Psychology Ch. 10

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Jacob, a sixth grader, entered the middle school academic bowl. According to Erikson, by entering the competition, Jacob shows


According to Erikson, a sense of __________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children’s self-confidence with negative responses.


Erikson’s sense of __________ combines several developments of middle childhood: a positive but realistic self-concept, pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility, and cooperative participation with agemates.


Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has

positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood.

During the school years, children refine their __________, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.


Beginning in middle childhood, children’s self-descriptions start to emphasize

both negative and positive traits.

School-age children use frequent __________ in their self-descriptions

social comparisons

Sociologist George Herbert Mead proposed that a __________ emerges when children adopt a view of the self that resembles others’ attitudes toward the child.

well-organized psychological self

Which of the following statements about the development of self-concept is true?

Perspective-taking skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.

As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in

feedback from close friends.

Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?

"I like hockey."

Compared to his Western agemates, Chao, who lives in China, will most likely describe himself by referencing his

group memberships and relationships.

By age 6 to 7, children in diverse Western cultures have formed at least __________ broad self-evaluations.


Self-esteem takes on a __________ structure in the mid-elementary school years.


During childhood and adolescence, perceived __________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor.

physical appearance

Which of the following statements about self-esteem in elementary school is true?

It declines during the first few years of elementary school and then, from fourth grade on, rises for the majority of young people.

Andrew has high academic self-esteem. Andrew is probably

willing to try hard.

Raylynne is well-liked by all of her classmates. She probably has high

social self-esteem.

Which of the following statements about cultural influences on self-esteem is true?

Asian children score lower in self-esteem than U.S. children.

Compared to his Caucasian-American agemates, Leonard, an African-American fourth grader, is more likely to have

higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of ethnic pride.

Children whose parents use a(n) __________ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves.


Nadia’s parents are repeatedly disapproving and insulting. As a result, Nadia probably __________ and relies heavily on __________ to affirm her self-worth

needs constant reassurance; peers

__________ parenting is correlated with unrealistically high self-esteem.


Compared with previous generations, American youths are

achieving less well.

Mr. and Mrs. Rodriguez want to foster a positive, secure self-image in their son. Which of the following would you suggest?

Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.

Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make __________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.

mastery-oriented; ability

Children who develop __________ attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability.

learned helplessness

Over time, the ability of __________ children no longer predicts how well they do.


When John succeeds, his father says, "You’re so smart!" However, when he fails, his father says, "You can’t do that, can you? It’s OK if you quit." John’s father’s messages could play a key role in John’s adoption of a

fixed view of ability.

Teachers who are __________ and emphasize __________ tend to have mastery-oriented students.

helpful; learning over getting good grades

Despite their higher achievement, __________ often blame poor performance on __________.

girls; lack of ability

Asian parents and teachers are more likely than their American counterparts to view __________ as key to success.


Attribution research shows that

well-intended messages from adults sometimes undermine children’s competence.

Marlena is enrolled in an intervention program that encourages learned-helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. This approach is known as

attribution retraining.

Which of the following statements about attribution retraining is true?

It is best begun early, before children’s views of themselves become hard to change.

Which of the following fosters a mastery-oriented approach to learning?

small class size and cooperative learning

Which of the following statements about self-conscious emotions in middle childhood is true?

Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guilt prompts them to strive for self-improvement.

Excessive guilt is linked to

C) depressive symptoms.

Compared to preschoolers, school-age children are more likely to explain emotion by referring to __________ rather than to __________.

internal states; external events

Between the ages of 6 and 12, children become more aware

of circumstances likely to spark mixed emotions.

Appreciating mixed emotions helps children realize that

people’s expressions may not reflect their true feelings.

Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said "I’m hungry." She took the man’s perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed


Which of the following statements about emotional self-regulation in middle childhood is true?

By age 10, most children shift adaptively between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping.

In __________ coping, children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it.


When Erica’s best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using

emotion-centered coping.

By third grade, most school-age children justify their preference for verbal strategies for coping with negative emotion by

emphasizing concern for others’ feelings.

Amelia has well-developed emotional self-regulation. She feels that she is in control of her emotional experience. Amelia has acquired

a sense of emotional self-efficacy.

Fernando’s parents respond sensitively and helpfully when he is distressed. Fernando is probably


When Sayuri is distressed, her father is dismissive and her mother is hostile. Sayuri is probably

overwhelmed by negative emotion.

Which of the following statements about moral development is true?

By middle childhood, children have had time to internalize rules for good conduct, which leads them to become considerably more independent and trustworthy.

By age 7 or 8, children

consider prosocial and antisocial intentions for truthfulness.

Compared to Canadian agemates, Chinese schoolchildren are more likely to rate lying favorably when

the intention is modesty.

Which of the following statements about children’s understanding of individual rights is true?

As early as age 6, children view freedom of speech and religion as individual rights.

Studies in diverse Western nations confirm that by age 5 or 6, __________ children generally evaluate their own racial group favorably and other racial groups less favorably or negatively


After age __________, both majority and minority children express in-group favoritism.

7 to 8

Children who believe that people’s personality traits are __________ rather than __________ often judge others as either "good" or "bad."

fixed; changeable

Children and adults with __________ are more likely to hold racial and ethnic prejudices.

very high self-esteem

The more adults highlight __________, the more likely white children will express in-group favoritism and out-group prejudice.

group distinctions

Principal Allen wants to reduce prejudice at his middle school. Which of the following interventions should he use?

assign children to cooperative learning groups with peers of diverse backgrounds

Which of the following children is most likely to believe in racial and ethnic equality?

Yaowu, a child who attends an ethnically diverse school and shares feelings with close, cross-race friends

Children who believe in the changeability of human attributes

spend more time volunteering to help the needy.

By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for

group belonging.

Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of girlfriends. Within this group, there are specific standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely

part of a peer group.

Research on peer groups during middle childhood shows that

within peer groups, children learn cooperation, leadership, followership, and loyalty to collective goals.

In middle childhood, __________ contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity.


During the school years, friendship becomes

more psychologically based.

Studies of friendship during middle childhood show that

by age 8 or 9, most children name only a handful of good friends.

School-age friends

behave more prosocially with each other.

When classmates are asked to rate each other’s likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.

popular; neglected

On a measure of peer acceptance, Michael received a large number of positive and negative votes. Michael would be considered a __________ child.


On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was seldom mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a __________ child.


__________ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, substance abuse, and antisocial behavior in adolescence and delinquency with criminality in early adulthood.


Michaela performs well in school and communicates with her peers in sensitive, friendly, and cooperative ways. She is a __________ child.


Harrison is a popular-antisocial child. Which of the following characteristics is he likely to display?

He is athletically skilled but is a poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority.

Rejected-aggressive children are

deficient in perspective taking.

Skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely

worried about being scorned and attacked.

About _____ percent of children are bullies, while _____ percent are repeatedly victimized.

20; 25

Research on peer victimization shows that

aggression and victimization are not polar opposites.

Which of the following statements about controversial and neglected children is true?

Controversial children display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors

__________ improves both school achievement and social acceptance of rejected children.

Intensive academic tutoring

Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by

behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.

Recent research on gender-stereotyped beliefs about achievement found that a majority of elementary and secondary students agreed with the idea that __________ is a "__________" subject.

math; feminine

From third to sixth grade, boys tend to __________ their identification with "masculine" personality traits, whereas girls’ identification with "feminine" personality traits __________.

strengthen; declines

School-age children are likely to view which of the following activities as nearly as bad as a moral transgression?

5-year-old Mark wearing his mother’s nail polish

Research shows that school-age children

rate "masculine" occupations as having higher status than "feminine" occupations.

Octavio feels comfortable being a boy, which consequently makes him happy. Which of the following self-evaluations reflects Octavio’s gender identity?

gender contentedness

Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwayne’s gender identity self-evaluation?

feels pressure to conform to gender roles

Which of the following statements about gender identity and behavior in middle childhood is true?

Children who experience rejection because of gender-atypical personality traits suffer profoundly.

Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) __________ style in the early years.


Effective parents gradually shift control from adult to child. They do not let go entirely but, rather, engage in


Coregulation is a(n)

form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making.

During middle childhood,

each parent tends to devote more time to children of their own sex.

A study conducted showed that fifth and sixth graders describe __________ as the most influential people in their lives.


Which of the following is supported by research on sibling rivalry?

Sibling rivalry often increases when siblings intentionally strive to be different from one another.

Research demonstrates that only children __________ compared to children with siblings.

are higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation

Which of the following is an accurate statement about divorce statistics?

About two-thirds of divorced parents marry again.

Research shows that declines in well-being following divorce are greatest for

mothers of young children.

Noncustodial fathers who see their children only occasionally tend to take on a(n) __________ style of parenting.


About __________ percent of children in divorced families display severe problems

20 to 25

Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to

blame himself for the marital breakup.

Which of the following statements about children’s temperament and sex differences in adjustment to parental divorce is true?

Coercive maternal behavior and defiance by sons are common in divorcing households.

The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is

shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing.

Regardless of the extent of their friction, divorcing parents who manage to engage in __________ greatly improve their children’s chances of growing up competent, stable, and happy.


Research shows that divorce mediation

increases involvement of both parents in child rearing.

Jennifer and Joel’s children reside with Joel and see Jennifer on a fixed schedule. Both parents have an equal say in important decisions about their children’s upbringing. Which type of custodial arrangement do they have?

joint custody

According to research on blended families, which of the following children is the most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?

Selma, a 15-year-old girl

Hank, a noncustodial father of four, is remarrying. Which of Hank’s children is the most likely to have difficulty getting along with his new wife?

Kate, his 9-year-old daughter

Children whose mothers enjoy their work outside the home and remain committed to parenting __________ than children of stay-at-home mothers.

get better grades in school

Employed mothers who value their parenting role are more likely to use


Research shows that maternal employment

leads fathers to take on greater child-care responsibilities.

Part-time maternal employment and flexible work schedules are associated with

good child adjustment.

Children in self-care, who regularly look after themselves for some period of time after school, __________ than children in after-school programs.

are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior

Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is

the possibility of personal harm.

Children in Western nations mention __________ as the most common source of their fears.

exposure to negative information in the media

Most cases of school phobia appear around age

11 to 13.

Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliott’s parents?

Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations.

Goran is a child victim of war. Research shows that Goran is likely to experience

an increase in anxiety and depression.

Which of the following statements about the impact on U.S. children of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks is true?

Distress reactions declined more slowly for children with conflict-ridden parent-child relationships.

Research on child sexual abuse indicates that

the abuser is typically a parent or someone the parent knows well.

Children who __________ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.

live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters

Which of the following statements about the consequences of child sexual abuse is true?

Repeated sexual abuse is associated with central nervous system damage.

The best way to reduce the suffering of a child sexual abuse victim is to

prevent sexual abuse from continuing.

Research on children’s ability to provide eyewitness testimony in legal situations shows that

the more distinctive and personally relevant an event is, the more likely children are to recall it accurately over time.

Which of the following questions or statements will likely elicit accurate, detailed information from a child witness?

"Tell me what happened."

Which of the following statements about resilience is true?

Resilience enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity.

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