Psych Chapter 2

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Which part of neuron carries messages to the other cells?

Axon

Which action is NOT of glial cells?

Generating Actions Potentials

When a neuron’s resting potential is occurring, the neuron is _______ charged on the inside.

Negatively charged on the inside.

Neurotransmitters must pass from an axon terminal to the next dendrite by crossing a fluid-filled space called the what?

The Synaptic Gap

The venom of a black widow spider acts like a(n) _____ by mimicking the effects of acetylcholine.

An Agonist

This is associated with pain relief.

Endorphins

If you touch a hot stove, your spinal cord can prompt you to withdraw your hand without having to send the message all the way to the brain. This is due to what scientists call….

The Reflex Arc

What is the process whereby the structure and the function of brain cells change in the response to trauma, damage, or even learning?

Neuroplasticity

The neurons of the sensory pathway contain…

Afferent neurons

Yvonne’s ability to reach for and pick up her book is largely due to the functions of the _____ pathway of the _______ nervous system.

Motor Pathway / Somatic Nervous System.

What would be active if you have just had an automobile accident?

The Sympathetic Division

Andrew has always been thin. In fact, he often seems to be able to eat whatever he wants without gaining weight. The doctor told his parents that Andrew’s ______ gland is the cause of his fast metabolism.

Thyroid Gland

What is a technique that analyzes blood oxygen levels to look at the functioning of the brain?

fMRI technique

Which brain structure allows us to pay attention to certain stimuli while ignoring others?

The Reticular Formation

Which brain structure relays incoming sensory information?

The Thalamus

If you were to develop a rare condition in which you were not able to remember to be afraid of certain situations, animals, or events, which part of the brain would most likely be damaged?

Amygdala (the most ancient part of the brain, evolutionarily speaking)

If your roommate has a problem paying attention, it may be due to damage to this part of the limbic system…

Cingulate Cortex

What part of the brain can sometimes be referred to as the "rind" or outer covering?

The Cortex

The primary visual cortex can be found in this lobe of the cortex.

Occipital Lobe

The ability to detect changes in temperature, pressure and body position is due to the functions of the _____ lobe.

Parietal Lobe

You have a dream in which you wake up to find that people around you are using words that make no sense. What’s more, your friends don’t seem to understand you when you speak. At one point in your dream, your mom tells you that you almost forgot your tree limb today. When you give her a puzzled look, she holds up your lunch box and repeats, " You know, your tree limb." Your predicament in your dream is most like which of the aphasia disorders?

Wernicke’s Aphasia

Which part of the brain tends to process information globally?

The Right Hemisphere

In the structure of the neuron, the _______ receives messages from other cells.

Dendrite

Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells generate a fatty substance known as…

Myelin

The _____ insulates and protects a neuron’s axon, as well as helps to speed along electrical impulses.

Myelin Sheath

When a neuron is in the resting potential state, the neuron is negatively charged on the ______ and positively charged on the ______.

Inside / Outside.

Which neurotransmitter stimulates muscle cells to contract but slows contractions in the heart?

Acetylcholine

Heroin mimics the actions of endorphins, inhibiting pain signals and creating a "high" feeling. Heroin is an example of a(n):

Agonist

Involuntary muscles are controlled by the _____ nervous system.

Autonomic nervous system

As you take notes, your heart beats at a normal rate. Your breathing is normal and your stomach slowly digests your earlier meal. What division of the peripheral nervous is currently in action?

Parasympathetic

Robert has a difficulty sleeping for the past 6 months and his body seemingly no longer differentiates between night and day. His doctor believes the problem lies with Robert’s endocrine system. What gland will Robert’s physician focus on?

Pineal

Which gland is known to influence all other glands within that endocrine system?

Pituitary gland

Bailey is a subject in a study on memory and problem solving. The researcher is applying magnetic pulses to her brain through copper wire coils positioned directly above her scalp. Bailey’s study would best be described as…

The noninvasive stimulation technique

Which technique of studying the brain (scan) involves injecting the patient with radioactive glucose?

PET technique

Maria often sleeps soundly and rarely awakens to any outside noise. However, the cries of Maria’s baby can awaken her immediately. What part of the brain is responsible for this reaction?

The Reticular formation

Alexis and Theresa are synchronized swimmers for their college swim team. They often work long hours to ensure the movements in their routine are perfectly timed. What part of their brains must Alexis and Theresa rely most upon?

The Cerebellum

Your psychology professor refers to this as "the great relay station of the brain." What part are they referring to?

The Thalamus

Which part of the brain is involved in the creation of memories and is often linked to Alzheimer’s disease?

The Hippocampus

Jessica has suffered a severe blow to the back of the head when she was thrown from her horse. Subsequently, her occipital lobe has been injured. Which of her senses has the highest chance of being affected?

Vision

Jaime’s grandfather recently suffered a stroke and has had difficulty with language production ever since. Most likely, he has experienced damage to the ______ area of his brain.

Left Frontal Area

Felicia is recovering from a brain injury. She is able to speak fluently but often uses incorrect words in a sentence. In one instance, she said, "I would like something to drink. Can I have some battery?" This problem is known as….

Wernicke’s Aphasia.

Although the brain works largely as a whole, what is not a correct pairing of the hemisphere and function?

Right; control of the right handed motor functions

The neuron fiber that carries messages to other neurons is the…

Axon

The tiny space between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron is called the…

Synaptic Gap

When an action potential reaches the axon terminal of a neuron, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called…

neurotransmitters

What neurotransmitters are linked to pain control and pleasure?

Endorphins

What is the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes?

Biological Psychology

What is a nerve cell called?

Neuron

Which part of the neuron receives messages and conducts impluses toward the cell body?

Dendrites

What is the electrical charge that travels down an axon called?

Action Potential

What is the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse called?

Threshold

The autonomic nervous system controls internal functions, such as heart rate and glandular activity. The word "autonomic" means…

Self-regulating

The sympathetic nervous system arouses us for action and the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down. Together, the two systems make up the…

Autonomic Nervous System

The neurons of the spinal cord are part of the…

Central Nervous System

What makes up the central nervous system?

Brain & Spinal Cord

What nervous system includes sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Peripheral Nervous System

Which neurons communicate internally and intervene between sensory and motor outputs?

Interneurons

What are bundled axons that connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs?

Nerves

What division of the peripheral nervous system controls the body’s skeletal muscles?

Somatic Nervous System

What division of the peripheral nervous system controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs?

Autonomic Nervous System

Which part of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body?

Sympathetic Nervous System

Which part of the autonomic nervous system calms the body?

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The most influential endocrine gland is the…

Pituitary Gland

What secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, helping to arouse the body during times of stress?

Adrenal Glands

What’s the body’s "slow" chemical communication system?

Endocrine System

What chemical messengers travel through the blood stream and affect other tissues?

Hormones

The brainstem is the oldest and innermost region of the brain. The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is the…

Medulla

The lower brain structure that governs arousal is the…

Reticular Formation

The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the…

Cerebellum

What is a lesion?

Tissue Destruction

Which part of the brain is responsible for autonomic survival functions?

Brainstem

What is a recording of the waves of electrical activity in the brain called?

EEG

Which brain scan shows brain anatomy?

MRI

Which brain scans show brain function?

fMRI

What is considered the brain’s sensory "switchboard"?

Thalamus

What neural system is associated with emotions and drives?

Limbic System

Two parts of the limbic system are the…

Amygdala & Hippocampus

The neural structure that most directly regulates eating, drinking and body temperature is the…

Hypothalamus

What is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center?

Cerebral Cortex

What portion of the cerebral cortex is involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements?

Frontal Lobes

What portion of the cerebral cortex receives sensory input for touch and body positions?

Parietal Lobes

What portion of the cerebral cortex receives information from visual fields?

Occipital Lobes

What portion of the cerebral cortex includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear?

Temporal Lobes

Which part of the brain controls voluntary movements?

Motor Cortex

Which part of the brain registers and processes body touch and movement sensations?

Sensory Cortex

Which areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in higher mental functions like learning and thinking?

Association Areas

Impairment of language caused by damage in the left hemisphere is called…

Aphasia

What part of the brain controls language expression?

Broca’s Area

What part of the brain controls language reception?

Wernick’s Area

What is the brain’s ability to change called?

Plasticity

What is the formation of new neurons called?

neurogenesis

What connects the two brain hemispheres?

Corpus Callosum

What is a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres?

Split Brain

Damage to the brain’s right hemisphere is most likely to reduce a person’s ability to…

Make inferences

Plasticity is especially evident in the brains of…

Young Children

Studies of people with split brains and brain scans of those with undivided brains indicate that the left hemisphere excels in…

Processing Language

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