PSY 160 CH 8

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1. Children’s "increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control" contributes to their:
a. conservation.
b. peer values.
c. autonomy.
d. egocentrism.

c. autonomy.

2. More than people of any other age, children between the ages of 6 and 11 are:
a. more in need of punishment.
b. trying to stand out from their peers.
c. using electronic media with adult supervision.
d. industrious, practicing the skills valued by their culture.

d. industrious, practicing the skills valued by their culture.

3. According to Erikson’s theory, children in middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either:
a. suppressed or superior.
b. industrious or inferior.
c. competent or awkward.
d. intelligent or stupid.

b. industrious or inferior.

4. According to Freud, during the latency stage children:
a. develop sexual feelings toward their opposite-sex peers.
b. seek to establish their identity.
c. work to learn self-control.
d. emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet.

d. emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet.

5. Children’s ideas about their intelligence, personality, abilities, gender and ethnic background form their:
a. industry.
b. egocentrism.
c. latency.
d. self-concept.

d. self-concept.

6. When one assesses one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against one’s peers, one is engaging in:
a. peer evaluation.
b. cultural normalization.
c. social comparison.
d. parental assessment.

c. social comparison.

7. During the school years, self-esteem typically:
a. increases.
b. decreases.
c. stays the same.
d. fluctuates up and down.

b. decreases.

8. Since schoolchildren judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers:
a. they should decide which reading and math groups they wish to join.
b. their self-esteem may suffer as they compare themselves with others.
c. following a failure, they are less pessimistic about future failure.
d. they are less likely to concede that they’re not good at something.

b. their self-esteem may suffer as they compare themselves with others.

9. When Japanese students took the TIMSS, 17 percent of them:
a. scored far below their grade level.
b. were confident about their math skills.
c. underestimated their math skills.
d. overestimated their math skills.

b. were confident about their math skills.

10. When U.S. students took the TIMSS, 53 percent of them:
a. scored far below their grade level.
b. were realistic about their math skills.
c. underestimated their math skills.
d. overestimated their math skills.

d. overestimated their math skills.

11. The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and yet emerges from those experiences unscathed is said to be:
a. buoyant.
b. resilient.
c. parasympathetic.
d. reliable.

b. resilient.

12. The quality of resilience is dynamic, which means that it:
a. is always present in the same way.
b. may change over time.
c. can be either a positive or negative adaptation.
d. reflects successful coping with minor adversities.

b. may change over time.

13. When children act as parents and try to take care of everyone, it is called:
a. resilience.
b. parentification.
c. emerging adulthood.
d. an extended family.

b. parentification.

14. In the study of Hawaiian children born into poverty, what factor aided the development of resilience?
a. feeling indifferent to their family’s plight
b. relying on egocentric tendencies
c. having realistic goals and persistence
d. having a mentor who encouraged creativity

c. having realistic goals and persistence

15. Since Carter’s mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, Carter is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping Carter to maintain his positive attitude?
a. the belief that things will eventually get better
b. his circle of friends and their activities
c. looking toward the future and to living on his own
d. understanding his parents’ problems

b. his circle of friends and their activities

16. A significant factor aiding children and families as they deal with problems and stress is:
a. social support.
b. a stress-resilient nature.
c. a naturalized mentor.
d. psychological denial.

a. social support.

17. Many parents believe that they mold their children’s personalities. However, research on twins, siblings, and stepchildren has found that:
a. half of all personality traits may be genetic.
b. half of all personality traits may be environmental.
c. genes and the nonshared environment have the most impact on personality.
d. temperament defines personality.

c. genes and the nonshared environment have the most impact on personality

18. Marissa and Jessica, sisters born two years apart, grew up in an impoverished, violent neighborhood. As adults, Marissa is chronically jobless and is addicted to drugs while Jessica is a professor of economics at a community college. Which theory might explain their different life outcomes?
a. differential sensitivity theory
b. shared environmental influences theory
c. cohort theory
d. parental influence theory

a. differential sensitivity theory

19. Family structure refers to:
a. the way in which a family raises its children.
b. the legal and genetic relationships of people in a household.
c. how the family’s house is constructed.
d. how the various generations interact.

b. the legal and genetic relationships of people in a household.

20. Family function refers to:
a. how a family cares for its members.
b. the legal and genetic relationships of people in a household.
c. how the family’s house is constructed.
d. how the various generations interact.

a. how a family cares for its members.

21. Which family function is especially crucial in middle childhood?
a. stability
b. physical necessities
c. peer relationships
d. self-respect

a. stability

22. In middle childhood, the experience of moving to a new neighborhood or community is:
a. very exciting, as this is a stage marked by a strong desire for new experiences.
b. stressful, as this is a stage in which continuity is very important.
c. extremely rare; children ages 5 to 9 years old move far less often than older Americans.
d. only problematic if the move is the result of divorce.

b. stressful, as this is a stage in which continuity is very important.

23. A Japanese study compared children who stayed with their mother while their fathers moved for a new job with children who moved with their mother and father for a new job. The research found that:
a. children who moved with their fathers were happiest, but the mothers were depressed.
b. the children and mothers who moved with the fathers were happiest.
c. there were no differences between the children who moved with their fathers and those that did not.
d. children who moved with their fathers were more depressed and their school achievement suffered.

d. children who moved with their fathers were more depressed and their school achievement suffered.

24. The most common type of family for children in the United States is the:
a. extended family.
b. single-parent family.
c. nuclear family.
d. blended family.

c. nuclear family.

25. While 41 percent of all U.S. births were to single mothers in 2010, the number of children who grow up in a household with a single mother who never marries is:
a. lower, at about 13 percent.
b. higher, at about 62 percent.
c. just under that amount, at 39 percent.
d. unknown.

a. lower, at about 13 percent.

26. A family that consists of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and women is a(n):
a. blended family.
b. adoptive family.
c. extended family.
d. polygamous family.

d. polygamous family.

27. In the United States the age of people at their first marriage:
a. is rising.
b. is falling.
c. has stayed the same for decades.
d. has risen for men but not women.

a. is rising.

28. Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are:
a. ethnic differences and low income.
b. low income and high conflict.
c. high stress and high income.
d. religious differences and low income.

b. low income and high conflict.

29. The family stress model illustrates that:
a. poverty itself is quite harmful to children.
b. a high income can overcome the effects of stress.
c. the parents’ reaction to poverty is the crucial factor in family stress.
d. even a middle-class income cannot overcome the effects of stress.

c. the parents’ reaction to poverty is the crucial factor in family stress.

30. A study that followed married parents and their adolescent children found that _____ on the adolescents’ well-being.
a. genetics was the main influence
b. conflict was the main influence
c. both genetics and conflict were equally influential
d. neither genetics nor conflict were influential

b. conflict was the main influence

31. The particular rules and behaviors that are passed down to younger children from older children are what define:
a. child culture.
b. peer values.
c. the lives of childhood.
d. the legends of childhood.

a. child culture.

32. By the time children are the age of 10, which statement is typically true?
a. Girls are more interested than boys in maintaining long-term friendships.
b. Boys prefer to be popular among peer groups; girls want to have best friends.
c. Both boys and girls want to have best friends.
d. Mutual loyalty is more important to boys than it is to girls.

c. Both boys and girls want to have best friends.

33. Olivia is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old girl. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n):
a. aggressive-rejected child.
b. controversial child.
c. neglected child.
d. withdrawn-rejected child.

d. withdrawn-rejected child.

34. The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is:
a. Veru, who is disliked by most children because she is so uncooperative.
b. Tiffany, who is popular but hated by many children.
c. Greg, who is ignored by most children.
d. Maher, who changes friends often.

a. Veru, who is disliked by most children because she is so uncooperative.

35. Children with these personality traits become popular around fifth grade.
a. kind, trustworthy, cooperative, assertive
b. athletic, cool, dominant, aggressive
c. cooperative, cool, assertive, kind
d. trustworthy, athletic, dominant, aggressive

b. athletic, cool, dominant, aggressive

36. Some unpopular children are ____ rather than rejected.
a. neglected
b. aggressive
c. withdrawn
d. arrogant

a. neglected

37. Bullying differs from ordinary aggression because bullying attacks are:
a. only seen in the United States.
b. repeated.
c. harmful.
d. aimed a weaker person.

b. repeated.

38. Most bullies pick on:
a. members of the opposite sex.
b. members of their own sex.
c. people they don’t know well.
d. their little brothers and sisters.

b. members of their own sex.

39. Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:
a. withdrawn-rejected.
b. aggressive-rejected.
c. "under the radar."
d. liked by peers.

a. withdrawn-rejected.

40. Girls who bully typically:
a. use threats of force.
b. mock and ridicule their victim.
c. are larger than average in size.
d. have older sisters who are aggressive.

b. mock and ridicule their victim.

41. The kind of bully who is the most strongly disliked by peers is called a:
a. modeled bully.
b. rejected bully.
c. bully-victim.
d. familial bully.

c. bully-victim.

42. Over time, the consequences of bullying:
a. may lead to problems primarily for the bullies themselves.
b. may lead to relationships problems for the bullies and their victims.
c. may lead to problems primarily for the victims.
d. typically vanish by the time children enter high school.

b. may lead to relationships problems for the bullies and their victims.

43. According to the text, what method is MOST effective in stopping bullying in schools?
a. focusing on children in higher grades
b. focusing on children in lower grades
c. instituting a zero-tolerance policy
d. using a whole-school strategy

d. using a whole-school strategy

44. What period is the prime time for moral development?
a. early childhood
b. late childhood
c. middle childhood
d. early adulthood

c. middle childhood

45. Which factor is the primary force that drives children’s interest in moral issues?
a. maturation of the prefrontal cortex
b. ethnicity
c. antipathy
d. personal experience

d. personal experience

46. Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of ______ in his description of the stages of moral development.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Jean Piaget
c. Erik Erikson
d. Carol Gilligan

b. Jean Piaget

47. Leon is asked whether a person should steal food if they are starving. Leon says no because it is against the law. Leon is in Kohlberg’s _____ moral reasoning level, in the stage called _____.
a. preconventional; might makes right
b. postconventional; social contract
c. conventional; law and order
d. conventional; good girl and nice boy

c. conventional; law and order

48. What is the first stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory?
a. preconventional
b. unconventional
c. conventional
d. postconventional

a. preconventional

49. What is the second stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory?
a. preconventional
b. unconventional
c. conventional
d. postconventional

c. conventional

50. What is the third stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg’s theory?
a. preconventional
b. unconventional
c. conventional
d. postconventional

d. postconventional

51. The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg’s stage of preconventional morality is:
a. the sensorimotor period.
b. the preoperational stage.
c. concrete operations.
d. formal operations.

b. the preoperational stage.

52. Preconventional morality involves:
a. the careful consideration of all options.
b. an emphasis on laws and social order.
c. seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
d. trying to gain the approval of others.

c. seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.

53. Conventional morality involves:
a. the careful consideration of all options.
b. following what parents, teaching, and peers do.
c. seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
d. trying to take care of one’s own needs.

b. following what parents, teaching, and peers do.

54. Postconventional morality involves:
a. the careful consideration of all options.
b. an emphasis on laws and social order.
c. seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
d. trying to take care of one’s own needs.

a. the careful consideration of all options.

55. When child culture conflicts with adult morality, children will:
a. align themselves with their peers.
b. listen to what the adults say.
c. make their own decisions.
d. be unable to make decisions.

a. align themselves with their peers.

56. Restitution as a punishment for a transgression involves:
a. hurting the transgressor.
b. praising the transgressor.
c. restoring what was lost.
d. defining what was lost.

c. restoring what was lost.

57. Retribution as a punishment for a transgression involves:
a. hurting the transgressor.
b. praising the transgressor
c. restoring what was lost.
d. defining what was lost.

a. hurting the transgressor.

58. When 9-year-old children were asked to choose between retribution and restitution for a punishment:
a. almost all chose restitution.
b. almost all chose retribution.
c. about half chose restitution and half chose retribution.
d. they were unable to decide.

c. about half chose restitution and half chose retribution.

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