Psych Chapter 15- Psychological Disorders

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People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.
a. the United States; September Incorrect
b. Argentina; February
c. Australia; September
d. South Africa; February

Which of the following disorders typically occurs in periodic episodes that eventually terminate by themselves even without professional help?

major depressive disorder

Suicide rates are ________ among the rich than the poor, and they are ________ among young men than old men.

higher; lower

After Charles Darwin began suffering panic disorder, he lived in relative seclusion and traveled only in his wife’s company. His panic disorder was apparently accompanied by

agoraphobia.- type of anxiety disorder

Evidence suggests that ________ contribute(s) to schizophrenia.

prenatal viral infections

Immigrants to the United States from Mexico average ________ mental health than Mexican-Americans born in the United States. Immigrants to the United States from Asia average ________ mental health than Asian-Americans born in the United States.

better; better

Mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of


Symptoms of withdrawal following the disappearance of hallucinations and delusions are most indicative of ________ schizophrenia.


A therapist suggests that Mr. Broshi continues to bite his fingernails because this behavior often reduced his feelings of anxiety in the past. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.


Severely depressed individuals are especially likely to show reduced brain activity in the

left frontal lobe.

Dogs come to fear neutral stimuli associated with shock. This best illustrates

classical conditioning.

Cocaine may ________ symptoms of schizophrenia by ________ dopamine levels.

increase; increasing

North Americans born during the winter and spring months are at a slightly increased risk for


Schizophrenia is said to be acute when

it develops rapidly

One cluster of personality disorders marked by anxiety is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder.


The capacity to recover from traumatic stressful experiences best illustrates survivor


In discovering that certain psychological disorders occur only in particular cultures, we are providing evidence for the.

biopsychosocial approach

Sixteen-year-old Jill loves ice cream and other rich foods, but she has become increasingly anxious about gaining too much weight. Jill frequently overeats and then intentionally vomits in an attempt to control her weight. Jill most clearly suffers from


Several weeks after being fired from a job he had held for more than 20 years, Landon awoke one morning in a state of bewildered confusion. He had little sense of who he was and even failed to recognize his wife. Landon’s experience is most indicative of

a dissociative disorder.

Cancer survivors who develop a fresh delight in their children and savor the joy of each new day best illustrate

post-traumatic growth

A psychotherapist is most likely to use the DSM-IV-TR in order to ________ various psychological disorders.


Repeatedly checking to see if your stove is turned off is to ________ as repeatedly thinking you might try to set your own house on fire is to ________.

compulsion; obsession

Feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with

major depressive disorder.

Which group of severe disorders is characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions?


Environmental factors such as viral infections can "turn on" specific genes that predispose schizophrenia. This best illustrates the impact of

epigenetic factors.

One cluster of personality disorders marked by anxiety is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder.


Mr. Kalish, a long-term government employee, falsely believed that his supervisor was a communist agent who was putting poison in the employees’ coffee. When Mr. Kalish was referred to a psychiatrist, he claimed to be the grandson of Abraham Lincoln. Mr. Kalish is most likely suffering from


Two or more distinct identities appear to alternately control the behavior of those with


Psychological Disorder

Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors

medical Model

The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured often through treatment in a hospital

Psychological influences

Stress Trauma Learned helplessness Mood related perceptions and memories

Biological Influences

Evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry

Social-cultural influences

Roles Expectations definitions of normality and disorder

How are psychological disorders Diagnosed?

1. Is a clinical disorder present? 2. Is a personality disorder ot mental retardation present? 3. Is a general medical condition such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthritis, also present? 4. Are psychosocial or environmental problems, such as school or housing issues also present? 5. What is the Global Assessment of this person’s functioning? assign a code from 0-100


The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision" a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

What is the biopsychological perspective, and why is it important in our understanding of psychological disorders?

Biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences combine to produce psychological disorders -This broad perspective helps us understand that our well-being is affected by our genes, brain functioning, inner thoughts and feelings, and the influences of our social and cultural environment


False beliefs, often persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Type of Schizophrenia: Paranoid

Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity

Type of Schizophrenia : Disorganized

Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion

Type of Schizophrenia : Catatonic

Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrot-like repeating of another’s speech or movements

Type of Schizophrenia : Undifferentiated

Many and varied symptoms

Type of Schizophrenia : Residual

Withdrawal, after hallucinations, and delusions have disappeared

The vicious cycle of depressed thinking

1. Stressful experiences 2. Negative explanatory style 3. Depressed mood 4. Cognitive behavioral changes

Researchers believe that anxiety disorders are influenced by conditioning, observational learning, and cognition
What biological factors contribute to these disorders?

Biological factors include inherited temperament differences; learned fears that have affected brain pathways; and outdated, inherited responses that had survival value for our distant ancestors

Major Depressive Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, TWO OR MORE weeks of significantly depressed moods or diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, along with, AT LEAST FOUR OTHER SYMPTOMS


A mood disorder marketed by a hyperactive, widely optimistic state

Bipolar Disorder

A mood disorder in which a person alternates between hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania Formerly manic depressive disorder

Women’s risk of depression compared to men

Women’s is nearly double as likely to get depression

What does it mean to say "Depression is a whole-body disorder?"

Many factors contribute to depression, including the biological influences to genetics, and brain function Social cognitive factors: including the interaction of explanatory style, mood, our responses to stressful experiences, and changes in our patterns of thinking and behaving The whole body is involved

Unfocused tension, apprehension, and arousal is called

General Anxiety disorder

If a person is focusing anxiety on specific feared objects or situations, that person may have an


Those who express anxiety through unwanted repetitive thoughts, or actions may have


Anxiety accompanied by recurring memories and nightmares, social withdrawal, and insomnia for weeks


Those who experience unpredictable periods of terror and intense dread, accompanied by frightening physical sensations, may be diagnosed with :

Panic Disorder


hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of race or political or religious beliefs

Which of the following disorders is classified as a mood disorder?


Relieving guilt through self-punishment is one of the motives for

non-suicidal self-injury.

One study monitored teens and young adults who had two relatives with schizophrenia. Those who subsequently developed schizophrenia displayed a tendency to be ________ prior to the onset of their disorder.

socially withdrawn

If research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, this would most clearly give added credibility to

the medical model.

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels, or axes, of the


According to the ________ perspective, the process of reinforcement leads those with obsessive-compulsive disorder to frequently repeat their compulsive behaviors


The families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of

childhood obesity.

Compared with those who suffer no disorder, those who abuse alcohol have a ________ risk of committing suicide. Compared with the general population, those who have been depressed have a ________ risk of committing suicide.

higher; higher

In a study by David Rosenhan, researchers were admitted as patients into various mental hospitals after they falsely claimed to be "hearing voices." This study best illustrated the negative effects of

Diagnostic Labels

Recovery from a major depressive episode is likely to be permanent the ________ the first episodes appears and the ________ the number of previous episodes.

later; fewer

Midori’s therapist suggests that she developed a dissociative identity disorder as a way of protecting herself from an awareness of her own hatred for her abusive mother. The therapist’s suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.


Which of the following disorders is most often characterized by the avoidance of situations in which panic may strike?


False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called


In which of the following disorders is a person continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic arousal?

generalized anxiety disorder

Which of the following has been shown to be a risk factor for future suicide attempts?

NSSI (non suicidal self injury)

Personality disorders are best described as

inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

A therapist believes that Chet is chronically depressed because he takes too little credit for his many achievements and assumes too much responsibility for his few failures. The therapist’s interpretation reflects a ________ perspective.


The upcoming DSM-5 is being developed along with the eleventh edition of the ________, which will cover both medical and psychological disorders.

ICD International classification of disease

Changes proposed for the DSM-5 will likely reduce the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with
a. phobias.
b. antisocial personality disorder.
c. bipolar disorder. Incorrect
d. bulimia nervosa.

Norby, an 18-year-old first-year university student, has missed almost all his classes during the past month. He spends most of his time in his bedroom, frequently not even bothering to get dressed or eat meals. He thinks his whole life has been a failure and blames himself for being a social misfit. Norby is most likely suffering from

Major depressive disorder

Which of the following could best be described as a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

flat affect

An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with


A biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse would be most likely to emphasize

the similarities between substance abuse disorders and personality disorders.

While driving to work, Pedro hears a radio advertisement for a new restaurant. Throughout the day, the tune associated with the advertisement keeps running through his head. Pedro’s inability to stop thinking about the tune best illustrates the nature of aNo


Such behaviors as cutting one’s skin, hitting oneself, or pulling one’s hair out are examples of


Compared with those whose occupations require precision and logic, those whose occupations rely on emotional expression and vivid imagery are more likely to experience

bipolar disorder.

Those with a histrionic personality disorder are most likely to display

dramatic, attention-getting behaviors.

Schizophrenia victims have difficulty focusing attention. This is most likely to be related to a smaller-than-normal


Compulsions are best described as

repetitive behaviors.

A biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse would be most likely to emphasize

a. the distinction between consciously and unconsciously motivated substance abuse.
b. the similarities between substance abuse disorders and personality disorders. Incorrect
c. the interactive influences of nature and nurture on substance abuse.
d. that substance abuse is simply a lifestyle choice and not a psychological disorder.

One cluster of personality disorders marked by noticeably odd or eccentric behavior is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder.


The rise of Western individualism appears most clearly responsible for an increase in


Those who engage in spurts of excessive overeating, followed by remorse—but do not binge, purge, or fast—are said to have

binge-eating disorder.

To call psychological disorders "sicknesses" is especially likely to encourage research supporting

the medical model.

Niesha demonstrates seven different personalities that appear to take turns controlling her behavior. Evidence that the same life memories are consciously experienced by all the alternate personalities would most clearly rule out the contribution of ________ to her disorder.


A person who has agoraphobia is most likely to

avoid being outside his or her home.

Individuals with eating disorders tend to have

d. low self-evaluations and high achievement standards.

Anxiety is considered disordered if it is

persistent and distressing.

The chances for recovery from schizophrenia are considered to be greatest when the disorder develops

rapidly in response to a stressful life situation.

A therapist suggests that Mr. Ozawa’s fear of darkness can probably be traced back to his early childhood when he was occasionally beaten and locked up in a small, dark closet by an older brother. The therapist’s suggestion most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.


Major depressive disorder is said to occur when signs of depression last at least

2 weeks

In discovering that certain psychological disorders occur only in particular cultures, we are providing evidence for the.

biopsychosocial approach

A reduced level of synchronized neural activity in the frontal lobes has been associated with symptoms of


Self-blaming attributions are most likely to be associated with


Within the last year, Mr. Shangkun has been fired by three different employers because they each discovered that he was stealing money or materials from their companies. Although he feels no remorse for his misdeeds, his outward signs of repentance have dissuaded his former employers from taking him to court. Mr. Shangkun’s behavior is most indicative of

antisocial personality disorder.

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