Psych Final

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Personality is best defined as an individual’s

characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Psychodynamic theorists emphasize the importance of

unconscious mental processes.

Freud called his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques


The belief that some distressing physical symptoms made no neurological sense contributed most directly to

Freud’s interest in unconscious conflicts.

Prior to his use of free association, Freud unsuccessfully tried to make use of


Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients’ symptoms?

free association

Free association is a method designed to

explore the unconscious.

After recalling a vivid dream image, Angie’s therapist instructs her to close her eyes and report any other images, words, or thoughts that come to mind at that moment. The therapist is using a procedure called

free association.

Freud emphasized that effective treatment of psychological disorders involves the

exploration of repressed memories.

In suggesting that the mind is mostly hidden, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the


The image of an iceberg is frequently used to illustrate ________ idea of the mind’s structure.


According to Freud, understanding how the id, ego, and superego interact is essential to grasping the nature of

Motivational conflict

According to Freud’s theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by

the Id

Katrinka habitually makes nasty, hostile comments about her teachers. Freud would have suggested that her behavior illustrates the powerful influence of the


Freud emphasized that the ego operates on the ________ principle.


The pleasure principle is to the ________ as the reality principle is to the ________.

id; ego

The superego is the part of personality that

generates feelings of guilt.

While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on "wine, women, and song." Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n)

weak superego

Jordan feels guilty for hurting his younger brother. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Jordan’s

super ego

According to Freud’s theory, the ego

is the executive part of personality.

Although Garth wants to have sex with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desires might be partially satisfied by Garth’s


George often acts on impulse, without taking time to consider the consequences. A psychoanalyst would suggest that George shows signs of a

weak ego

Freud suggested that pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones as we progress through various

psychosexual stages.

According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the


Freud suggested that in the process of development, people pass through

a latency stage before they enter a genital stage.

According to Freud, boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother during the ________ stage.


A boy’s sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what Freud called

reaction formation

Boris does not like chemistry, but he has chosen it as his college major simply to prove that he is just as smart as his father, who is an outstanding chemist. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Boris suffers from an unresolved

Oedipus complex

Some psychoanalysts of Freud’s era claimed that girls experienced an Electra complex involving an unconscious

sexual desire for their father.

Freud suggested that a man’s inability to remember his childhood Oedipus complex illustrates


Freud suggested that the superego strengthens through the process of


According to Freud, what psychologists now call our gender identity develops most rapidly during the ________ stage.


Freud emphasized that unresolved childhood conflicts often lead to


According to Freud, a fixation involves the focus of one’s energies on

an earlier psychosexual stage.

Ingrid is a married woman who pursues sexual gratification by means of kissing rather than through sexual intercourse. According to Freud, this illustrates a(n)


Byron is always looking to others for advice, approval, and affection. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, Byron is most likely fixated at the ________ stage.


Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of

defense mechanisms.

Freud indicated that defense mechanisms

reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

According to Freud, the defense mechanism that underlies all others is


Although Camile has detailed memories of her early school years, she remembers very little about the boyfriend who abruptly broke off their marriage engagement. According to psychoanalytic theory, it appears that Camile is using the defense mechanism of


Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders?


Freud believed that our repressed impulses express themselves in

( dreams, slips of the tongue, jokes.) all of these forms.

Freud referred to the remembered story line of a dream as its

manifest content

Julie reported that she had a dream in which she was chased by a large dog. According to Freud, Julie’s account represents the ________ content of her dream.


Freud believed that the latent content of dreams was


Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of a more infantile stage of development is called


For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of


Which defense mechanism involves expressing feelings that are the exact opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings?

reaction formation

A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of

reaction formation

As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Amity began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Amity’s behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of

reaction formation

Using the defense mechanism of projection, a person experiences an internal

threat as if it were an external threat.

Projection refers to the process by which people

disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.

Although Eduardo has repressed his own homosexual desires, he is distressed by a false suspicion that many men frequently stare lustfully at his body. According to psychoanalytic theory, Eduardo’s thinking best illustrates


A habitual drinker who says she drinks with her friends "just to be sociable" best illustrates


Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused his son’s request for money to buy the books he needs for school. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that "parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults." Mr. Rioja’s explanation is an example of


Displacement refers to the process by which people

redirect aggressive or sexual impulses toward less threatening targets.

Shortly after receiving a traffic ticket for speeding, Fred made numerous hostile comments to his wife about the incompetence of women drivers. Fred’s comments illustrate most clearly the defense mechanism of


Denial is a defense mechanism that involves

refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities.

Frank refuses to believe that he is addicted to drugs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. He is most clearly demonstrating the defense mechanism of


Neo-Freudians placed greater emphasis than did Freud on the role of ________ in personality development.

the conscious mind

Both Karen Horney and Alfred Adler placed greater emphasis than did Freud on the role of ________ in personality development.

social interactions

Which neo-Freudian introduced the concept of an inferiority complex?

Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudians such as ________ were among the first to highlight a masculine bias in Freud’s theories.

Karen Horney

According to Carl Jung, the collective unconscious

contains archetypes derived from our species’ universal experiences.

Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to

Carl Jung

Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to emphasize the importance of

inner conflicts

Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called ________ tests.


Rona was asked by her psychotherapist to describe what she saw in 10 ambiguous inkblots. Rona was most likely responding to a(n) ________ test.


Which of the following personality assessment tools has been the most harshly criticized for lacking validity?

Rorschach inkblot test

Twelve-year-old Cawley demonstrates a strongly masculine sense of self-identity even though he was raised without a father or father substitute. This fact represents the most serious threat to ________ theory of personality.


Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions?

psychoanalytic theory

Which of the following Freudian ideas is most clearly contradicted by contemporary psychological theory and research?

Painful experiences are commonly repressed.

Survivors of traumatic events, such as rape or torture, are often haunted by persistent and vivid memories of this experience. This most clearly serves to challenge Freud’s concept of


Compared with Freud, contemporary research psychologists are LESS likely to think of unconscious mental dynamics as involving

repressive censoring.

The implicit memories that operate even among those with amnesia best illustrate the importance of

unconscious thought.

People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same. This best illustrates

the false consensus effect.

Which personality theory emphasizes the importance of our capacity for healthy growth and self-realization?


Who proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs?

Abraham Maslow

According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one’s potential is the motivation for


Roberta has a secure sense of her own identity and is strongly motivated to develop her unique talents and interests so as to achieve her full potential. According to Abraham Maslow, Roberta exemplifies

a self-actualizing person.

According to Maslow, the top-level needs that arise after all other needs have been met include the needs for self-actualization and

self transcendence

Maslow studied healthy creative people to investigate


Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are especially likely to

be open and spontaneous.

Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from

his growth-inhibiting environment.

According to Carl Rogers, people nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and


Lamont has frequently been rebellious, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor’s attitude toward Lamont is most explicitly recommended by

Carl Rogers

Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by

unconditional positive regard.

Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience

a negative self-concept.

Humanistic psychologists were especially interested in assessing an individual’s

self concept

In assessing a client’s personal growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence between

ideal self and actual self.

Mario doesn’t feel very positive about himself because he often fails to measure up to his unrealistically high performance aspirations. Mario’s predicament is most clearly addressed by an assessment strategy utilized by

Carl Rogers

Rogers’ and Maslow’s emphasis on developing human strengths laid the groundwork for today’s

positive psychology.

Which personality theorists have most clearly been credited with encouraging the popular belief that a positive self-concept is the key to happiness and success?

humanistic theorists

Which personality theorists have been criticized the most for encouraging individual selfishness and self-indulgence?

humanistic theorists

Which theorists have been criticized for underestimating the human predisposition to engage in destructive and evil behaviors?

humanistic theorists

Mark typically responds to stress in a calm and thoughtful manner. Chandler usually becomes agitated. The reactions of Mark and Chandler indicate that each has a distinctive


Sigmund Freud explained personality in terms of unconscious motivations, whereas ________ described personality in terms of enduring traits.

Gordon Allport

A behavior trait refers to a pattern of behavior that is

stable over time.

Kelsey is consistently optimistic, talkative, and impulsive. Each of these characteristics most clearly represents a


An interest in describing and classifying the many ways in which individuals may differ from one another is most characteristic of ________ theories.


To identify a relatively small number of the most basic personality traits, trait theorists have used

factor analysis

People who describe themselves as outgoing may also say they like excitement and practical jokes. This cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together reflects a basic


Which of the following is a basic personality factor assessed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?


Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks’ basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as


Evidence of the impact of biology on personality traits includes the fact that

extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low.

Trait theorists would be most likely to highlight the impact of our biologically inherited ________ on personality.


Psychologists assess a wide range of emotional and behavioral traits by means of

personality inventories.

Which of the following is true of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?

It is an empirically derived test.

Over the last few years, Mr. Helmus has been obsessed with bizarre thoughts and has become increasingly agitated and socially withdrawn. Which of the following would be most helpful for assessing the nature and severity of his symptoms?

the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale?

"I have never disliked anyone."

In some ways, each of us is just like everyone else. This fact enables astrologers to effectively make use of a technique known as

the stock spiel

In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of

the Barnum effect.

As personality descriptions become more positive, the Barnum effect becomes stronger. This best illustrates

self-serving bias.

The Big Five is the term currently used to refer to basic

trait dimensions.

Merri is a very kind and compassionate person who gives generously to others who are in need. She most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as


A person who is helpful and trusting most clearly ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as


Which of the following Big Five trait dimensions is most descriptive of an individual who is organized and disciplined in managing his or her work?


A highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension of


Being sociable and fun-loving is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of


During adulthood, people’s level of openness tends to ________ slightly and their level of agreeableness tends to ______.

decrease; increase

Features of ________ have been observed to be common among people from a wide variety of nations.

big 5 traits

The use of personal pronouns in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five trait of


The use of negative-emotion words in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five trait of


The stability of personality traits over time is greatest among

60 y/olds

Evidence that our traits persist over time and across different settings is of greatest relevance to

the person-situation controversy.

Trait theorists have been criticized for

overestimating the consistency of behavior from one situation to another.

Brenda has never cheated on a psychology test, but she often does so on chemistry tests. She recently stole some merchandise from a local store, but she also returned a lost billfold along with $28 to its rightful owner. This pattern of behavior should make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing the consistent impact of ________ on behavior.

personality traits

People’s scores on personality tests often fail to predict their behavior in a real-life situation. This should make us more cautious about overemphasizing the impact of ________ on behavior.


People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension of ________ tend to use more adjectives in their e-mail communications.


Impressions of just a few seconds of a teacher’s expressive style are consistent with impressions of the teacher’s expressive style over an entire semester. This best illustrates the importance of


Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive influences of traits and situations on human behavior?

social-cognitive perspective

Your score on an extraversion test does not neatly predict how sociable you will be on any given occasion. This observation is most clearly highlighted by ________ theories.

social cognitive

Our personalities influence the extent to which we expose ourselves to specific environmental influences. This best illustrates

reciprocal determinism.

Which personality theories emphasize reciprocal determinism?

social cognitive

Analena’s refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of

reciprocal determinism.

Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by

reciprocal determinism.

Professor Halasa perceives shy, inhibited styles of behavior to be the interactive outcome of cultural expectations, autonomic nervous system reactivity, and unconscious thought processes. The professor’s views best illustrate a(n) ________ approach.


Because people are biopsychosocial organisms, the study of personality most clearly benefits from the use of

multiple levels of analysis.

According to social-cognitive theories, the best predictor of students’ academic success in college would be their

high school grade-point average.

A criticism of social-cognitive theories has been that they

underestimate the importance of enduring personality traits.

Which of the following is said to function as an organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors?

the self

Medical students earn higher grades if they have a clear vision of themselves as successful doctors. This best illustrates the motivational significance of

possible selves

Our motivation to achieve success and avoid failure is most directly influenced by our

possible selves

When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates

spotlight effect

Self-esteem refers to

our feelings of high or low self-worth.

A sense of one’s ability to competently perform a task is called

self efficacy

Jeremy consistently attributes his poor work performance to his own incompetence. This most clearly indicates that he experiences a low level of

self efficacy

People with high self-esteem are LESS likely than those with low self-esteem to

give in to conformity pressures.

Compared with those having high self-esteem, individuals with low self-esteem are likely to

feel anxious and lonely.

If children’s positive self-esteem is largely a consequence rather than a cause of their successful accomplishments, parents would be best advised to enable their children to

effectively surmount challenges and achieve success.

The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for one’s successes than for one’s failures best illustrates

self-serving bias.

Mr. Carlson is a politician who credits his past election victories to his own effective communication and hard work; he attributes his past election losses to factors beyond his control. His assessments best illustrate

self-serving bias.

In national surveys, most business executives say they are more ethical than their average counterpart. This best illustrates

self-serving bias.

When people compare their personal qualities with those of the average person, they are most likely to experience

high self esteem

Research participants were most likely to react aggressively to criticism of their written essays if they experienced ________ self-esteem.

unrealistically high

From 1988 to 2008, self-esteem scores ________ among American collegians and they ________ among American middle school students.

increased; increased

Exaggerated feelings of self-importance are most closely linked with


Self-confidence that is easily punctured by criticism is most indicative of

defensive self-esteem.

A coach who convincingly extols the superior strength of upcoming opponents makes a victory appear ________ praiseworthy and a loss appear ________ understandable.

more, more

Jeremiah accepts himself as he is without being strongly affected by how others evaluate him. Jeremiah most clearly demonstrates

secure self-esteem.

Personally distressing thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are considered to be symptoms of a psychological disorder if they are


Ongoing patterns of behavior that interfere with normal day-to-day life are best characterized as


Mental health workers would be likely to identify alcohol misuse as a psychological disorder because it is

personally dysfunctional.

ADHD is most clearly characterized by


Matt is restless and often jumps out of his seat or interferes with ongoing class activities in response to the sound of outside traffic. Matt most clearly exhibits symptoms of

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

The most likely people to be diagnosed with ADHD are


Researchers have attributed the development of ADHD to

genetic influences.

The conception of psychological disorders as biologically based sicknesses is known as the

medical model.

Mira claims that alcohol use disorder is a disease that, like pneumonia, can be cured or prevented with proper treatment. Her belief is most clearly consistent with

the medical model.

If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to

the medical model.

To call psychological disorders "sicknesses" is especially likely to encourage research supporting

the medical model.

A biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse would be most likely to emphasize

the interactive influences of nature and nurture on substance abuse.

In discovering that certain psychological disorders occur only in particular cultures, we are providing evidence for

a biopsychosocial approach.

Today’s psychologists assume that disordered behavior is influenced by

(social circumstances, inner psychological dynamics, genetic predispositions and physiological states) all of these factors.

Dr. Garcia emphasizes that psychological disorders result from the interactive influences of individual genes, mood-related perceptions, and cultural definitions of normality and disorder. The doctor’s emphasis best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach.

A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.


The DSM-5 has added some diagnoses that concern many physicians and mental health workers because

they fear it will extend the pathologizing of everyday life.

Marshall has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Because this disorder is included as a diagnosis in DSM-5,

Marshall will be eligible for treatment.

To facilitate diagnostic reliability, the DSM-5 typically generates diagnoses by utilizing

detailed diagnostic criteria and codes..

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by using the detailed "diagnostic criteria and codes" in the


If individuals expect someone identified as mentally ill to be hostile, they may act in unfriendly ways that provoke that person to respond with hostility. This illustrates the dangers of

self-fulfilling labels.

After Anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor’s tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. This best illustrates the

biasing power of diagnostic labels.

In a study by David Rosenhan, researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices." This study best illustrated the negative effects of

diagnostic labels.

The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients’ complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of

diagnostic labels.

Judicial systems are responsible for making decisions regarding


Researchers recently estimated that approximately ________ percent of adult Americans had suffered a clinically significant psychological disorder during the prior year.


Immigrants to the United States from Mexico average ________ mental health than Mexican-Americans born in the United States. Immigrants to the United States from Asia average ________ mental health than Asian-Americans born in the United States.

better; better

The symptoms of ________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of ________.

antisocial personality disorder; schizophrenia

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes are called

mood disorders.

Which of the following disorders is classified as a mood disorder?


A seasonal pattern of symptoms is most likely to be a characteristic of


The number-one reason people seek mental health services is


Feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with

major depressive disorder.

Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least

2 weeks

Norby, an 18-year-old first-year university student, has missed almost all his classes during the past month. He spends most of his time in his bedroom, frequently not even bothering to get dressed or eat meals. He thinks his whole life has been a failure and blames himself for being a social misfit. Norby is most likely suffering from

major depressive disorder.

Mania is most likely to be experienced by those suffering

bipolar disorder.

Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of


Bipolar disorder is most likely to be characterized by

alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.

After several weeks of feeling apathetic and dissatisfied with his life, Mark has suddenly become extremely cheerful and so talkative he can’t be interrupted. He seems to need less sleep and becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Mark’s behavior is indicative of

bipolar disorder.

Compared with those whose occupations require precision and logic, those whose occupations rely on emotional expression and vivid imagery are more likely to experience

bipolar disorder.

Compared with men, women are much more likely to be diagnosed as suffering from


Which of the following disorders typically occurs in periodic episodes that eventually terminate by themselves even without professional help?

major depressive disorder

Recovery from a major depressive episode is likely to be permanent the ________ the first episodes appears and the ________ the number of previous episodes.

later; fewer

Stressful life events like the loss of a job are most likely to increase one’s risk of


Jeremy has responded to the stress of his parents’ divorce with excessive alcohol consumption and habitual smoking. These behaviors are most likely to place Jeremy at a heightened level of risk for

major depressive disorder.

The incidence of major depression is greatest among those

reared apart from an identical twin who suffers the disorder.

To identify genes that put people at risk for depression, researchers have used

linkage analysis

Severely depressed individuals are especially likely to show reduced brain activity in the

left frontal lobe.

In terms of neurotransmitter levels, depression is associated with

low norepinephrine levels and low serotonin levels.

People who eat a "Mediterranean Diet" that is heavy on vegetables, fish, and olive oil have a comparatively low risk of developing


Learned helplessness is most closely associated with


Research suggests that women are more vulnerable to depression than men because women tend to overthink, to linger mentally on negative events. This suggestion best illustrates a ________ perspective.

social cognitive

Self-blaming attributions are most likely to be associated with


Failures are most likely to lead to depression if they are explained in terms that are

internal, stable, and global.

A therapist believes that Chet is chronically depressed because he takes too little credit for his many achievements and assumes too much responsibility for his few failures. The therapist’s interpretation reflects a ________ perspective.

social cognitive

According to Marin Seligman, the rise of Western individualism appears most clearly responsible for an increase in


The vicious cycle of depression is often initiated by

stressful life experiences.

One way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to

participate more often in activities they consider pleasant and rewarding.

Suicide rates are ________ among the rich than the poor, and they are ________ among young men than old men.

higher; lower

Women are ________ likely than men to attempt suicide. Men are ________ likely than women to actually end their lives.

more; more

Compared with those who do not experience a disorder, those with alcohol use disorder have a ________ risk of committing suicide. Compared with the general population, those who have been depressed have a ________ risk of committing suicide.

higher; higher

Such behaviors as cutting one’s skin, hitting oneself, or pulling one’s hair out are examples of

nonsuicidal self-injury.

Relieving guilt through self-punishment is one of the motives for

nonsuicidal self-injury.

Which of the following has been shown to be a risk factor for future suicide attempts?


Which severe disorder is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished emotional expression?


Which of the following is considered to be a psychotic disorder?


Which of the following is a positive symptom of schizophrenia?


Which of the following could best be described as a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

flat affect

Mr. Kalish, a long-term government employee, falsely believed that his supervisor was a communist agent who was putting poison in the employees’ coffee. When Mr. Kalish was referred to a psychiatrist, he claimed to be the grandson of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Kalish is most likely suffering from


False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called


The disorganized thoughts experienced by those with schizophrenia most likely result from a breakdown in

selective attention

Hallucinations and delusions are most likely to be experienced by those who suffer from


Seeing one-eyed monsters would be a(n) ________. Believing that you are Christopher Columbus would be a ________.

hallucination; delusion

The hallucinations experienced by those who suffer from schizophrenia are most likely to involve ________ things that are not there.


Difficulty perceiving facial emotions and reading others’ states of mind is characteristic of many of those suffering from


Schizophrenia that develops gradually over a long period of time is called ________ schizophrenia.


The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops

rapidly in response to a stressful life situation.

People are more likely to recover from ________ schizophrenia than from ________ schizophrenia.

reactive process

A reduced level of synchronized neural activity in the frontal lobes has been associated with symptoms of


A PET scan study of people with ________ found increased activity in the amygdala.


An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with


Schizophrenia victims have difficulty focusing attention. This is most likely to be related to a smaller-than-normal


Evidence suggests that ________ contribute(s) to schizophrenia.

prenatal viral infections

North Americans born during the winter and spring months are at a slightly increased risk for


People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.

Australia; September

Of all the twins who share identical genes with a schizophrenia victim, about ________ do not themselves develop schizophrenia.


If an identical twin has schizophrenia, the co-twin’s chances of being similarly affected are only 1 in 10 if they had different


Environmental factors such as viral infections can "turn on" specific genes that predispose schizophrenia. This best illustrates the impact of

epigenetic factors

Anxiety is considered disordered if it is

persistent and distressing.

Indira, a third-grade teacher, frequently suffers from dizziness, heart palpitations, and fatigue. She is also continually agitated and unable to relax outside the classroom, but she cannot pinpoint a reason for her problems. Her behavior is most indicative of

generalized anxiety disorder.

In which of the following disorders is a person continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic arousal?

generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder is often accompanied by


Episodes of intense dread that last for several minutes and are accompanied by shortness of breath, trembling, dizziness, or heart palpitations are most characteristic of

panic disorder.

Panic attacks are most closely associated with

anxiety disorders.

Dana has experienced a number of unpredictable short periods in which she suddenly feels terrified and thinks she is going to faint. Dana is most likely to be suffering from

panic disorder.

Phobias are most likely to be characterized by

a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation.

Jeremy experiences so much anxiety about taking the elevator that he climbs 10 flights of stairs to get to his office each workday. Jeremy appears to suffer from

specific phobia.

Manuel is extremely shy and is so easily embarrassed when he is with other people that he often misses his college classes just to avoid social interactions. Manuel appears to suffer from

social anxiety disorder.

An overwhelming fear of entering a crowded bus or elevator would be most characteristic of someone who suffers from


A person who has agoraphobia is most likely to

avoid being outside his or her home.

After Charles Darwin began suffering panic disorder, he lived in relative seclusion and traveled only in his wife’s company. His panic disorder was apparently accompanied by


A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions is called

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Ravi brushes his teeth 18 times a day. Each time, he uses exactly 83 strokes up and 83 strokes down. After he eats, he must brush twice with two different brands of toothpaste. Ravi suffers from

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

While driving to work, Pedro hears a radio advertisement for a new restaurant. Throughout the day, the tune associated with the advertisement keeps running through his head. Pedro’s inability to stop thinking about the tune best illustrates the nature of a(n)


Compulsions are best described as

repetitive behaviors.

Repeatedly checking to see if your stove is turned off is to ________ as repeatedly thinking you might try to set your own house on fire is to ________.

compulsion; obsession

The social withdrawal and haunting nightmares of battle-scarred war veterans best illustrates symptoms of


Although DSM-5 classifies posttraumatic stress disorder separately from disorders such as panic disorder, this disorder does involve


Repeated distressing dreams and intrusive memories of an intensely fearful and life-threatening experience are symptoms most commonly associated with

posttraumatic stress disorder.

The capacity to recover from traumatic and stressful experiences best illustrates survivor


A therapist claims that Luke’s irrational fear of snakes results from repressed childhood feelings of hostility toward his own father. The therapist’s interpretation reflects a ________ perspective.


Rats come to fear locations paired with electric shock. This best illustrates

classical conditioning.

As infants become mobile and experience falls, they become increasingly afraid of heights. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on fear.

classical conditioning

A therapist suggests that Mr. Ozawa’s fear of darkness can probably be traced back to his early childhood when he was occasionally beaten and locked up in a small, dark closet by an older brother. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly highlights the impact of


A rape victim may experience a panic attack when she sees anyone wearing a coat that resembles the one worn by her attacker. This reaction best illustrates the process of

stimulus generalization.

A learning theory would emphasize that ________ leads those with an obsessive-compulsive disorder to frequently repeat their compulsive behaviors.


Those who emphasize the ways in which people learn disordered behavior have suggested that compulsive behaviors are

reinforced by anxiety reduction.

A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly highlights the influence of.


After lab-reared monkeys saw their parents fearfully avoid reaching for food located near a snake, the younger monkeys developed a strong fear of snakes. The younger monkeys’ fear of snakes resulted from

observational learning.

After watching her sister’s fearful response to the sight of a spider, Kerri became intensely fearful of spiders. This best illustrates that a specific phobia can be learned through

observational learning.

Research on anxiety disorders indicates that

some people are more genetically predisposed than others to develop anxiety disorders.

Some genes influence anxiety disorders by regulating levels of neurotransmitters such as ________, which influences activity in the brain’s alarm center.


According to Professor Kang, fear responses pave neural pathways that are more readily activated by later anxiety-producing experiences. The professor’s suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.


Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the


It is easy to condition but hard to extinguish fears of the types of stimuli that threatened our ancestors. This fact is best explained from a ________ perspective.


Although World War II air raids were extremely traumatic for those who experienced them, few of these people developed lasting phobic reactions to overhead planes. This fact is best explained in terms of

genetic predispositions.

Dissociative disorders are most likely to be characterized by

disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity.

The major characteristic of dissociative disorders is a disturbance of


Several weeks after being fired from a job he had held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recognize his wife. Landon’s experience is most indicative of

a dissociative disorder.

Two or more distinct identities appear to alternately control the behavior of those with


The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder since the 1960s most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve

role playing.

Niesha demonstrates seven different personalities that appear to take turns controlling her behavior. Evidence that the same life memories are consciously experienced by all the alternate personalities would most clearly rule out the contribution of ________ to her disorder.


Evidence that dissociative identity disorder is NOT simply a product of conscious role playing is most clearly provided by the

distinct brain and body states associated with differing personalities.

Midori’s therapist suggests that she developed a dissociative identity disorder as a way of protecting herself from an awareness of her own hatred for her abusive mother. The therapist’s suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.


It has been suggested that the desperate efforts of traumatized victims to detach themselves from the experience of severe and prolonged abuse may contribute to

dissociative identity disorder.

The onset of ________ typically begins with a weight-loss diet.

anorexia nervosa

Chiara, a 41-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents’ suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers from

anorexia nervosa.

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by

episodes of overeating followed by vomiting.

Sixteen-year-old Jill loves ice cream and other rich foods, but she has become increasingly anxious about gaining too much weight. Jill frequently overeats and then intentionally vomits in an attempt to control her weight. Jill most clearly suffers from

bulimia nervosa.

Those who engage in spurts of excessive overeating, followed by remorse—but do not binge, purge, or excessively exercise—are said to have

binge-eating disorder.

The families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of

childhood obesity

Individuals with eating disorders tend to have

low self-evaluations and high achievement standards.

People living in cultures that idealize plump bodies are LESS likely to experience

anorexia nervosa

Individuals who are most vulnerable to anorexia nervosa are those who live in cultures that idealize

thin bodies

Observers watching videos of speed-dating encounters can detect a man’s level of romantic interest ________ accurately than a woman’s. If women at a speed-dating event stay seated while the men circulate, men wish for future contact with ________ of their speed dates than do women.

more, more

An increased liking for an unfamiliar stimulus following repeated experience with it is known as

the mere exposure effect.

The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between ________ and liking.


People tend to like the letters of their own name better than other letters. This is best explained in terms of

mere exposure effect

When Armen first heard the hit song "Lose Yourself," he wasn’t at all sure he liked it. The more often he heard it played, however, the more he enjoyed it. Armen’s reaction illustrates

the mere exposure effect.

People tend to prefer a(n) ________ image of themselves, while their friends prefer a ________ version of them.

mirror; actual

An observer is likely to express greater liking for a same-sex stranger if that person’s image has some distinctive features of the observer’s own face. This best illustrates the impact of

the mere exposure effect.

Our first impressions of those we meet are most likely to be determined by their

physical appearance

Research on physical attractiveness indicates that

babies prefer attractive over unattractive faces.

People’s physical attractiveness is a good predictor of their

frequency of dating

Compared with others, strikingly attractive people make a ________ favorable impression on potential employers, and they are ________ likely to perceive praise for their work as sincere.

more; less

Research on physical attractiveness indicates that men are more likely than women to

judge members of the opposite sex as more attractive if they have a youthful appearance.

We are likely to prefer as friends those who are similar to us in

attitudes, intelligence or age

Olivia, a 21-year-old university student, is quiet, relaxed, reflective, and politically liberal. Research suggests that she would most likely become a good friend of

Philip, who is reflective and quiet.

Liking those who share and validate our attitudes is best explained in terms of

a reward theory.

The two-factor theory of emotion specifically suggests that passionate love can be facilitated by

self disclosure

While driving his girlfriend to work, Nate narrowly avoided a collision with another vehicle. Moments later, he experienced an unusually warm glow of affection for his girlfriend. His romantic reaction is best explained in terms of

the two-factor theory of emotion.

In investigating the impact of physical arousal on passionate love, researchers arranged for an attractive woman to briefly interact with men who had recently

crossed a swaying footbridge.

As passionate love matures into a calm and steady companionate love, the bonding of two partners is most likely to be facilitated by


Equity and self-disclosure are important to the development of

companionate love

Orville thinks his girlfriend derives more benefits from their relationship than he does, even though he contributes more to the relationship. Orville most clearly believes that their relationship lacks


A gradual escalation of intimacy is most positively related to a gradual escalation of

self disclosure

Caitlin concluded that her husband was late for dinner because he was caught in heavy traffic. Her conclusion best illustrates

situational attribution

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another’s behavior is called

the fundamental attribution error.

A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a stranger’s violent behavior stems from his or her aggressive personality best illustrates

the fundamental attribution error.

Recognizing the powerful impact of social influence on others’ behaviors is most likely to minimize

the fundamental attribution error.

Students who were told that a young woman had been instructed to act in a very unfriendly way for the purposes of the experiment concluded that her behavior

reflected her personal disposition.

A dispositional attribution is to ________ as a situational attribution is to ________.

personality traits; assigned roles

Rhonda has just learned that her neighbor Patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. The tendency to make the fundamental attribution error may lead Rhonda to conclude

"Patricia’s recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble."

People are especially likely to demonstrate the fundamental attribution error in cultures that value


In explaining our own behavior or the behavior of those we know well, we often resort to

situational attributions.

Compared with the explanations we give for the actions of strangers, our explanations for our own behavior are more likely to refer to

situational influences.

You would probably be LEAST likely to commit the fundamental attribution error in explaining why

you failed a college test.

Reversing the perspectives of actor and observer reduces ________ among observers.

the fundamental attribution error

One explanation for the fundamental attribution error involves observers’

limited visual perspective.

The fundamental attribution error is most likely to lead observers to conclude that unemployed people

are irresponsible and unmotivated.

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of ________ by political liberals and in terms of ________ by political conservatives.

situational constraints; personal dispositions

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