000

Each olfactory receptor cell has a half dozen to a dozen little hairs that project out. These are called ________.
Select one:
a. olfactory cones
b. olfactory rods
c. olfactory buds
d. cilia

cilia

The sense of smell is also known as ________.
Select one:
a. olfaction
b. the salivary sense
c. chemical infarctation
d. gustation

olfaction

An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to ________.
Select one:
a. olfactory bulb
b. thalamus
c. amygdala
d. pons

olfactory bulb

The kinesthetic senses are concerned with ________.
Select one:
a. touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
b. the location of body parts in relation to each other
c. movement and body position
d. your location as compared to the position of the sun

the location of body parts in relation to each other

Hair follicle nerve endings respond to ________.
Select one:
a. temperature alone
b. pain and touch
c. only pain
d. temperature and pain

pain and touch

Which is the best description of the vestibular senses?
Select one:
a. They have to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
b. They have to do with the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
c. They have to do with movement and body position.
d. They have to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun.

They have to do with movement and body position.

You hit yourself with a hammer and later suffer a deep ache. This is an example of ________.
Select one:
a. somatic pain
b. visceral pain
c. pressure pain
d. free-standing pain

somatic pain

The smallest amount of a particular stimulus required to produce any sensation at all in the person to whom the stimulus is presented is the ________.
Select one:
a. absolute threshold
b. minimum threshold
c. difference threshold
d. noticeable threshold

absolute threshold

Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of the neurotransmitters called ________, the body’s natural version of morphine.
Select one:
a. endorphins
b. substance P
c. serotonin
d. acetyl choline

endorphins

Closing your eyes and then touching your nose with your forefinger most accurately
illustrates which of the following?
Select one:
a. vestibular sense
b. kinesthetic sense
c. somasthetic sense
d. anomalous cognition

kinesthetic sense

The reason that there are three semicircular canals is so that ________.
Select one:
a. we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes
b. we can see the world in three dimensions
c. we can detect sound locations in the three-dimensional world
d. we have an extra if one is broken

we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes

A piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under moonlight, even though there is less light being reflected off the paper under moonlight. This form of perceptual constancy is called ________.
Select one:
a. size constancy
b. shape constancy
c. brightness constancy
d. color constancy

brightness constancy

Figure is to ground as ________.
Select one:
a. light is to dark
b. obvious is to hidden
c. characteristics are to background
d. shape is to texture

characteristics are to background

The tendency to complete figures that are incomplete is known as ________.
Select one:
a. figure-ground relationship
b. closure
c. similarity
d. continuity

closure

We can see a candle flame at 30 miles on a clear, dark night, and we can hear the tick of a watch 20 feet away in a quiet room. These two facts are examples of ________.
Select one:
a. jnds
b. difference threshold
c. adaptation
d. absolute thresholds

absolute thresholds

Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called ________.
Select one:
a. monocular cues
b. diocular cues
c. binocular cues
d. dichromatic cues

binocular cues

An illusion ________.
Select one:
a. is the same thing as a vision
b. is due to the action of the rods versus the cones in the retina
c. is a perception that does not correspond to reality
d. corresponds directly to something that you dreamed

is a perception that does not correspond to reality

The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures in which there are ________.
Select one:
a. more men than women
b. more women than men
c. lots of telephone poles
d. buildings with lots of corners

buildings with lots of corners

The best explanation of the moon illusion is ________.
Select one:
a. the apparent distance hypothesis
b. the angle world hypothesis
c. the cultural bias hypothesis
d. the top-down processing hypothesis

the apparent distance hypothesis

People’s tendency to perceive a thing a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations influence them is called ________.
Select one:
a. top-down processing
b. telepathy
c. bottom-up processing
d. perceptual expectancy

perceptual expectancy

Suppose you’re driving on a two-lane road on a very snowy night where the divider cannot be seen. However, in your mind, you’re able to reconstruct where the divider should be. This example illustrates ________.
Select one:
a. middle-up processing
b. top-down processing
c. bottom-up processing
d. a perceptual set

top-down processing

Bottom-up processing is initiated by ________.
Select one:
a. knowledge
b. expectation
c. the stimulus
d. belief

the stimulus

One problem with Vicary’s study of subliminal perception is that ________.
Select one:
a. it demonstrated the validity of the concept of subliminal perception
b. it did not prove that people actually bought more colas and popcorn for several months after seeing the movie
c. it showed that subliminal stimuli had only very small effects on consumer patterns
d. it never happened

it never happened

In the process known as ________, sensory receptors become less sensitive to repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
Select one:
a. sensation
b. sensory fatigue
c. sensory adaptation
d. discrimination

sensory adaptation

The shortest wavelengths that we can see are experienced as ________ colors.
Select one:
a. red
b. blue
c. green
d. yellow

blue

The longest wavelengths we can see are experienced as ________ colors.
Select one:
a. red
b. blue-violet
c. green
d. yellow

red

The wavelength of the light reaching your eyes determines in part what ________ you see.
Select one:
a. brightness
b. saturation
c. hue
d. fine detail

hue

Jamie, a toddler, is making distinctions about various aspects of color in terms of whether it looks red, blue, and so on. In doing so, she is referring to its ________.
Select one:
a. amplitude
b. lightness
c. hue
d. reflection

hue

The change in the shape of the lens in order to focus on a visual image is known as ________.
Select one:
a. fixation
b. divergence
c. convergence
d. visual accommodation

visual accommodation

Which component of the eye contains the visual receptors?
Select one:
a. sclera
b. retina
c. cornea
d. posterior chamber

retina

Bundles of axons from ganglion cells make up the ________.
Select one:
a. fovea
b. optic nerve
c. optic schism
d. rods and cones

optic nerve

If an artist were to blend red, green, and blue lights together by focusing lights of those three colors on one common spot, the result would look ________.
Select one:
a. like nonspectral colors
b. black
c. like white light
d. complimentary

like white light

The idea that the eye contains separate receptors for red, green, and blue is known as the ________ theory.
Select one:
a. opponent-process
b. additive color mixing
c. trichromatic
d. reductive color mixing

trichromatic

Helmholtz’s explanation of color vision is called the ________.
Select one:
a. opponent-process theory
b. additive color mixing theory
c. trichromatic theory
d. reductive color mixing theory

trichromatic theory

Which neural structures show color opponent processing?
Select one:
a. rods, cones
b. retinal bipolar and ganglion cells and lateral geniculate cells in the thalamus
c. rods and bipolar cells
d. optic sensors and pigment neurons

retinal bipolar and ganglion cells and lateral geniculate cells in the thalamus

Amy’s school records describe her as a monochromat. What can we assume about Amy’s perceptual abilities?
Select one:
a. She does not see color.
b. She sees only two colors.
c. She sees colors one at a time.
d. She cannot remember words used to designate colors.

She does not see color.

John Russell has color blindness. He is most likely to have difficulty doing which of the following?
Select one:
a. distinguishing red from blue
b. distinguishing red from green
c. distinguishing blue from yellow
d. distinguishing red from yellow

distinguishing red from green

Why do researchers believe color deficiencies often have genetic causes?
Select one:
a. Dietary patterns affect color deficiencies.
b. Color perception changes somewhat as we get older.
c. Color deficiencies are more common in some cultures.
d. More males than females suffer from color deficiencies.

More males than females suffer from color deficiencies.

Pitch is to frequency as ________.
Select one:
a. frequency is to amplitude
b. high is to low
c. loudness is to amplitude
d. peak is to wave

loudness is to amplitude

Which of the following are the auditory receptors where sound waves finally become neural impulses?
Select one:
a. hair cells
b. organs of Corti
c. basilar membranes
d. tectorial membranes

hair cells

Which of the following describes what happens if you trace an auditory stimulus from the time it first reaches the ear until it arrives at the brain?
Select one:
a. The outermost part of the ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the auditory canal striking the eardrum.
b. The basilar membrane causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to vibrate striking the oval window.
c. The auditory cones respond to the various tonal frequencies, which lead the auditory nerve to send a message to the brain.
d. The auditory nerve joins with the nasal nerve to produce an input to the olfactory lobe.

The outermost part of the ear (pinna) gathers sound waves and funnels them down the auditory canal striking the eardrum.

Fluid located in the cochlea is set in motion and causes vibration in the ________.
Select one:
a. ossicles
b. bipolar cells
c. basilar membrane
d. semicircular canals

basilar membrane

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