Psychology Ch. 12

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1) According to Erikson, the major personality achievement of adolescence is development of


2) Sixteen-year-old Max has been introspective lately. He has been wondering who he really is, thinking about his values, and pondering the direction he will pursue in the future. Max is

C) constructing his identity

3) According to Erikson, teenagers in complex societies experience

D) an identity crisis.

4) Once formed, identity

A) continues to be refined in adulthood as people reevaluate earlier commitments and choices.

5) According to Erikson, if the psychological conflict of adolescence is resolved negatively, a young person experiences

B) role confusion.

6) Current theorists agree that for most young people, identity development is not traumatic and disturbing but, rather, a process of __________ followed by __________.

C) exploration; commitment

7) Michael is a young adult who is trying out life possibilities, gathering important information about himself and his environment, and moving toward making enduring decisions. In doing so, Michael is probably

D) forging an organized self-structure.

8) Changes in __________ and __________ set the stage for developing a unified personal identity.

B) self-concept; self-esteem

9) Thirteen-year-old Sarah describes herself as "shy" and "outgoing." She also says she is "a smart airhead." These disparities probably result from the expansion of Sarah’s social world, which

A) creates pressure to display different selves in different relationships.

10) From middle to late adolescence, cognitive changes enable teenagers to

C) combine their traits into an organized system.

11) Which of the following statements exemplifies 15-year-old Noah’s awareness that psychological qualities can vary from one situation to the next?

B) "I have a fairly quick temper."

12) Compared with school-age children, teenagers’ self-evaluations place more emphasis on

C) social virtues.

13) Landon’s parents wonder how his self-esteem will differentiate in adolescence. Landon will probably add which of the following dimensions of self-evaluation to those of middle childhood?

A) close friendship, romantic appeal, and job competence

14) In adolescence, self-esteem __________ for most young people.

D) rises

15) Teenagers who feel highly dissatisfied with __________ are often aggressive and antisocial.

D) parental relationships

16) Which of the following factors is predictive of high self-esteem in adolescence?

C) authoritative parenting

17) In adolescence, encouragement from teachers

C) predicts high self-esteem.

18) Laurent plans to major in engineering in college. When asked if he might change his career path, he responds, "I might, but I doubt it. I’ve spent a lot of time studying my options. I’m pretty sure engineering is right for me." Laurent is demonstrating identity

D) achievement.

19) Jacob has begun to question his parents’ political beliefs and has attended several rallies to find out about alternatives. He is characterized by identity

C) moratorium.

20) Shelby accepts her family’s religious beliefs without question. She is characterized by identity

A) foreclosure.

21) Identity-foreclosed individuals

D) have committed themselves to values and goals without exploring alternatives.

22) When asked about her political beliefs, Blair responds, "Oh, I don’t know. It doesn’t make much difference to me." Blaire is demonstrating identity

B) diffusion.

23) Identity-diffused individuals

B) are apathetic, lacking both exploration and commitment.

24) Which of the following statements about identity development is true?

24) Which of the following statements about identity development is true? A) Adolescents of both sexes typically make progress on identity concerns before experiencing genuine intimacy in relationships.

25) Both identity __________ and __________ are psychologically healthy routes to mature self-definition.

C) moratorium; achievement

26) Adolescents in moratorium resemble identity-achieved individuals in using a(n) __________ cognitive style to make personal decisions and solve problems.

B) active, information-gathering

27) Jesse is an adolescent who is identity-foreclosed. As such, he will tend to

D) fear rejection by people on whom he depends for affection and self-esteem.

28) __________ individuals are the least mature in identity development.

A) Long-term diffused

29) Adolescents who assume that absolute truth is always attainable tend to be

D) identity-foreclosed.

30) Adolescents who __________ tend to be in a state of moratorium or identity achievement.

A) feel attached to their parents but also free to voice their own opinions

31) Teenagers with __________ are more involved in exploring relationship issues, such as what they value in close friends and in a life partner.

C) warm, trusting peer ties

32) Roni is an adolescent immigrant from a collectivist culture. The longer his family has been in the United States, the lesser Roni feels committed to obeying his parents and fulfilling family obligations. As a result, Roni may experience

A) acculturative stress.

33) Which of the following is a strategy for helping minority adolescents resolve identity conflicts constructively?

C) respecting native languages and unique learning styles in school

34) Which of the following statements about bicultural identity is true?

B) Biculturally identified adolescents tend to have especially favorable relations with members of other ethnic groups.

35) Which of the following statements about Lawrence Kohlberg’s well-known "Heinz dilemma" is true?

C) Kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about the dilemma, not the content of the response, that determines moral maturity.

36) At Kohlberg’s __________ level, morality is externally controlled.

A) preconventional

37) Gilles finds it difficult to consider two points of view when presented with the "Heinz dilemma." He tends to overlook people’s intentions and, instead, focuses on fear of authority and avoidance of punishment as reasons for behaving morally. Gilles is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?

A) Stage 1: The punishment and obedience orientation

38) At Kohlberg’s Stage 2 of moral development, children

D) view right action as flowing from self-interest and understand reciprocity as equal exchange of favors.

39) At Kohlberg’s conventional level,

C) individuals believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order.

40) In response to the "Heinz dilemma," Marlee says, "No one will think you’re bad if you steal the drug, but your family will think you’re an inhuman husband if you don’t. If you let your wife die, you’ll never be able to look anyone in the face again." Marlee is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?

B) Stage 3: The "good-boy-good-girl" orientation

41) In response to the "Heinz dilemma," Dolph states, "Even if his wife is dying, it is still Heinz’s duty as a citizen to obey the law. If everyone started breaking the law, there’d be no civilization, just crime and violence." Dolph is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?

B) Stage 4: The social-order-maintaining orientation

42) Individuals at Kohlberg’s __________ level move beyond unquestioning support for their own society’s rules and laws.

C) postconventional

43) At Kohlberg’s Stage 5 of moral development, individuals

C) regard laws and rules as flexible instruments for furthering human purposes.

44) In response to the "Heinz dilemma," Ruby explains, "It doesn’t make sense to put respect for property above respect for life itself. Respect for human life is absolute." Ruby is at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?

D) Stage 6: The universal ethical principle orientation

45) Among college-educated young adults, Kohlberg’s Stage _____ reasoning is the typical response.

B) 4

46) Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development,

C) few people move beyond Stage 4.

47) Postconventional morality is

C) exceedingly rare.

48) The influence of situational factors on moral judgments indicates that like Piaget’s cognitive stages, Kohlberg’s moral stages are

B) loosely organized and overlapping.

49) Carol Gilligan believes that feminine morality

C) emphasizes an "ethic of care" that Kohlberg’s system devalues.

50) On hypothetical dilemmas as well as everyday moral problems, adolescent and adult females

A) display reasoning at the same stage as their male agemates and often at a higher stage.

51) Some evidence indicates that although the morality of males and females taps both care and justice

B) males more than females tend to focus equally on justice and care.

52) Kremlin, age 15, firmly asserts he has control over his clothing and hairstyle choices. Which of the following will Kremlin also argue is not subject to control by authority figures?

A) friendships

53) A researcher asks Timmy, a fourth grader, and Thom, a tenth grader, whether it is OK to exclude a child from a peer group on the basis of gender. Which of the following responses is the researcher most likely to hear?

C) Thom will say that the exclusion is OK under certain circumstances.

54) Parents can foster adolescents’ moral understanding by

D) asking clarifying questions.

55) __________ is a powerful predictor of movement to Kohlberg’s Stage 4 or higher.

B) Years of schooling

56) Which of the following statements about the influence of schooling on moral reasoning is true?

D) College students who report more perspective-taking opportunities tend to be advanced in moral reasoning.

57) Adolescents who __________ are advanced in moral reasoning.

B) more often participate in conversations with their friends

58) Responses to moral dilemmas in collectivist cultures

C) are often more other-directed than in Western cultures.

59) According to Kohlberg, mature moral thinkers

B) realize that behaving in line with their beliefs is vital for creating and maintaining a just social world.

60) Frank and Derol are both college students. Derol is functioning at a higher moral reasoning level than Frank. Which of the following statements is the most likely to be true?

D) Derol is more likely than Frank to defend victims of injustice.

61) Mrs. Shigoka wants to strengthen her high school students’ moral identity. What type of classroom should she create?

B) a just educational environment, in which Mrs. Shigoka guides the students in democratic decision making and rule setting

62) Schools can foster students’ opportunities to experience and explore moral emotions, thoughts, and actions through

B) civic engagement.

63) Civic engagement involves

B) knowledge of political issues, commitment to making a difference in the community, and skills for achieving civic goals.

64) Harry holds socially responsible values. Which of the following statements is he most likely to make?

D) "I think the unemployment rate is caused by a combination of government policies and the state of the economy."

65) Teachers who promote discussion of controversial issues, while insisting that students listen to and respect one another,

B) foster knowledge and critical analysis of political issues and commitment to social causes.

66) In recent national polls, nearly __________ of Americans reported actively practicing religion.

D) two-thirds

67) Religious involvement

C) promotes responsible academic and social behavior.

68) According to the pragmatic approach to morality,

A) everyday moral judgments are practical tools that people use to achieve their goals.

69) As Lucinda enters adolescence, she begins to worry about walking, talking, eating, dressing, and laughing in ways consistent with a feminine gender role. Lucinda is experiencing

A) gender intensification.

70) Which of the following individuals will likely show stronger gender intensification?

D) Tamar, a 14-year-old girl

71) Which of the following is the most likely to contribute to gender intensification in adolescence?

A) the magnification of sex differences in appearance caused by puberty

72) Which of the following children is likely to be psychologically healthier?

C) Gabriella, a girl who has an androgynous gender identity

73) Seventeen-year-old Saffron strives to rely on herself and not her parents for decision making. Saffron is developing

C) autonomy.

74) Autonomy is made up of a(n) __________ component and a(n) __________ component.

C) emotional; behavioral

75) An improved ability to reason about social relationships leads teenagers to

B) deidealize their parents.

76) Which of the following is linked to a variety of positive outcomes, such as prevention of delinquency, reduction in sexual activity, improved school performance, and positive psychological well-being?

B) consistent parental monitoring of daily activities, through a cooperative relationship in which the adolescent willingly discloses information

77) Throughout adolescence, __________ is the single most consistent predictor of mental health

A) the quality of the parent-child relationship

78) Mild family conflict

C) informs parents of the changing needs and expectations of their children, signaling a need for adjustments in the parent-child relationship.

79) The reduced time that Western teenagers spend with their parents results from

D) the large amount of unstructured time available to teenagers.

80) Parents who __________ usually find it easier to grant teenagers appropriate autonomy and experience less conflict with them.

C) are content with their marriages

81) Teenagers who develop well despite family stress tend to have a(n)

D) bond with a prosocial adult outside the family who cares deeply about the adolescent’s well-being.

82) During adolescence, sibling

A) relationships often become less intense, in both positive and negative feelings.

83) Which of the following statements about sibling relationships in adolescence is true?

A) Attachment between siblings remains strong for most young people.

84) Teenagers in the United States spend more time together outside the classroom than teenagers in Europe and Asia because

B) U.S. teenagers experience a shorter school year and less demanding academic standards.

85) Matthew, age 14, is likely to report that the most important characteristic of friendship is

C) psychological closeness.

86) __________ rises over the adolescent years.

A) Self-disclosure between friends

87) Travis and Chase, both age 13, are best friends. Their discussions probably focus on

B) achievements in school.

88) Teenage boys who are __________ are just as likely as girls to form intimate same-sex ties.

B) androgynous

89) When focusing on deeper thoughts and feelings, adolescent friends Glenda and Anne repeatedly mull over problems and negative emotions, which sometimes triggers anxiety and depression. Glenda and Anne are demonstrating

C) corumination.

90) __________ is the preferred means of electronic interaction between teenage friends.

A) Texting

91) Which of the following statements about online communication is true?

D) In unmonitored chat rooms, teenagers are likely to encounter degrading racial and ethnic slurs and sexually obscene and harassing remarks.

92) Which of the following statements about adolescent friendships is true?

B) Close friendships provide a foundation for future intimate relationships.

93) Twelve-year-old Isabel spends most of her time with a group of six girls, who are friends and have similar family backgrounds, attitudes, and values. This group is Isabel’s

C) clique.

94) In high school, Jamie is a class leader. She is highly social and involved in several activities. Jamie socializes with a large, loosely organized group of popular classmates. This group is Jamie’s

A) crowd.

95) "Brains," "jocks," "populars," and "druggies" are typical examples of teenage

B) crowds.

96) Once adolescents join a clique or crowd,

A) it can modify their beliefs and behavior.

97) The positive impact of having academically and socially skilled peers is greatest for teenagers whose parents are

C) authoritative.

98) As interest in dating increases

B) boys’ and girls’ cliques come together.

99) Which of the following statements about dating is true?

A) Secure attachment to parents in infancy and childhood, together with recollections of that security in adolescence, predicts quality of teenagers’ romantic ties.

100) Early dating

B) is related to drug use, delinquency, and poor academic achievement.

101) Mr. Dunn is concerned about his 17-year-old daughter, who has been exchanging text messages with one particular boy. You should tell him that

B) close romantic ties promote sensitivity, empathy, self-esteem, social support, and identity development.

102) High school seniors Geoff and Joy have been dating steadily for eight months. This is the first romance for each of them. How many relationships like theirs survive high school graduation?

C) about 50 percent

103) Ken, age 14, has trouble concentrating, sleeps excessively, eats little, and has low energy. These might be symptoms of

B) depression.

104) The most common psychological problem of adolescence is

B) depression.

105) Among U.S. teens, __________ percent have had one or more major depressive episode.

C) 15 to 20

106) Teenage girls are __________ as likely as boys to report persistent depressed mood.

C) twice

107) Which of the following statements about adolescent depression is true?

C) The stereotypical view of adolescence as a period of storm and stress leads many adults to minimize the seriousness of adolescent depression.

108) Which of the following statements about the factors related to depression is true?

B) Genes can induce depression by affecting the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain.

109) Which of the following statements about sex differences in adolescent depression is true?

A) In developing countries, rates of depression are similar for males and females.

110) Having friends with depressive symptoms

C) is linked to a rise in teenagers’ own depressive symptoms.

111) The suicide rate is low in __________, intermediate in __________, and high in __________.

A) Spain; the United States; Finland

112) The number of boys who kill themselves exceeds the number of girls by a ratio of

B) 3 or 4 to 1.

113) Which of the following teenagers is at the highest risk for suicide?

C) Lou, a Native-American boy

114) Which of the following statements about adolescent suicide is true?

A) Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths are at a high risk for suicide.

115) Which of the following contributes to the sharp rise in suicide from childhood to adolescence?

A) belief in the personal fable

116) Which of the following statements about the prevention and treatment of suicide is true?

C) Restraint by journalists in the media in publicizing teenage suicides aids prevention.

117) When asked directly and confidentially about lawbreaking, __________ teenagers admit to having committed some sort of offense, usually a minor crime.

D) almost all

118) Both police arrests and self-reports show that delinquency

C) rises over early and middle adolescence and then declines.

119) As a child, David was negative, restless, willful, and physically aggressive. By age 8, he was already engaging in petty theft. Jason was a happy child who did well in school but began displaying antisocial behavior around age 13, and gradually moved to more severe delinquent acts. Which of the following statements about David and Jason is true?

A) David is at higher risk for leading a life full of aggression and criminality.

120) Which of the following statements about persistent adolescent delinquency is true?

C) Early-onset youths seem to inherit traits that predispose them to aggressiveness.

121) Which of the following is a characteristic of late-onset delinquency?

A) conduct problems arising from the peer context of early adolescence

122) Serious violent crime is

A) mostly the domain of boys.

123) Which of the following statements about factors related to juvenile delinquency is true?

B) Families of delinquent youths tend to be low in warmth, high in conflict, and characterized by harsh, inconsistent discipline and low monitoring.

124) Some studies on zero tolerance policies show that they

D) heighten school dropout and antisocial behaviors.

125) Which of the following statements about multisystemic therapy aimed at preventing delinquency is true?

B) It leads to improvement in parent-adolescent relationships and school performance.

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