behavioral perspective |
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how external environmental events condition observable behavior. |

biological perspective |
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how the brain, nervous system, and other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes. |

cognitive perspective |
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how mental processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, work and impact behavior. |

hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon) |
The tendency, after learning about an outcome, to be overconfident in one’s ability to have predicted it. |

psychology |
The science of behavior and mental processes. |

sociocultural perspective |
A research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how other people and the cultural context impact behavior and mental processes. |

case study |
A descriptive research method in which the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time. |

operational definition |
A description of the operations or procedures that a researcher uses to manipulate or measure a variable. |

correlation coefficient |
A statistic that tells us the type and the strength of the relationship between two variables. The sign of the coefficient (+ or -) indicates the type of correlation-positive or negative, respectively. The absolute value of the coefficient (0.0 to 1.0) represents the strength of the correlation, with 1.0 being the maximum strength. |

participant observation |
A descriptive research method in which the observer becomes part of the group being observed. |

dependent variable |
In an experiment, a variable that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable and thus is measured by the experimenter. |

placebo |
An inactive pill or a treatment that has no known effects. |

placebo effect |
Improvement due to the expectation of improving because of receiving treatment. |

placebo group |
A control group of participants who believe they are receiving treatment, but who are only receiving a placebo. |

experiment |
A research method in which the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on one or more dependent variables while controlling other potentially relevant variables. |

independent variable |
In an experiment, the variable that is a hypothesized cause and thus is manipulated by the experimenter. |

meta-analysis |
A statistical technique that combines the results of a large number of studies on one experimental question into one analysis to arrive at an overall conclusion. |

population |
The entire group of people that a researcher is studying. |

nocebo effect |
A negative placebo effect due to the expectation of adverse consequences from receiving treatment. |

positive correlation |
A direct relationship between two variables. |

correlational study |
A research study in which two variables are measured to determine if they are related (how well either one predicts the other). |

random assignment |
A control measure in which participants are randomly assigned to groups in order to equalize participant characteristics across the various groups in an experiment. |

experimental group |
In an experiment, the group exposed to the independent variable. |

random sampling |
A sampling technique that obtains a representative sample of a population by ensuring that each individual in a population has an equal opportunity to be in the sample. |

control group |
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the independent variable. |

double-blind procedure |
A control measure in an experiment in which neither the experimenters nor the participants know which participants are in the experimental and control groups. |

inferential statistical analyses |
Statistical analyses that allow researchers to draw conclusions about the results of a study by determining the probability that the results are due to random variation (chance). The results are statistically significant if this probability is .05 or less. |

negative correlation |
An inverse relationship between two variables. |

sample |
The subset of a population that actually participates in a research study. |

scatterplot |
A visual depiction of correlational data in which each data point represents the scores on the two variables for each participant. |

survey research |
A descriptive research method in which the researcher uses questionnaires and interviews to collect information about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people. |

third-variable problem |
An explanation of a correlation between two variables in terms of another (third) variable that could possibly be responsible for the observed relationship between the two variables. |

variable |
Any factor that can take on more than one value. |

A correlation between variables can be detected by visual inspection of a: |
scatterplot. |

If persons with low scores on one variable also have low scores on another variable, the two variables are: |
positively correlated. |

If persons with high scores on one variable are equally likely to have either high or low scores on a second variable, the two variables are: |
not correlated. |

The correlation coefficient enables researchers to specify the ________ of the relationship between two variables. |
strength |

Imagine that your computer program has provided the following pairs of test scores received by five different children. http://www.macmillanhighered.com/brainhoney/resource/22292/www.worthpublishers.com/qmgif/psychsim5/psychsim_table.jpg The correlation coefficient between these two sets of test scores would increase if you did not include the scores received by: |
Jordan. |

descriptive statistics |
Statistics that describe the results of a research study in a concise fashion. |

mode |
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores. |

mean |
The numerical average of a distribution of scores. |

median |
The score positioned in the middle of a distribution of scores when all of the scores are arranged from lowest to highest. |

range |
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution of scores. |

left-skewed distribution |
An asymmetric frequency distribution in which there are some unusually low scores that distort the mean to be less than the median. |

right-skewed distribution |
An asymmetric frequency distribution in which there are some unusually high scores that distort the mean to be greater than the median. |

frequency distribution |
A depiction, in a table or figure, of the number of participants (frequency) receiving each score for a variable. |

normal distribution |
A frequency distribution that is shaped like a bell. About 68 percent of the scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean, about 95 percent within 2 standard deviations of the mean, and over 99 percent within 3 standard deviations of the mean. |

percentile rank |
The percentage of scores below a specific score in a distribution of scores. |

standard deviation |
The average extent that the scores vary from the mean for a distribution of scores. |

Which of the following major research perspectives focuses on conditioning by external environmental events as the major cause of our behavior? |
behavioral |

Which of the following would be the best procedure for obtaining a representative sample of the students at your school? |
sampling randomly from a list of all the students enrolled at your school |

Which of the following research methods allow(s) the researcher to draw cause-effect conclusions? |
experimental |

Height and weight are _______ correlated; elevation and temperature are _______ correlated. |
positively; negatively |

Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the STRONGEST relationship? |
-.81 |

Manipulate is to measure as ______ is to ______. |
independent variable; dependent variable |

In an experiment, the ______ group participants receive an inactive treatment but are told that the treatment will help them. |
placebo |

The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores is the ______, and the average score is the ______. |
mode; mean |

About ______ percent of the scores in a normal distribution are between -1 standard deviation and +1 standard deviation of the mean. |
68 |

In a left-skewed distribution, the mean is ______ than the median; in a right-skewed distribution, the mean is _______ than the median. |
less; greater |

Shere Hite’s failure to use ______ resulted in misleading findings for her women and love survey study. |
random sampling |

Professor Jones noticed that the distribution of students’ scores on his last biology exam had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that: |
students’ scores tended to be very similar to one another |

In a normal distribution, the percentile rank for a score that is 1 standard deviation below the mean is roughly ______%. |
16 |

Dian Fossey’s study of gorillas is an example of ______. |
naturalistic observation that turned into participant observation |

Which of the following types of scatterplots depicts a weak, negative correlation? |
a lot of scatter with data points going from top left to bottom right |

As a scientific endeavor, the goal of psychology is primarily the: |
study of behavior and mental processes. |

One who believes that environmental events condition observable behavior is taking the _____ perspective. |
behavioral |

A researcher utilizing the sociocultural perspective is most likely to study: |
the influence of the number of bystanders on the likelihood that a bystander will help out in a perceived emergency. |

The methods used by all psychology researchers can be categorized as: |
descriptive, correlational, and experimental. |

A sample is considered to be "random" if: |
each member of the population has an equal opportunity to be included in the sample. |

A(n) _____ effect occurs when a group of participants improves merely because they expect to improve since they are receiving a treatment. Many well-designed experiments control this effect by ____. |
placebo; including a group that falsely believes it is receiving treatment |

If a town with 100 residents has a mean annual income of $20,000 per person, which will change the most if a person who earns $200,000,000 ($200 million) per year moves to town? |
The mean will change the most. |

If your teacher tells you that you scored in the 97th percentile of a normally distributed set of scores, this means that your score was approximately _____ the mean. |
two standard deviations above |

In a distribution, the percentage of scores _____ is called the percentile rank. |
below a specific score |

Tamika records scores of 26, 30, 23, 25, and 30. What is the median? |
26 |

A researcher creates a frequency distribution of the intelligence test scores of the participants in his study. He finds that the mean intelligence test score is greater than the median, and the median is greater than the mode. The distribution is BEST described as a: |
right-skewed distribution. |

A researcher creates a frequency distribution of the intelligence test scores of the participants in his study. He finds that the median intelligence test score is greater than the mean, and the mode is greater than the median. The distribution is BEST described as a: |
left-skewed distribution. |

Statistically speaking, as ice cream sales increase, the number of people who drown also increase. Which is the MOST likely source of a third-variable problem? |
summer temperatures |

Dr. Fillmore gave participants a list of numbers and then tested the accuracy of the participants when they repeated the numbers. Dr. Fillmore is investigating from a _____ perspective. |
cognitive |

Which BEST describes a potential problem of survey research? |
Participants may demonstrate social desirability and respond in socially approved ways. |

How many modes are there in these scores: 11, 13, 11, 15, 13, 10? |
2 |

Which would NOT be a topic pursued from the cognitive perspective? |
whether there is a correlation between brain damage and symptoms of depression |

Which is MOST closely related to the behavioral perspective? |
an examination of the role of punishment in reducing nicotine use in adolescents |

An instructor creates a frequency distribution for the most recent exam. The instructor finds that many students got 60 percent or more of the questions correct, fewer students got 61 percent to 79 percent of the questions correct, and only a few students got more than 80 percent correct. This frequency distribution is a: |
right-skewed distribution. |

Li Po records scores of 26, 30, 23, 25, and 30. What is the mode? |
30 |

An instructor compares the grades on the first exam in her class to the grades on the final exam in the class. A scatterplot indicates that students who earned high grades on the first exam tended to earn high grades on the second exam. This is an example of: |
a correlational study. |

Dr. Rangel injected rats with an antidepressant drug to test the effects of the drug on anxiety. Dr. Rangel is investigating from a _____ perspective. |
biological |

As customers leave a supermarket, a researcher interviews them about their shopping behaviors. What research method is the researcher using? |
survey research |

Which BEST describes the advantage of a meta-analysis? |
The conclusions are stronger evidence than a single study. |

Hindsight bias occurs in both children and adults, and in various countries. These findings across age groups and countries are based primarily on the _____ perspective. |
sociocultural |

Dr. Bates observed how an individual’s body language changed when she was by herself compared to when she was in the company of a group of people. Dr. Bates is investigating from a _____ perspective. |
sociocultural |

A researcher tests participants for their ability to recognize pictures. The participants were shown 50 words, and the mean number of pictures correctly recognized was 32. The researcher finds that 50 percent of the participants recognized more than 32 pictures, and 50 percent recognized fewer than 32 pictures. This frequency distribution is a: |
normal distribution. |

Bill records scores of 26, 30, 23, 25, and 30. What is the mean? |
26.8 |

The sign of a correlation coefficient indicates: |
whether the correlation is positive or negative. |

The third-variable problem refers to: |
an explanation of a correlation between two variables in terms of another variable. |

A researcher examines the effects of rewards and punishments on work performance. In one condition, workers are rewarded for good performance, and good performance increases. In the other condition, workers are punished for poor performance, and this results in less poor performance. The researcher is using a _____ perspective. |
behavioral |

_____ is a technique in which a representative sample of participants is obtained, and _____ is a control measure in which the researcher assigns participants to the conditions in an experiment. |
Random sampling, random assignment |

A researcher creates a table that lists all possible scores and the number of participants who received each score. The researcher created a: |
frequency distribution. |

To overcome the potential for the observer to influence the group being observed in a naturalist observation study, a _____ method should be used. |
participant observation |

An instructor adds up all the scores on an exam and divides that value by the number of the students in the class. The resulting answer is the: |
mean |

A psychological researcher examines the mechanisms that allow people to solve problems, make decisions, and judge differences between choices. Her research is based on a _____ perspective. |
cognitive |

To examine the capacity of human memory, a researcher gives participants a list of words and has the participants create a mental image for each word. The researcher is using a _____ perspective. |
cognitive |

To test the effects of exercise on depression, a researcher had some participants exercise one hour per day for three weeks, while another group performed no exercise for three weeks. The group that exercised is BEST described as: |
the experimental group. |

To examine food foraging behaviors of squirrels, a researcher sets up a camera overlooking a small section of a forest. The researcher describes all of the behaviors that she observes. The method he is using is BEST described as: |
naturalistic observation. |

An instructor reports that the majority of students in the instructor’s class received a B-. The instructor has MOST likely reported the: |
mode. |

While standing on the corner of a busy street, Tom saw a serious car accident. He decided not to call for help because there were many other bystanders and he assumed one of the others would call for help. Which BEST explains Tom’s decision? |
the bystander effect |

An instructor collects all the scores on an exam, sorts them in ascending order, and then selects the score in the middle. The resulting answer is the: |
median. |

An instructor reports that half the students in her class scored above a B- and half scored below a B-. In this example, B- represents the: |
median. |

An instructor creates a frequency distribution for the most recent exam. The instructor finds that many students got 80 percent or more of the questions correct, fewer students got 60 to 79 percent of the questions correct, and only a few students got fewer than 59 percent correct. This frequency distribution is a: |
left-skewed distribution. |

Dr. Reed gave pigeons a food pellet if they pecked a button at the same time that a red light flashed. She wanted to see if the red light created a conditioned response. Dr. Reed is investigating from a _____ perspective. |
behavioral |

A researcher examines the role of education in the likelihood that people will endorse stereotypes about other people. This research is based on a _____ perspective. |
sociocultural |

A large factory creates a frequency distribution of the employees’ income. There are many low incomes, slightly fewer middle incomes, and only a few very high incomes. This frequency distribution is a: |
right-skewed distribution. |

To create a sample of participants, a researcher selected the first 30 students on a list of psychology majors at the researcher’s institution. What aspect of research methods did the researcher MOST likely violate? |
The researcher did not use random sampling. |

Which could NOT be a variable of a study that tests the effects of an antidepressant on rats? |
species |

A researcher examines personality differences between North Americans and Europeans. The researcher is using a _____ perspective. |
sociocultural |

A researcher compares the results across five different studies that tested the memory impairment effects of a new drug that was used to treat depression. The researcher has used: |
a meta-analysis. |

As the population of a city increases, the total number of crimes also increases. This is described as a: |
positive correlation. |

If there is no correlation between two variables, the points in a scatterplot will: |
be randomly scattered throughout the scatter plot. |

A researcher wants to determine if there is any relationship between students’ academic performance and the amount of television they watch. He collects academic data for 100 students, and records the average number of hours each of those students watch television. The researcher’s method is: |
a correlational study. |

To investigate how participants in psychology experiments behave while they are waiting to participate in an experiment, a researcher pretends to be a participant while recording the behaviors of the other participants. This researcher’s method is BEST described as: |
participant observation. |

To examine how depression affects an individual’s life, a clinician recorded a detailed account of a patient across a 10-year period. The type of research method used was: |
a case study. |

On an exam, an instructor asks the students how many hours they studied for the exam. The instructor finds that as the number of hours studied increased, scores on the exam also increased. This is an example of a: |
positive correlation. |

In a left-skewed distribution, what is the relationship between the mode and the mean? |
The mode is greater than the mean. |

A researcher observes interactions between mothers and their children, and examines how reinforcements and punishments shape the children’s behavior. The researcher is using a _____ perspective. |
behavioral |

A right-skewed distribution is an asymmetric distribution with _____ that distort the shape of the distribution. |
very high scores |

On an exam, an instructor asks the students how many hours they studied for the exam and how many hours of television they watched in the week preceding the exam. The instructor finds that as the number of hours studied increased, the number of hours of television watched decreased. This is an example of a: |
negative correlation. |

The _____ is the percentage of scores below a specific score in a distribution. |
percentile rank |

A researcher proposes that physical attraction between two people is a product of an evolutionary process. This researcher is using a _____ perspective. |
biological |

The percentile rank is the percentage of scores: |
below a specific score in a distribution. |

A researcher proposes an evolutionary explanation for common gender differences in the observed personality traits of men and women. This researcher’s proposal is based on the _____ perspective. |
biological |

The standard deviation represents: |
the average difference between the scores and the mean. |

The _____ is the difference between the lowest and the highest values in a distribution of scores. |
range |

With respect to normal distributions, as the size of the standard deviation increases, the bell shape becomes: |
shorter and wider. |

Which correlation coefficient is strongest? |
-0.7 |

A researcher examines whether a new drug designed to treat depression is effective. The researcher randomly assigns some participants to an experimental group that receives the pill, and other participants to a placebo group. The researcher gave the participants a measure of depression level before and after the treatments and found that both groups had lower levels of depression after the treatment. The researcher is frustrated and wants to use a new design to control for the effect of the placebo. The researcher should: |
use a double-blind procedure. |

A researcher noticed that several studies failed to produce a significant effect in an experimental condition using exercise to reduce anxiety. In an effort to gain power by combining the data across all of the studies, the researcher analyzed all the data in one statistical test. This is known as: |
a meta-analysis. |

_____ is to average as _____ is to variability. |
Mean; standard deviation |

The purpose of a descriptive statistic is to: |
provide a concise description of the data of a research study. |

# PSYCH CH. 1

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