Psych chapter 11

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1. _____ is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.

D. Social psychology

2. The bystander effect is most likely to occur

A. when someone is witnessing an emergency and there are several other people present.

3. In the context of social behavior, which of the following best explains why the bystander effect occurs?

A. People tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do.

4. _____ refers to the processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others

B. Person perception

5. The area of social psychology that explores how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information is called

D. social cognition.

6. In the context of research in the area of physical attractiveness, which of the following faces will most likely be rated as most attractive?

D. a composite of multiple faces that have been digitally blended to produce an "average" face

7. Which of the following statements about research on the "beautiful is good" stereotype is FALSE?

C. There is little truth to the "beautiful is good" stereotype. Attractive people do not really possess the positive characteristics of the stereotype.

8. A _____ is a generalization about a group’s characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.

A. stereotype

9. Parents warn a new babysitter that their son, Dennis, is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result of this initial expectation, the babysitter starts calling Dennis "Dennis the Menace," and he behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called

A. self-fulfilling prophecy.

10. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen conducted a study in 1968. The researchers told grade-school teachers that five students were likely to be "late bloomers"—that these students had high levels of ability that would likely emerge over time. In reality, the students had been randomly selected by the researchers. Nonetheless, a year later, the researchers found that teachers’ expectations for the "late bloomers" were reflected in student performance—the academic performance of the "late bloomers" was beyond that of other students. The results from this study demonstrate which of the following concepts?

C. self-fulfilling prophecy

11. Self-fulfilling prophecy

A. effects show the potential power of stereotypes and other sources of expectations on human behavior.

12. The process by which we come to understand the causes of others’ behavior is known as

D. attribution.

13. Attribution theory

B. views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of their behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior.

14. According to attribution theory, attributions vary along which of the following dimensions?

A. internal/external causes

15. Jack and John were recently dumped by their girlfriends. Jack believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she is selfish and unhappy, whereas John believes that his girlfriend broke up with him because she had to attend to a family emergency and could not make a commitment right now. Jack is making a(n) _____ about his girlfriend’s behavior, whereas John is making a(n) _____.

A. internal attribution/external attribution

16. Which of the following statements is true of stereotype threat?

B. A person who experiences stereotype threat is well aware of stereotypical expectations for him or her as a member of a group

17. _____ is an individual’s fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative idea about his or her group

A. Stereotype threat

18. Attributions that include causes inside and specific to a person, such as his or her traits and abilities, are called

A. internal attributions

19. Based on Claude Steele and Eliot Aronson’s research on stereotype threat, we should be especially concerned about instructions for standardized tests if they

A. ask for race/ethnic information before the test starts.

20. You are watching golf and see Tiger Woods scowl. You would be making the fundamental attribution error if you assumed that

A. he has an angry and volatile personality.

21. You come to a conclusion that Carla is a naturally anxious woman. You ignore the fact that Carla is currently taking finals and working 40 hours per week. You are demonstrating the

A. fundamental attribution error.

22. You watch as Emma stumbles and drops her books in the hall. If you commit the fundamental attribution error when assessing Emma, how would you explain her behavior?

B. She is a clumsy person.

23. The _____ is the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do.

D. false consensus effect

24. Although Jeff frequently exceeds the speed limit by at least 10 mph, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other drivers do the same. This belief best illustrates

A. the false consensus effect.

25. Lily does not approve of abortion. She is shocked when she finds out how many people in her state hold pro-choice attitudes. This is an example of

C. the false consensus effect.

26. _____ refers to the tendency to take credit for one’s own successes and to deny responsibility for one’s own failures.

C. Self-serving bias

27. Whenever Claudia gets an A on her psychology exam, she believes it was due to the fact that she is an intelligent, hard-working student. However, when she receives a C on an exam, she blames the instructor’s ineffective teaching style and poor choice of test questions. Claudia’s behavior is an example of

B. the self-serving bias.

28. Cindy recently played in a softball game in which she misplayed a ground ball for an error. Later, in the same game, she made a great catch on a very difficult play. According to the self-serving bias, she would attribute her error to _____ and her good catch to her _____.

D. a bad bounce/good fielding skills

29. The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the external situation and overestimate the impact of inner traits when they seek explanations of another person’s behavior is called

B. the fundamental attribution error

30. In attribution theory, the person who offers a causal explanation of the actor’s behavior is called the

B. observer

31. Which of the following statements is true of social comparison?

B. Social comparison helps identify distinctive characteristics of a person and helps in building an identity.

32. _____ are favorable views of the self that are not necessarily rooted in reality.

D. Positive illusions

33. Despite evidence to the contrary, Denise thinks she is smarter than most of the people in her class. Denise’s unfounded attitude about herself is an example of a(n)

A. positive illusion

34. Individuals who have positive illusions about the self

C. tend to show high levels of psychological well-being

35. The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others is known as

C. social comparison

36. "Am I as popular as Cathy?" This question is an example of gaining self-knowledge through the process of

D. social comparison

37. Festinger’s social comparison theory

A. provides an important rationale for how individuals come to know themselves.

38. _____ are people’s opinions and beliefs about other people, objects, and ideas, and how they feel about the world

C. Attitudes

39. _____ is the psychological discomfort caused by two inconsistent thoughts

B. Cognitive dissonance

40. When people try to confront Alfred about drinking too much alcohol, he replies, "Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I’ll die having a good time." This statement made by Alan illustrates his attempt to reduce

B. cognitive dissonance

41. Cognitive dissonance theory states that in order to reduce dissonance, individuals

D. try to align their attitudes and behavior

42. Hugh bought a new calculator at Staples for $125. One week later, he saw an ad from Walmart showing the same calculator on sale for $65. Hugh said to himself, "I’m glad I got my calculator at Staples; the ones at Walmart are probably defective. I don’t mind having paid more for mine." Hugh’s statement reflects

A. cognitive dissonance reduction

43. According to the cognitive dissonance theory, when attitudes and behavior conflict, individuals tend to reduce cognitive dissonance by

A. changing their attitudes to fit the behavior

44. Which of the following is a similarity between the cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory?

A. Both theories suggest that behavior can change attitudes

45. According to the self-perception theory of attitudes, what do individuals do to make inferences about their attitudes?

D. They perceive their behavior

46. _____ theory is Daryl Bem’s take on how behaviors influence attitudes.

A. Self-perception

47. According to the self-perception theory,

D. behaviors can cause attitudes

48. Juanita returned home after being away for several years. When she saw her father, whom she thought she disliked, she hugged him and cried. Based on her crying when she saw him, she determined that she must like him more than she thought. This is most consistent with the of attitudes

C. self-perception theory

9. _____ refers to rationalizing the amount of work we put into getting something by increasing its value

B. Effort justification

50. In the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, the central route

B. is more persuasive when people have the ability and the motivation to pay attention.

51. In the context of persuasion strategies, the door-in-the-face technique involves

C. making the biggest pitch first

52. The elaboration likelihood model

D. identifies two ways to persuade: a central route and a peripheral route

53. Allison is at a workshop where a presenter is attempting to persuade people to make a rather risky but potentially profitable financial investment. The arguments for investing appeal to logic and reason. After slowly and carefully considering the presenter’s arguments, Alison finds that this person’s idea sounds compelling and decides to invest. This example best demonstrates the

C. central route to persuasion

54. Central route persuasion

B. involves engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument.

55. According to _____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request.

A. the foot-in-the-door technique

56. John is selling magazine subscriptions and chocolates. He asks you whether you are interested in buying some chocolates for $1 and you say yes. When you go to get the money to pay for the chocolates and return to the door, John asks you if you would also like to buy a $25 subscription to a variety of magazines. Even though you don’t read magazines, you agree to buy a magazine subscription. This is an example of

C. the foot-in-the-door technique

57. A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the

A. foot-in-the-door technique

58. The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big, ugly election sign on their lawn. If the people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The staff is using

B. the door-in-the-face technique

59. _____ means helping another person for personal gain, such as to feel good, or avoid guilt.

A. Egoism

60. Which of the following is true of agreeableness in the context of prosocial behavior?

C. It is related to greater volume in the posterior cingulate cortex

61. Deficits in the functioning of the _____ are associated with aggression.

D. frontal lobes

62. The hormone that is typically implicated in aggressive behavior is

B. testosterone

63. Robert, a nine-year-old boy, loves watching wrestling on TV. Last night, he used several of the aggressive wrestling moves on his little brother. Which of the following theories best explains William’s behavior?

A. observational learning

64. Which of the following statements is true of the frustration-aggression hypothesis?

B. It states that frustration always leads to aggression

65. According to research on aggressive behavior, which of the following personality factors is mostly associated with aggression?

D. low levels of conscientiousness

66. A man who slaps his wife during an argument is most likely exhibiting

C. overt aggression

67. Behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person through activities such as gossiping and spreading rumors is known as

A. relational aggression

68. Susan drives by an unusually colorful apartment building each day on her way to and from work. Initially, she does not think much of the structure and has a mild dislike for it. However, after several months of commuting, she starts to like the apartment building and is even considering renting an apartment there. This change in Susan’s feelings about the building best demonstrates

C. the mere exposure effect.

69. Tom has left home and is attending college in a city far away from home where he doesn’t know anybody. According to the principle of proximity, Tom will be most likely to make friends with

A. Bill, his roommate

70. The mere exposure effect provides one possible explanation for why _____ increases attraction.

A. proximity

71. _____ involves strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and is often predominant in the early part of a love relationship.

A. Romantic love

72. When individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person, they are displaying

B. affectionate love

73. Social psychologists believe that _____ is particularly strong during the early stages of a relationship, and that _____ increases as the relationship grows and matures.

B. romantic love/affectionate love

74. Melissa and John have been happily married for 30 years because they have ensured that they have no opportunities to fight. Both of them have jobs so they contribute proportionately to the household income, and they equally share all other responsibilities. Melissa and John’s happy marriage can best be explained by the

A. social exchange theory

75. From the perspective of the investment model of close relationships, long-term relationships are most likely to continue when

C. there are few tempting alternatives for the partners

76. According to _____, social relationships involve an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits

B. social exchange theory

77. According to _____, the most important predictor of relationship success is having both partners feel that each is doing his or her "fair share."

B. social exchange theory

78. According to social exchange theory, the most important predictor of relationship success is

A. equity.

79. Equity is a strong predictor of relationship satisfaction

D. during the early but not later stages of a relationship

80. Which theory of attraction suggests that long-term relationships are likely to continue when both partners are committed and put a lot into the relationship and when there are few attractive tempting alternatives around?

A. the investment model

81. Dave is a handsome and famous celebrity. He has been dating Gabriela, a beautiful and popular actress, for the past two months, but he doesn’t feel strongly committed to their relationship. Recently, Dave has been working on a new movie and several women have expressed their interest in getting to know him better. Dave is now contemplating
whether he should stay with Gabriela or explore the more tempting alternatives. According to the investment model, what will Dave probably do next?

D. He will probably break up with Gabriela and give in to the temptation of dating other women.

82. The volunteer participants in Solomon Asch’s experiment on conformity conformed to group pressure to select the incorrect answer approximately _____ percent of the time.

C. 35

83. Which of the following statements best defines conformity?

A. a change in a person’s behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard

84. In the context of social influence, Solomon Asch’s experiment demonstrates

A. conformity

85. In the context of psychological factors in conformity, which of the following best describes informational social influence?

A. It refers to the influence people have on an individual because the individual wants to be right

86. When members of a group know something that a person doesn’t, the person will follow the group to be right. This explains the concept of

D. informational social influence.

87. Rosalie was invited to a black-tie dinner at the Ritz Carlton. She’s never been served a 10-course meal before, so she’s unfamiliar with the social etiquette regarding silverware selection. Since Rosalie is in a foreign environment, she gets through the night by watching others who appear to know what they are doing. For each course, she follows their selection of silverware. Rosalie is guided by

B. informational social influence

88. _____ is based on a person’s desire to be liked by a group

B. Normative social influence

89. Joyce has the potential to be an honor student but frustrates her teachers because of her actions. Rather than working to succeed, she tends to "dummy down" to act more like the students that she hangs out with. She has at times answered questions incorrectly in class on purpose to be more like her friends. Joyce’s behavior is due to

D. normative social influence

90. A classic series of experiments by Stanley Milgram demonstrated the profound effect of

C. obedience.

91. The factor that differentiates Jerry Burger’s recreated Milgram’s study from the original Milgram’s experiment is that, in Burger’s study

D. participants were never allowed to go higher than 150 volts

92. Which of the following conclusions was drawn from the Stanford prison experiment conducted by Zimbardo?

B. People are more likely to be evil when personal responsibility is removed.

93. The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group is known as

D. deindividuation.

94. The Stanford prison experiment provides a dramatic example of how social situations and the roles we take on in life can influence

A. deindividuation.

95. June is usually very quiet, but she recently discovered a different side of herself. During Mardi Gras, she found herself swept up in the festivities, doing the things that the other party-goers were doing. These were not behaviors that she would have ever considered engaging in on her own. Social psychologists would most likely attribute June’s behavior to

C. deindividuation.

96. One explanation for the effects of deindividuation in groups is that groups

C. give people anonymity

97. The effects of others on our behavior can take the form of _____, imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas

C. social contagion

98. You are studying in a quiet but crowded library when you suddenly start coughing. You soon notice others doing the same thing. This is an example of

D. social contagion

99. According to the social facilitation effect, the presence of others is likely to

C. reduce performance on difficult tasks.

100. Psychologists believe that the social facilitation effect occurs because

A. the presence of other individuals arouses us.

101. Ralph just started taking guitar lessons last week. Jimmie has been playing guitar for almost 20 years. According to the concept of social facilitation, performing in front of an audience of strangers and friends tonight is likely to _____ Ralph’s performance and _____ Jimmie’s performance

C. decrease/enhance

102. Social loafing refers to the

A. tendency for people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone

103. Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference is best explained by the phenomenon of

B. social loafing

104. The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members is known as

C. risky shift.

105. Which of the following statements is true of the concept of risky shift?

B. It is the tendency for individuals to more willingly endorse riskier decisions when in a group than when they are alone.

106. In the context of group decision making, groupthink can be prevented by

A. selecting an impartial leader.

107. In the context of group decision making, which of the following is a symptom of groupthink?

D. pressure for unanimity

108. Katie, who is moderately liberal, attends a very liberal college. After four years at this college, Katie is likely to become more liberal as a result of

C. group polarization

109. _____ refers to the impaired decision making that occurs in a team when making the right decision is less important than maintaining harmony.

D. Groupthink

110. Which of the following is most likely to reduce the kinds of group biases that exist in face-to-face groups?

C. crowdsourcing

111. Which of the following is true of majority and minority influence in a group?

D. The minority in a group cannot win through normative pressure

112. _____ refers to the way individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership

A. Social identity

113. Which of the following theories best explains why individuals like to think of their group as an in-group?

B. social identity theory

114. Rob and Deandra are members of a football team. Their self-esteem is greatly affected by their team’s performance. They tend to compare their team with that of the opponents in order to improve their self-image. Which of the following theories best explains this scenario?

A. the social identity theory

115. The tendency to favor one’s own cultural group over other groups is called

B. ethnocentrism

116. In a study based on Tajfel’s theory of social identity, Cathy is randomly assigned to Group A, and Sara is randomly assigned to Group B. When asked to award money to other study participants, both Cathy and Sara award money only to members of their own groups. This behavior is predicted by Tajfel’s theory and best exemplifies

A. in-group favoritism.

117. _____ is an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual’s membership in a group

B. Prejudice

118. Andrew openly criticizes the Asian Americans in his neighborhood. He says that the presence of these "outsiders" has led to an increase in the crime rate in the United States. Others in his neighborhood do not agree with him. His openly shared racist attitude is an example of

D. explicit racism

119. _____ is reflected in a person’s conscious and openly shared attitude, which might be measured using a questionnaire, whereas _____ refers to attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level, thus they must be measured with a method that does not require awareness.

B. Explicit racism/implicit racism

120. An important feature of optimal intergroup contact that involves working together on a shared goal is known as

D. task-oriented cooperation

121. Sherif’s Robbers Cave study showed that perceptions of the out-group are affected by

C. competitive and cooperative activities

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