PSYC EXAM 3 (Ch. 16)

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An individual who commits crimes during adolescence but stops by the age of 21 is considered a(n):

A. career criminal.
B. adolescence-limited offender.
C. repeat offender.
D. life-course-persistent offender.


Abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. Abbie is demonstrating:

A. negative control.
B. parental monitoring.
C. position control.
D. foreclosure for her son


Which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

A. parasuicide
B. foiled suicide
C. serious consideration of suicide
D. completed suicide


Past cohorts of gay youth:

A. had lower rates of clinical depression, drug abuse, and suicide than did their peers.
B. were overwhelmingly proud of their sexual orientation.
C. had about the same rates of clinical depression, drug abuse, and suicide as did their peers.
D. had higher rates of clinical depression, drug abuse, and suicide than did their peers.


In which of the following relationships are you likely to find the most bickering?

A. adolescents and older siblings
B. fathers and sons
C. grandparents and teens
D. mothers and daughters


According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of:

A. identity versus role confusion.
B. integration versus separation.
C. independence versus neediness.
D. intimacy versus isolation.


Following Erikson’s lead, ______ distinguished four identity statuses.

A. Marcia
B. Skinner
C. Baumrind
D. Freud


Compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are:

A. less self-confident than they were as children.
B. more focused than they were as children.
C. more carefree than they were as children.
D. happier than they were as children.


The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as:

A. identity diffusion.
B. negative identity.
C. role confusion.
D. moratorium.


Which type of parenting is most effective during adolescence?

A. authoritative
B. authoritarian
C. permissive
D. neglectful


Parental monitoring is most likely to be effective and healthy when it is:

A. part of authoritarian parenting.
B. relaxed and permissive.
C. part of a warm, supportive relationship.
D. rigid and controlling.


In the United States, parent-child conflict peaks in:

A. emerging adulthood.
B. late childhood.
C. late adolescence.
D. early adolescence.


Bickering between parents and teenagers:

A. usually concerns clothes and personal habits.
B. is a signal of pathology.
C. usually concerns politics and religion.
D. increases steadily between the ages of 12 and 19.


The most effective sex education programs begin:

A. in the junior year of high school.
B. in late adolescence.
C. before high school.
D. in college.


Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which has caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving the fight is known as:

A. obsession.
B. fixation.
C. reminiscence.
D. rumination.


Adoption of parents’ or society’s roles and values, rather than questioning and exploring a personal identity, is referred to as identity:

A. foreclosure.
B. diffusion.
C. achievement.
D. moratorium.


According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment is:

A. moratorium.
B. achievement.
C. foreclosure.
D. diffusion.


A great deal of parental interference and control is a strong predictor of:

A. adolescent depression.
B. a well-behaved adolescent.
C. adolescent achievement.
D. closeness with parents.


Erikson’s term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out "Who am I?" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.

Identity versus role confusion

Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans.

Identity achievement

a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. (Sometimes called identity diffusion.)

Role confusion

Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis.


an adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions. Going to college is a common example.


a person’s acceptance of the roles and behaviors that society associates with the biological categories of male and female.

Gender identity

petty, peevish arguing, usually repeated and ongoing.


parents’ ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom.

Parental monitoring

encouragement to conform to one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude; usually considered a negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy adult authority.

Peer pressure

a group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders.


a larger group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends.


destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms.

Deviancy training

a term that refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes.

Sexual orientation

feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or more.

Clinical depression

repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences; can contribute to depression.


thinking about suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.

Suicidal ideation

any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death.


several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief period of time.

Cluster suicides

a person whose criminal activity typically begins in early adolescence and continues throughout life; a career criminal.

Life-course-persistent offender

a person whose criminal activity stops by age 21.

Adolescence-limited offender

the idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned. As used here, the term refers to knowledge about the harm drugs can do.

Generational forgetting

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