psych practice quiz test 3

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Williams and nida found that when ostracized during an on lie frisbee-like game, players were ______ to conform to others’ wrong judgements on a subsequent perceptual task.

a. less likely
b. more likely
c. somewhat likely
d. not likely

b. more likely

Anticipatory liking- expecting that someone will be pleasant and compatible- increases the chance of

a. becoming involved in an inequitable relationship
b. a dysfunctional , co-dependent relationship
c. being exploited in the early stages of a relationship
d. forming a rewarding relationship

d. forming a rewarding relationship

When we have no strong feelings about a product or person _____ increases sales and votes

a. visiblity
b. shock advertising
c. liking
d. repetition

d. repetition

Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the physical attractiveness stereotype?

a. what is beautiful is good.
b. "" unpredictable
c. "" superficial
d. "" untouchable

a. what is beautiful is good

Jen is more in love with stan today than the day she married him. according to research on the relationship between love and perceived attractiveness,

a. jen probably finds stan to be more attractive today than the day she married him
b. jen probably finds stan to be less attractive today than the day she married him
c. stan probably finds jen less attractive today than the day he married her
d. stan and jen probably see each other as equally attractive

a. jen probably finds stan to be more attractive today than the day she married him

The tendency for opposites to mate or marry

a. has only been documented among teenage couples
b. has increased in the united states since 1960
c. is just as powerful as the similarity-attraction connection
d. has never been reliably demonstrated

d. has never been reliably demonstrated

We like people with whom we associate good feelings. this fact is consistent with the ____ theory of attraction.

a. cognitive dissonance
b. reward
c. two-factor
d. james-lange

b. reward

According to the two-factor theory of emotion, being aroused by _____ should intensify passionate feelings.

a. pornography on video or in magazines
b. sight and smell
c. any source
d. exercise

c. any source

Melanie believes that her boyfriend enjoys far more benefits from their relationship than she does, even thigh she invests more time, effort, and resources. clearly melanie believes that her relationship with her boyfriend lacks

A. equity.
B. attachment.
C. disclosure reciprocity.
D. loyalty.

a. equity

10) Each year Canada and the United States record _____ divorce/s for every _____ marriage/s.
A. 1; 2
B. 2; 1
C. 3; 1
D. 2; 2

a. 1;2

1) The motive to increase another’s welfare without conscious regard for one’s self-interests defines
A. the social responsibility norm.
B. egoism.
C. the social-exchange theory.
D. altruism.

d. altruism

2) Few findings have been more consistent than those that show that _______ people are helpful people.
A. happy
B. well-rested
C. well-educated
D. easy-going

a. happy

3) After Mr. Walters’ neighbor helped him paint his house, Mr. Walters felt obligated to offer to help the neighbor remodel his kitchen. Mr. Walters’ sense of obligation most likely resulted from the
A. door-in-the-face phenomenon.
B. social responsibility norm.
C. reciprocity norm.
D. equal status norm.

c. reciprocity norm

4) Research on gender and helping norms revealed that _______ offered more help when the persons in need were females, and _______ offered help equally to males and females.
A. men; women
B. women; men
C. older men; younger women
D. younger men; older women

a. men; women

5) People who live in _______ are least likely to relay a phone message, mail "lost" letters, cooperate with survey interviewers, do small favors, or help a lost child.
A. big cities
B. small towns
C. rural environments
D. apartments

a. big cities

6) In observing people’s responses to staged emergencies, Darley and Latané (1970) found that _______ greatly decreased intervention.
A. social alienation
B. a lack of empathy
C. the presence of other bystanders
D. self-concern

c. the presence of other bystanders

7) According to the bystander effect,

A. we are more likely to help others when others are present.
B. we are less likely to help others when others are present.
C. we are unaffected by bystanders when help is needed.
D. a bystander is the person most likely to help.

b. we are less likely to help others when others are present

8) According to the text, people in a hurry may be less willing to help because they
A. have weighed the costs of helping and have decided they are too high.
B. never fully grasp the situation as one requiring their assistance.
C. tend to be selfish and primarily concerned with meeting their own needs.
D. tend to be in a negative mood state and therefore are less likely to help.

b. never fully grasp the situation as one requiring their assistance

9) _____ were most closely associated with other forms of civic involvement, like voting, jury service, community projects, and giving to charity.
A. Women
B. Men
C. Southerners
D. Members in religious groups

d. members in religious groups

10) Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?
A. increase the ambiguity of the situation
B. model prosocial behavior
C. increase rewards for helping behavior
D. model the bystander effect

b. model prosocial behavior

1) Conflict is defined as
A. perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.
B. dissatisfaction with relationship outcomes.
C. hostility that results from frustrating interaction.
D. competition for mutually exclusive goals.

a. perceived incompatibility of actions or goals

2) In small groups, as opposed to large ones, individuals are
A. more likely to take more than their equal share.
B. less anonymous and thus less cooperative.
C. less likely to take more than their equal share.
D. more open about their conflicts.

c. less likely to take more than their equal share

3) In both the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior _______ and others’ behavior _______.
A. situationally; situationally
B. dispositionally; dispositionally
C. situationally; dispositionally
D. dispositionally; situationally

c. situationally; dispostionally

4) According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social dilemma
A. is sufficient to convince people to behave cooperatively.
B. leads to greater mistrust of others.
C. tends to foster greater self-interest and competition.
D. has little real effect on people’s behavior

d. has little real effect on people’s behavior

5) Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of
A. an inequitable relationship.
B. the tragedy of the commons.
C. a zero-sum relationship.
D. mirror-image perceptions.

a. an inequitable relationship

6) The Republic of Fredonia believes its long-time enemy, the Kingdom of Franistan, is aggressive, greedy, and impulsive. On the other hand, Franistan believes Fredonia is hostile, selfish, and unpredictable. This is an example of
A. an inequitable relationship.
B. a zero-sum relationship.
C. mirror-image perceptions.
D. reciprocal illusions.

c. mirror-image perceptions

7) When both sides of a conflict believe "we are peace-loving – they are hostile," each may treat the other in ways that _____ its expectations.

A. deny
B. confirm
C. reduce
D. expand

b. confirm

8) The U.S. Supreme Court’s 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was
A. the result of counter-prejudice.
B. the result of negative stereotypes.
C. based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences.
D. based on research findings that revealed that minorities excel in diverse groups.

c. based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences

9) By emphasizing the contribution Jackie Robinson might make to the Brooklyn Dodgers’ winning the 1947 pennant, Branch Rickey used _______ to reduce racial prejudice and conflict among team members.
A. a superordinate goal
B. an integrative agreement
C. an arbitration
D. the GRIT strategy

a. a superordinate goal

10) According to conflict researchers, you are more likely to divulge your needs and concerns if your relationship with your partner includes
A. mediation.
B. trust.
C. passion.
D. the threat of withdrawal.

b. trust

1) Chapman and Chapman had college students and professional clinicians study the relationship between patients’ test performances and diagnoses. They found that
A. if students or clinicians expected a particular association, they perceived it, regardless of whether the data was supportive.
B. students and clinicians only saw relationships that were supported by the data.
C. professional clinicians were more accurate than students in assessing relationships.
D. students and clinicians only recognized positive relationships if the actual correlations were greater than 0.75.

a. if students or clinicians expected a particular association, they perceived it, regardless of whether the data was supportive

2) Research indicates that when interviewers are instructed to test for a trait, they tend to ask questions that show evidence of
A. self-confirming diagnoses.
B. the illusion of control.
C. negative attributional styles.
D. illusory correlations.

a. self-confirming diagnosis

3) Yvonne, a college senior, is mildly depressed. Asked to describe herself, she notes both her positive and negative qualities. She recalls both past successes and failures and takes personal responsibility for both. Yvonne clearly illustrates the _______ effect.
A. rose-colored-glasses
B. sadder-but-wiser
C. head-in-the-clouds
D. feet-on-the-ground

b. sadder-but-wiser

4) Which of the following best illustrates an internal attribution for a failure or setback?
A. "I’ll never succeed."
B. "This ruins everything."
C. "It’s my fault."
D. "The whole world is against me."

c. "it’s my fault"

5) According to Seligman (2002), near-epidemic levels of depression in America today, ironically, can be blamed in part on the promotion of attitudes that say,
A. "Everybody needs somebody sometime."
B. "You can make it on your own."
C. "You’re nobody if nobody loves you."
D. "Eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die."

b. "you can make it your own"

6) Chronically lonely people seem to have the same _______ as chronically depressed people.

A. unrealistic vision of the future
B. need to achieve perfection
C. illusion of control
D. negative explanatory style

d. negative explanatory style

7) Which of the following is an interdisciplinary field that integrates and applies behavioral and medical knowledge about health and disease?
A. health psychology
B. behavioral medicine
C. applied psychology
D. clinical psychology

b. behavioral medicine

8) Maggie wants advice on how to cope with the stress of a new job. She would be best advised to approach her new job with a sense of
A. passive resignation.
B. ambition and competitiveness.
C. urgency and time-consciousness.
D. optimism.

d. optimism

9) Having shy or anxious people observe, then rehearse, then try out more assertive behaviors in real situations is called
A. foot-in-the-door training.
B. rational-emotive therapy.
C. social skills training.
D. explanatory style therapy.

c. social skills training

10) Women who had been sexually abused reported more health problems, especially if they had
A. not seen a therapist.
B. kept their abuse secret.
C. not confronted their abuser
D. confronted their abuser

b. kept their abuse secret

1) At the University of Washington, Loftus (1979) found that eyewitnesses in a hypothetical robbery-murder case were influential
A. unless their testimony was shown to be useless.
B. even when their testimony was discredited.
C. only if other evidence supported their story.
D. only if they were similar to those making the judgments.

b. even when their testimony was discredited

2) In what we now know to be a mistake, the U.S. Supreme Court declared in 1972 that among the factors to be considered in determining an eyewitness’s accuracy is "the level of _______ demonstrated by the witness."
A. impartiality
B. interest
C. certainty
D. fluency

c. certainty

3) Research on the memories of young children indicates that they
A. are better at remembering verbal details than visual details.
B. tend to fabricate stories about their own victimization even when asked open-ended questions.
C. are especially susceptible to misinformation.
D. do not react to misinformation.

c. are especially susceptible to misinformation

4) In a police lineup, the lineup interviewer’s feedback
A. has no effect on the witness’s confidence.
B. has a very mild effect on the witness’s confidence.
C. has a large effect on the witness’s confidence.
D. is usually not believed by the witness.

c. has a large effet on the witness’s confidence

5) Which of the following has been suggested as a strategy for reducing misidentifications in police lineups?
A. Give eyewitnesses a "blank" lineup that contains no suspects and screen out those who make false identifications.
B. Minimize false identifications with instructions that acknowledge that the offender may not be in the lineup.
C. Include one suspect and several known innocent people in the lineup rather than a group of several suspects.
D. All of the above

d. all of the above

6) In an experiment conducted with the help of BBC Television, Wiseman (1998) reported that viewers saw the defendant played by either an attractive or an unattractive actor. How did the viewers react?
A. More viewers "convicted" the attractive defendant.
B. More viewers "convicted" the unattractive defendant.
C. There was no difference in the conviction rates of the attractive and unattractive defendants.
D. Baby-faced defendants were more often found guilty.

b. more viewers "convicted" the unattractive defendant

7) Jurors have difficulty "erasing" the impact of inadmissible evidence
A. when it is a criminal trial as opposed to a civil trial.
B. when the inadmissible evidence is presented by the defense as opposed to the prosecution.
C. especially when the inadmissible evidence has an emotional impact.
D. when a witness, as opposed to a trial lawyer, blurts out the inadmissible evidence

c. especially when the inadmissible evidence has an emotional impact

8) Survey researchers sometimes assist defense attorneys by using "scientific jury selection" to eliminate individuals likely to be unsympathetic. Results indicated that in the first nine important trials in which the defense relied on such methods, it
A. won all nine.
B. won two.
C. won seven.
D. lost all nine.

c. won seven

9) Research suggests that minorities are most likely to sway the majority when the minority
A. favors conviction.
B. favors acquittal.
C. is composed of women.
D. is composed of Whites.

b. favors acquittal

10) Which of the following is recommended for increasing eyewitness accuracy and lineups?
A. The detective should ask a series of yes-no questions rather than letting eyewitnesses offer unprompted recollections.
B. Have eyewitnesses judge each suspect individually, indicating yes or no to each one.
C. Ask eyewitnesses to carefully describe the suspect verbally before asking them to make a lineup choice.
D. Provide eyewitnesses with feedback about the accuracy of their choices

b. have eyewitnesses judge each suspect individually, indicating yes or no to each one

1) According to the text, a global environmental disaster is being caused by
A. the spread of disease.
B. deforestation of the forests.
C. increasing consumption.
D. both increasing population and consumption

d. both increasing population and consumption

2) Myers (2000) noted that changing the consumption levels among rich nations requires
A. stronger and stricter laws.
B. a major catastrophe to occur first.
C. a worldwide natural disaster or plague.
D. a shift in public consciousness similar to the civil rights and women’s movements

d. a shift in public consciousness similar to the civil rights and women’s movements

3) In affluent countries the correlation between increased individual income and personal happiness is
A. strongly positive.
B. moderately positive.
C. about 0.00.
D. negative.

d. negative

4) Donna has been short of money and worried about her job security. Yesterday she was surprised to find she was being promoted and given a 10 percent raise. The adaptation-level phenomenon suggests that she will
A. soon be worried again about her finances.
B. have much better self-esteem from now on.
C. behave much less aggressively from now on.
D. be a much more ambitious, achievement-oriented worker now that she sees that her past behavior has paid off.

a. soon be worried again about her finances

5) Social comparison is
A. evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others.
B. our tendency to compare a given level of stimulation with an earlier level.
C. a tendency to adapt to social events.
D. often used to recalibrate adaptation levels

a. evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself with others

6) Findings from the National Opinion Research Center surveys of 50,000 Americans
report 26 percent of those who rarely or never attend religious services say they are
_____, while 48 percent of those attending multiple times weekly said they are _____.
A. unhappy; happy
B. happy; unhappy
C. happy; happy
D. very happy; very happy

d. very happy; very happy

7) Today’s college students, when asked to identify their reasons for going to college, stress
A. becoming well off financially.
B. the value of learning.
C. developing a meaningful philosophy of life.
D. learning how to relate to others.

a. becoming well off financially

8) The adaptation-level phenomenon refers to our tendency to adapt relative to a neutral level defined by
A. our own previous experiences.
B. the previous experiences of others.
C. how similar others are functioning.
D. how better-off people are functioning

a. our own previous experiences

9) In what month are violence rates likely to be highest?
A. December
B. March
C. August
D. October

c. august

10) _____ promote(s) personal and social well-being.
A. Extrinsic values
B. Materialism
C. Intrinsic values
D. Conservation

c. intrinsic values

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