Psych Exam 4

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In both social facilitation and social impairment, the key factor is

control group

All of the following terms are used in social identity theory except: a) social comparison b) identification c) reference group d) control group

bystander effect

the phenomenon that occurs when people are less likely to aid a person in trouble if there are other people around is called

foot in the door

Some have suggested that the results of Milgram’s obedience study may have been due to the _________ effect


What process describes the use of social influence to cause other people to change their attitudes and behavior?


What is the hormone associated with aggression


The age at which a baby was weaned would have most impact on the ____ stage

conditional positive regard

Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive __________

unconscious thoughts and feelings

A person’s responses to a projective test are thought to reflect


Jong believed that there were two levels of the unconscious mind. The personal and __________

confirmed what twin studies have shown

Adoption studies focusing on the heritability of traits have _________

interviewer bias

Freud’s refusal to believe his patients who said they were sexually abused as a child is an example of ___________


What is Freud’s term for the primitive, biological side of personality?


The ________ operates according to the reality principle.


Any behavior that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life is considered ___________

phobic disorder

Which of the following is an anxiety disorder? a) hypomania b) bipolar disorder c) dysthymia d) major depression

an excess of distortion of normal function

What is the best way to describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?


_____________ schizophrenia is characterized by delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy together with hallucinations.

affect behavior cognition

3 components of an attitude


a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea or situation.

thought behavior new thought

what are the 3 ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?

cognitive dissonance

sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s attitude

situational cause

cause of behavior attributed to external factors such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation. EX: John being late because of car problems

dispositional cause

cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character. EX: John being late because he is lazy or careless

romantic love

-intimacy -passion

companionate love

-intimacy -commitment

consummate love

-intimacy -passion -commitment

fatuous love

-passion -commitment


changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people


changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure


High levels of ____________ will decrease conformity


____________ cultures will increase conformity


occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned. EX: Titanic, Challenger, 9/11

social facilitation

tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task EX: Everyone else is working hard, I should be too

social loafing

tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task EX: Everyone else is doing the work, I don’t have to do anything


-negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group. -thoughts


-treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group they belong -actions

Factors of attraction

-physical: beauty -proximity: closeness, working/living together -similarity: what’s "in common" -reciprocity: if they like you, you like them more

bystander effect

referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on that decision to help or not help, becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases

diffusion of responsibility

occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the same responsibility.


Someone who is stressed, dissatisfied with their life, unassertive, gullible, feels a desire to belong to a group and who is unrealistically idealistic holds the ____________ of someone who would join a cult

young people

_______________ are more likely to be influenced to join a cult


-part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious -biological/primitive -no morals -animal instinct that drives behavior


-part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational and logical -planner for realistic outcomes


-part of the personality that acts as a moral center -morals -does what’s right


-refusal to recognize a threatening situation -most common


-trying to become like someone else to deal with one’s anxiety -dressing like the popular girl


-trying to make up for areas in which a lack is perceived by becoming superior in some other area -not good in sports, makes up for it with academics -substitution

oral stage

-birth to 1 year -feeding, making noises with mouth -weaning

anal stage

-1 to 3 years -potty training -bowel and bladder control

phallic stage

-3 to 6 years -genitals -sexual awareness

latency stage

-6 to puberty -social skills -ability to get along with others

genital stage

-puberty to death -sexual behavior -sexual relationship

womb envy

inability to give birth (men) so they strive to be successful in other areas

karen horney

womb envy concept

personal unconscious

-personal urges, fears and memories -Jung’s name for unconscious mind

collective unconscious

-a kind of "species" or "racial" memory, memories of ancient fears and themes that seem to occur in many folktales and cultures -Jung’s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species


-someone who is quiet -keeps to themself


-someone who is outgoing -talkative

The big five

Openness Consciousness Extroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism


your personality is nothing but conditioned responses and habits that you’ve developed. this is believed by who?


Raymond Cattell originally proposed that there are ______ different source traits

projective tests

When therapists want to get to the unconscious mind, and uncover the unconscious thoughts and conflicts they use _____________

locus of control

the tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives

internal locus

-consequences are effected from their own actions -personalities of high achievement motivation -attempt to succeed with any task

external locus

-consequences are effected from others’ actions, luck or fate -give up too quickly

dissociative fugue

-when one travels away from home and afterwards cannot remember the trip or even their identity -starts a new life with new identity

dissociative amnesia

-loss of memory for personal info, either partial or complete -separated from one’s self -few minutes to years breaks can feel seamless

social phobia

Is stage fright a social or a specific phobia?


-false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness -thoughts


-false sensory perceptions such as hearing voices that don’t really exist -physical feelings (sights/sounds)


-intruding, reoccurring thoughts and anxiety -relieved by repeating steps in a ritual -unable to function without ritual and repetitions


-free floating anxiety -recurring anxiety -constant worrying


-anxiety, night mares and concentration problems -up to one month after event


-over a month long -6 months to be diagnosed -more likely in women than men -anxiety from stressor

anitsocial personality

Which personality disorder is most likely to cause problems

diagnostic and statistic manual

What is the DSM?


-malnourished -extreme weight loss


-overeating then binging/purging -normal weight -strange behaviors

panic attack

-sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying


-separate identities/personalities -blackouts/memory & timeloss


Which neurotransmitter is associated with bulimia?


-a mood disorder caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months -depression phase

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