PSYCH-101 Chapter 14

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Which of the following is (are) true?

a)Abnormal and normal behavior exist on a continuum

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding abnormal behavior?

b)Many mentally ill individuals work at moderate- and high-level jobs.

Which of the Four D’s is often overestimated?

d) Danger

This has NOT been used as an approach to defining abnormal behavior.

c) Medical school consensus

Frances was diagnosed with a mental illness because she lost her job when she tested positive for marijuana use at a company that requires frequent random drug testing. From the criteria of identifying abnormal behavior, this is an example of _____.

b) personal dysfunction or distress

Using the violation of social norms approach, which of the following persons is engaged in abnormal behavior?

a) A Thai woman "runs amok." b) An Ethiopian says he’s possessed by "Zar." c) A Vietnamese man believes his penis is retracting into his abdomen. d) All of these options***

Windigo psychosis is an example of a _____ mental disorder.

a) culture-bound

These culture-general symptoms are associated with psychological disorders that disrupt everyday functioning across several cultural groups.

a) Nervousness, worrying all the time, or restlessness b) Trouble sleeping, low spirits, or feeling apart or alone c) Weak all over, hot all over, or can’t do anything worthwhile d) All of these options***

Which of the following was NOT a treatment for abnormal behavior in earlier times?

d) Phrenology

In early therapy of abnormal behavior, _____ was used to allow evil spirits to escape, while _____ was designed to make the body so uncomfortable it would be uninhabitable to the devil.

b) trephining; exorcism

Worthington has been praying and fasting for days. His healer has been making extraordinary noises, beating him, and giving him foul-tasting brews to drink. It is MOST likely that Worthington and his healer are _____.

c) exorcising the demons that are responsible for Worthington’s troubles

Jamanani was raised to believe that people who behaved abnormally were possessed by evil spirits; Zelos agrees with Hippocrates that abnormal behavior arises from a physical condition. Jamanani adheres to the _____ model of abnormality; Zelos adheres to the _____ model.

c) demonological; medical

The _____ assumes that abnormal behavior is due to physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured.

a) medical model

_____ is the specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

a) Psychology

According to Dr. Szasz, the medical model of mental illness _____.

a) encourages people to believe they have no responsibility for their actions

Compared to the medical model, psychology offers which of the following explanations for abnormal behavior?

a) Unconscious thoughts, blocked personal growth, and faulty thinking b) Inappropriate conditioning or modeling c) Problems with genes, brain structure, or neurotransmitters d) All of these options***

The classification system produced by the American Psychiatric Association and used to describe abnormal behaviors is called the DSM 5. DSM is an abbreviation for _____.

c) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The purpose of the DSM 5 is to provide ____.

a) descriptions of disorders

This is the current term for serious mental disorders characterized by a loss of contact with reality and extreme mental disruptions.

b) Neurosis

_____ is a legal term for people with a mental disorder that implies a lack of responsibility for their behavior and an inability to manage their affairs.

c) Insanity

The occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time is _______.

d) comorbidity

"Insanity" is a _____ term that is used in of cases that reach trial.

b) legal; 1%

Which of the following is FALSE about the DSM 5?

d) It relies on psychologically based explanations for mental disorders, rather than the medical model of mental illness.

This is a fear or discomfort that arises abruptly and usually involves feelings of impending doom.

a) Panic attack

Anxiety disorders are _____.

a) characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear

Anxiety is experienced by nearly everyone, and is not a mental disorder unless _____

b) its chronic intensity disrupts your life

Chronic, uncontrollable, excessive worrying about nothing in particular is associated with _____.

c) generalized anxiety disorder

Sudden inexplicable episodes of intense fear with an impending sense of doom are associated with _____.

c) panic disorder

Udo is frequently and suddenly overcome by intense fear, heart palpitations, dizziness, and difficult breathing. Udo is MOST likely suffering from _____.

b) panic disorder

Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?

c) Hysteria

This complication, which can be part of panic disorder, results in anxiety about being in a place where escape is difficult or embarrassing.

c) Agoraphobia

Which of the following is (are) true of anxiety disorders?

b) They are diagnosed more in women than in men** c) They are among the easiest disorders to treat** d) Both b and c are true**

Leroy refuses to dance because of an intense, irrational fear of being negatively evaluated by others. Leroy probably has a(n) _____ phobia.

b) social

Which of the following MOST clearly illustrates an obsessive-compulsive disorder?

c) Constant sexual thoughts have made Lauryn anxious for several months. She now carries a prayer book and feels pressured to read passages aloud over and over again everywhere she goes.

This is characterized by an intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.

d) Phobia

This is characterized by diffuse anxiety caused by intrusive thoughts and urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors

c) obsessive-compulsive disorder

According to learning theory, anxiety disorders are most likely caused by _____.

a) classical conditioning b) operant conditioning c) modeling and imitation d) all of these options***

According to learning theory, the development of an anxiety disorder may be related to _____, while the maintenance of that disorder may be related to _____.

c) classical conditioning; operant conditioning

(A) factor(s) that may contribute to anxiety include(s) _____ factors.

a) psychological b) biological c) sociocultural d) all of the above***

This is a biological explanation for the development of anxiety disorders.

a) There may be an evolutionary predisposition to fear what is dangerous. b) Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to become easily aroused c) Biochemical disturbances due to caffeine or hyperventilation may play a role. d) All of these options***

The study of monkeys who developed a fear of a toy snake and toy crocodile, but not a toy rabbit or flower, after watching a videotape of another monkey modeling a fear response to all four objects, suggests that phobias are _____.

b) both learned and biologically based

A Japanese phobia characterized by an intense dread of embarrassing others does not exist in Western cultures. This demonstrates _____.

b) a cultural difference in emphasis on collectivist vs. individuals

The two main types of mood disorders are _____.

a) unipolar depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

A depressive disorder is BEST characterized by _____.

b) a long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with functioning, pleasure, and life interests

Morris is having trouble sleeping, has lost his appetite, is too tired to go to work, and cannot concentrate on simple television shows. It is MOST likely that Morris is experiencing a _____.

c) depressive disorder

This is an excessive and unreasonable state of excitement that may include impulsive behavior.

b) Mania

Which of the following is FALSE regarding bipolar disorder?

b) It is a very common disorder.

Someone who experiences episodes of mania, or cycles between mania and depression, has a _____.

b) bipolar disorder

Brenda has been up for days. She forgot to pay the rent, but is handing out money to the homeless. When a police officer tries to talk to her about why she is wearing only her bra and underwear in a public place, she answers rapidly, but her thoughts and her words are moving quickly from one idea to another. The police officer would be correct in suspecting that Brenda has _____.

c) a bipolar disorder

A major difference between a depressive disorder and bipolar disorder is that only in bipolar disorder do people have _____.

c) manic episodes

The rate of severe depression is two to three times greater in women than in men because _____.

a) of environmental factors (poverty, abuse, discrimination) b) of socialization factors (passivity, dependence, emotional sensitivity) c) they are genetically predisposed to hormonal and neurotransmitter fluctuations d) all of these options***

It is possible that men are under diagnosed with depression for all EXCEPT which of the following reasons?

b)They show increased sexual behavior

Antidepressants are sometimes prescribed for mood disorders because they appear to affect the amount or functioning of _____ in the brain.

a) norepinephrine and serotonin

Seligman found that, when faced with a painful situation from which there is no escape, animals and people enter a state of helplessness and resignation. He called this _____.

d) learned helplessness

Zuri makes internal, stable, and global statements about her poor test performance. She is MOST likely to experience _____, which may be related to _____.

d) learned helplessness; depression

Which of the following is a psychosocial theory of depression?

a) Depression is the result of turning anger inward. b) When positive growth is blocked, depression is the result. c) Depression results from learning that pain cannot be avoided. d) All of these options***

An attributional theory of depression suggests that depression is more likely when someone attributes their failure or unpleasant circumstances to an _____ cause.

a) internal, stable, and global

Maxwell was not chosen for the baseball team. Which of the following attributions will DECREASE his chances of feeling depressed?

d) "Today just wasn’t my day."

"I’m stupid" is a(n) _____ attribution, "I’ll always be stupid" is a(n) _____ attribution, and "I’ll never pass any of my classes" is a(n) _____ attribution.

c) internal; stable; global

Which of the following is TRUE regarding suicide?

b) Only depressed or psychotic people commit suicide.

When a depression is lifting from a person who has been suicidal in the past, _____.

d) the risk of suicide increases

If you suspect a friend might be considering suicide, what should you do?

c) Ask your friend if he is thinking of hurting himself.

People who attribute negative outcomes to themselves, and positive outcomes to external factors, are more prone to _____ than people who do the opposite.

c) depression

A disorder that is characterized by severely disturbed perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior is _____.

a) schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is associated with _____.

a) withdrawal from others b) withdrawal from reality c) delusions and hallucinations d) all of these***

Which of the following is CORRECT regarding schizophrenia?

a) One in 100 people develops schizophrenia. b) Schizophrenia usually develops in adolescence or young adulthood. c) It is more severe in men d) All of these options***

_____ refers to "split mind," while _____ refers to "split personality."

c) Schizophrenia; dissociative identity disorder

________________ is a group of severe disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior.

b) Schizophrenia

Sensation and perception in schizophrenia is _____.

c) either blunted or excessive/enhanced

This is the term for a false or imaginary sensory perception that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus.

c) Hallucination

This is an example of a hallucination.

a) Hearing voices that aren’t really there

Perceptions for which there are no appropriate external stimuli are called _____, and the most common type among people suffering from schizophrenia is _____.

a) hallucinations; auditory

A person with schizophrenia is more likely to _____ than _____.

b) be self-destructive; violent toward others

John believes he is a famous code-cracker for the CIA, even though in reality, he is not. John is having:

a) delusions of grandeur

A __________ is a combination of words and phrases into incomprehensible sentences.

b) world salad

Seeing helicopters rushing to an emergency scene, a schizophrenic may think they are after him because he is the leader of a drug cartel when he in fact is no such thing. This is an example of a disturbance called _____.

c). a delusion of persecution

This is a thought disturbance characterized by mistaken beliefs that are maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary.

c) Delusion

Which of the following delusions is INCORRECTLY matched?

a) Grandeur: Buddha is my savior.

This is an example of an emotional disturbance in schizophrenia.

a) exaggerated laughter b) blunted emotions c) a complete lack of emotional expression d) all of these***

Withdrawal from others, waxy flexibility, a cataleptic stance, and unusual mannerisms are all characteristic behaviors in _____.

d) schizophrenia

How does schizophrenia differ from dissociative identity disorder?

a) People with DID reportedly have two or more distinct personalities within them at different times. b) People with schizophrenia suffer a serious loss of contact with reality, but have only one personality. c) Both a and b***

_____ symptoms of schizophrenia refer to "excess" behaviors, such as hallucinations, whereas _____ symptoms refer to "deficits," such as flattened emotions or loss of activity.

d) Positive; negative

The heritability of schizophrenia for identical twins is about _____.

d) 50%

Three of Yachi’s grandparents had schizophrenia. Both of Yumiko’s parents have it. Tabia’s identical twin was just diagnosed with it. Who is MOST likely someday to be diagnosed with schizophrenia as well?

c) Tabia

Psychotic symptoms similar to those found in schizophrenia can also occur with the use of _____.

c) amphetamines

The _____ suggests that schizophrenia is caused by an overactivity of dopamine neurons.

b) dopamine hypothesis

The dopamine hypothesis is supported by which of the following findings?

a) Amphetamines increase dopamine and produce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. b) Amphetamine-induced psychosis is more likely in persons with a genetic predisposition for schizophrenia. c) Drugs that block the effects of dopamine in the brain reduce or eliminate positive symptoms of schizophrenia. d) All of these options***

Neuroimaging studies of people with schizophrenia have found that they have _____ than people without schizophrenia.

b) larger cerebral ventricles

PET scans show that some people with chronic schizophrenia have less activity in _____, than people without schizophrenia.

c) the frontal and temporal lobes

If schizophrenia were completely hereditary, what’s the chance that a twin would have the disorder if his identical twin had it?

d) 100%

Two non-biological contributors to the development of schizophrenia are _____.

d) stress and poor family communication patterns

Research on the biological and psychosocial theories of schizophrenia suggests that _____.

c) biological, psychosocial, and unknown factors probably interact to cause schizophrenia

According to the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia, someone with an inherited predisposition for schizophrenia will experience a schizophrenic episode when they encounter _____.

a) more stress than they can handle

Those at genetic risk for schizophrenia are more likely to develop it if they use ___________heavily.

d) alcohol

Schizophrenia is also a form of _______________, a term describing a general lack of contact with reality.

b) psychosis

Which of the following supports a genetic basis to schizophrenia?

b) administering amphetamines increases dopamine levels and worsens symptoms of schizophrenia

Comorbidity is the term used to indicate _____.

c) the presence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time

_____ is the presence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time.

b) Comorbidity

This group of disorders attempts to avoid painful memories or situations. It is characterized by amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities.

a) Dissociative disorders

A condition in which two or more distinct personalities are present, at different times, in the same person is called _____.

a) dissociative identity disorder (DID)

Research on dissociative identity disorder suggests that _____.

a) the original personality has no idea about the alternate personalities b) all patients report losing time c) is diagnosed more in women d) all of these options***

Some therapists consider DID to be _____.

a) faked b)The result of false memories c) the result of a need to please the therapist d) all of these options***

The presence of inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that significantly impair social and occupational functioning is characteristic of _____.

d) none of these options

Egocentrism, lack of a conscience, disregard for the rights of others, impulsive behavior, lack of remorse/guilt, and charisma are characteristic of someone _____.

d) with an antisocial personality disorder

A preoccupation with one’s own concerns, and insensitivity to the perspective or needs of others, is defined as _____ in your text.

a) antisocial personality

People who are defined as being "social predators" and "lacking in conscience and empathy" probably have _____.

d) antisocial personality disorder

One of the biological theories of the cause of antisocial personality is _____.

c) low autonomic activation during stress

This disorder is characterized by impulsivity, hypersexuality, and instability of mood, relationships, and self-image.

a) Borderline personality disorder

anese cuts her arms when overwhelmed by emotion, abruptly changes from laughter to anger, and needs constant reassurance from others to feel any sense of self-worth. She is MOST likely to be diagnosed with _____ disorder.

b) borderline personality

One possible biological cause of BPD is _____.

c) impaired functioning of the frontal lobes

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