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Dr. ligorano has devoted his professional life to researching the desires and needs that energize and direct behavior. His area of research has obviously been


an instinctive behavior is one that is

all the above

contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider to be a human instinct.

infant sucking

like evolutionary psychology, instinct theory most clearly assumed that behavior is influenced by

d. genetic predispositions

it is characteristic of robins to build nests. This is an example of


which of the following refers to a physiological state that usually triggers a state of motivational arousal


lack of sufficient oxygen intake is an example of


a drive refers to

aroused or activated state usually a physiological need

lack of body fluids is to thirst as

need is to drive

the body’s tendency to maintain a constant internal state is know as


the term homeostasis literally means

staying the same

when we are too hot, we perspire in order to lower our body temperature and thereby

maintain homeostasis

which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation

drive reduction theory

an incentive is a

positive or negative that motivates behavior

which of the following is most clearly not an example of an incentive

low blood glucose level

the influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants and desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of

insensitive on motivation

a thick, juicy hamburger is to hunger as

insensitive is to drive

the arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for explaining an infant’s urge to


the desire to avoid stress is to theory as the desire to avoid boredom is to

d. drive reduction arousal

Professor Sanford explains that the need for physical safety must be met before city dwellers will be motivation to form close friendships with fellow citizens. Professor sanford is providing an example:

Hierarchy of motives

According to Maslow, our need for ____must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for

food love

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs suggests that people are unlikely to be motivated to obtain if they are deprived of

good grades in school love and safety

prisoners of war place on a semistarvation diet in which their food intake is cut in half are likely to

spend a great deal of time day dreaming about food

in looking at the relationship between hunger and conditions of the stomach, researchers have discovered that

rats whose stomachs are remove continue to eat regularly

Blood glucose levels are by increases in the hormone

decreased insulin

Increases in ____increases hunger, whereas increases in ____decreases hunger.

erexin ____blood glucose

huger controls are located within the brain’s


which of the following is not one of the basic components of emotion indentified in the text

pupil contraction

according to the cannon-bard theory, the experience of emotion

simultaneous w/ arousal

according to the cannon-bard theory, body arousal is related to the subjective awareness of emotion in the same way the

sympathetic nervous system is related to the cortex.

according to the cannon-bard theory of emotion

neither (non of the above

which theory states that emotion results from the cognitive labeling of our physiological arousal

2 factor theory

both the james- lange and the two-factor theories of emotion maintain that

experience of emotion grows by body emotion

When students perceive the arousal that accompanies test-taking as energizing rather than debilitating, they experience much less anxiety. This is best understood in terms of the:

2 factor theory

Vaseem experienced excessive fear while flying b/c he interpreted his rapid heart rate, shallow breathing, and heavy perspiration as a reaction to the imminent danger of a plane crash. When his shrink convinced him that this physical arousal was simply a harmless reaction to acceleration, cabin pressure, and confined space, his fear of flying was greatly reduced. The reduction in vaseem’s fear is best understood in terms of the

2 factor theory

An inexperienced pilot prepares for an emergency landing after her single engine plane loses power. Her emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by

increase in blood sugar levels

During a state of emotional arousal, the adrenal glands release ____into the bloodstream.


Which division of the nervous system arouses the body and movilise its energy in emotionally stressful situations

Sympathetic Nervous System

walking home from work late one night, jaydra suddenly hears footstops behind her:

Sympathetic Nervous System (fight or flight)

Turning in at her street domique saw six fire trucks in front of her apartment building. Her heart eat wildy until someone yelled "just a false alarm":

Parasympathetic Nervous System

activation of the parasympathetic nervous system

Slows heart rate and accelerates digestion.

the level of arousal typically associated with optimal performance tends to be

higher on well learned tasked

43. Lillian will be taking an entrance exam for law school this afternoon. She is likely to ____ on the exam if her physiological arousal is

do well ____moderate.

Nicholas, a high school junior is on both the track and golf teams. A high level of physiological arousal is likely to ______his running the 100-meter dash and


the emotions of anger and fear involve similar

pattern automatic arousal

Observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the


relatively high levels of physiological arousal would be most likely to improve performance in a


research on the physiological states accompanying specific emotions indicates that

different emotions involve different activation of different brain circuits

Emotional disgust is to emotional delight as

right frontal lobe activation is to left frontal lobe activation.

a small cluster of neurons, the nucleus accumbens, is highly active when people experience


which theory would be most threatened by evidence that highly similar patterns of physiological activity are associated with uniquely different emotional states:

James Lanch

evidence that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity with which people experience certain emotions most directly refutes the

Cannon Bear

hohmann discovered that the _______an individual’s spinal cord injury, the more feelings of anger tended to______in intensity following


54. polygraph measures the changes in ____that accompany emotion_

heart rate

one problem with the use of polygraph for lie detection is that

anxiety, irritation and guilty feeling…

research on the accuracy of lie detector tests indicate that they

error 1/3 of the time

Although newspaper reported that a murder victim had been stabbed with a knife, two police investigators knew that the actual murder weapon was a letter opener. While carefully monitoring the changes in heart rate and perspiration level of a prime suspect, the investigators asked him I he typically used a letter opener on his mail the investigators were making use of the

relation deprivation

when guilty knowledge tests are used with enough specific probes

innocent victims are seldom judged guilty

when an organism’s weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a______in hunger and a ______ in its basal metabolic rate

increase ______decrease

Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend however, she experienced

Two Factor Theory

University students who watched either an enjoyable or an emotionally upsetting film were instructed to talk and act as if they were enjoying the film. Of the following groups, which was best at detecting whether students were lying about their true emotions:

US Secret Service

the facial expressions associated with particular emotions are

same throughout the world

As a member of the diplomatic corps, Alex was given special training in the customs, language, and religion of the third world country where he would be living. However, Alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his host’s expressions of emotion

facial expression

who suggested that a sneer retains elements of baring one’s teeth so as to threaten predators

Charles Darwin

North Americans are more likely than Japanese citizens to display their feelings openly. This cultural difference best reflects the American culture’s greater emphasis on


the suggestion that a happy face creates a merry soul is most consistent with th

James Lanch

If you grimace in fear while taking a difficult exam, this facial expression is likely to causes you to experience

increasing intense feelings of fear

researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips:

facial feed back

students who made a pained facial expression when they observed someone apparently received an electric shock experienced

faster heart rate

the emotion of sadness is characterized by negative valence and


people are fearful of so many different objects and events because

learn to fear things naturally painful, traumatic experience

in experiments with adult monkeys who were fearful of snakes and their offspring who were not, susan mineka discovered that:

observational learning

which brain structure has been found to be especially important in learning to fear specific objects


individual differences in temperament suggests that the exp

genetic predispositions

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