Programming logic and design CH.1-3 Review

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A(n) ____ is a software package that provides an editor, a compiler, and other programming tools.


A ____ allows users to interact with a program in a graphical environment.


In a flowchart, the ____ is used to represent processing.


Programmers can use either procedural programming or object-oriented programming to develop programs.


A(n) ____ is a program that you use to create simple text files.

text editor

Before a programmer plans the logic of the program, he or she must ____.

understand the problem

Computer programmers often refer to memory addresses using ____ notation.


A(n) ____ is a named memory location whose value can vary.


The heart of the programming process lies in planning the program’s logic.


A flowchart is an English-like representation of the logical steps necessary to solve a problem.


Variable names can be more than one word with blanks between the words.


Because one memory location can be used repeatedly with different values, you can write program instructions once and then use them for thousands of separate calculations


The process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them is called ____ variables.


The ____ dictate the order in which operations in the same statement are carried out.

rules of precedence

A string variable can hold digits such as phone numbers and zip codes.


When the variable starts with a lowercase letter and any subsequent word begins with an uppercase letter, this is called ____.

camel casing

All programming languages support four broad data types.


A(n) ____ is similar to a variable, except it can be assigned a value only once.

named constant

Programmers refer to programs that contain meaningful names as ____.


Declaring a starting value for a variable is known as ____ the variable.


Named memory locations whose contents can vary or differ over time


A statement that provides a data type and an identifier for a variable


A program component’s name


Can hold digits and have mathematical operations performed on it

Numeric variable

Can hold text, such as letters of the alphabet, and other special characters, such as punctuation marks

String variable

The feature of programming languages that prevents assigning values of an incorrect data type


The feature of programs that assures you a module has been tested and proven to function correctly


A list of every variable name used in a program, along with its type, size, and description

Data dictionary

A message that is displayed on a monitor to ask the user for a response and perhaps explain how that response should be formatted


The act of repeating input back to a user either in a subsequent prompt or in output

Echoing input

____ is where a variable’s data type or other information is stored as part of the name.

Hungarian notation

Programmers generally write programs as one long series of steps.


___________________ tasks include any steps you must perform at the beginning of a program to get ready for the rest of the program.


Attaching structures end to end is called ____ structures.


Pseudocode uses the end-structure statement ____ to clearly show where the structure ends.


if-else examples can also be called ____ because they contain the action taken when the tested condition is true and the action taken when it is false.

dual-alternative selections

No matter how complicated it is, any set of steps can always be reduced to combinations of the two basic structures of sequence and loop.


The priming read is an example of a(n) ____ task.


The following pseudocode is an example of a ____ structure.
if firstNumber is bigger than secondNumber then
print firstNumber
print secondNumber



The do loop is a variation of the ____ loop.


A ____ read is an added statement that gets the first input value in a program.


The maximum number of entry points that any programming structure can have is ____.


Structures can be stacked or connected to one another at their ____.

entry or exit points

Structured programs can be easily broken down into routines or ____ that can be assigned to any number of programmers.


Repetition and sequence are alternate names for a loop structure.


Because you may stack and nest structures while retaining the overall structure, it might be difficult to determine whether a flowchart as a whole is structured.


The following pseudocode is an example of ____.
if conditionA is true then

do stepE
do stepB
do stepC
do stepD


You may hear programmers refer to looping as ____.


With a(n) ____, you perform an action or task, and then you perform the next action, in order.

sequence structure

Programs that use _____ code logic are unstructured programs that do not follow the rules of structured logic.


Structured programming is sometimes called ____________________-less programming.

gotogo or togo-to

The case structure is a variation of the ____ structure.


The process of finding and correcting program errors is called ____.


Professional computer programmers write programs to satisfy their own needs.


____ data items may involve organizing or sorting them, checking them for accuracy, or performing calculations with them.


Alan Turing is often regarded as the first programmer.


Besides the popular, comprehensive programming languages such as Java and C++, many programmers use scripting languages such as Python, Lua, Perl, and PHP.


You represent a decision in a flowchart by drawing a decision symbol, which is shaped like a ____.


After programs are put into production, making necessary changes is called ____.


The repetition of a series of steps is called a(n) ____.


Once a program is completely coded, it is ready for a company or organization to use.


The major difference between the two main programming styles in use today is the ____.

programmer’s focus during the earliest planning stages of a project

A(n) ____ is a repeating flow of logic with no end.

infinite loop

The ____ is used to represent output in a flowchart.


A ____ error results when you use a syntactically correct statement but use the wrong one for the current context.


The assignment operator has left-to-right-to-left associativity, which means that the value of the expression to the left of the assignment operator is evaluated first and that the result is assigned to the operand on the right.


When you write programs, you work with data in three different forms: ____.

variables, literals (or unnamed constants), and named constants

A ____ variable is not used for input or output, but instead is just a working variable that you use during a program’s execution.


The assignment operator is the ____ sign.


Fractional numeric variables that contain a decimal point are known as ____ variables.


Program comments are a type of internal documentation.


Most modern programming languages require that program statements be placed in specific columns.


A specific numeric value is often called a(n) ____.

numeric constant

Some people call the selection structure a(n) ____________________ statement.

if-then-elseif then else

A structured program includes only combinations of the three basic structures: ____.

sequence, selection, and loop

A loop must return to the ____ question at some later point in a structure.


In a selection structure, you perform an action or task, and then you perform the next action in order.


A structured program must contain a sequence, selection, and loop structure.


Structured programming is sometimes called goto-less programming.


The case structure is a variation of the sequence structure and the do loop is a variation of the while loop.


In a structured program, any structure can be nested within another structure.


As a general rule, an eof question should always come immediately after an input statement because the end-of-file condition will be detected at input.


The following pseudocode is an example of a ____ structure.
get number
while number is positive
add to sum
get number



The following pseudocode is an example of ____.
do stepA
do stepB
if conditionC is true then
do stepD

do stepE
while conditionF is true
do stepG


Placing a structure within another structure is called ____ structures.


A(n) ____ is a location on your computer screen where you type text entries to communicate with the computer’s operating system.

command line

Typically, a programmer develops a program’s logic, writes the code, and ____ the program, receiving a list of syntax errors.


Using ____ involves writing down all the steps you will use in a program.


An infinite loop is a flow of program logic that repeats and never ends.


Many programming languages use the term ____ to refer to the marker that is used to automatically recognize the end of data in a file.


Equipment, or the physical devices, associated with a computer


Instructions that tell the computer what to do


Contents are lost when the computer is turned off or loses power

Volatile memory

Represent(s) the millions of on off circuits within the computer

Machine language

Incorrectly spelled words, or reversing the proper order of two words in a computer program

Sintax error

All the supporting paperwork for a program


Pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem


English-like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem


Preselected value that stops the execution of a program


Every programming language has rules governing its word usage and punctuation.


When the first letter of a variable name is uppercase, as in HourlyWage, the format is known as ____ casing.

Pascal casing

A variable’s unknown value is commonly called ____.


When a program has several modules calling other modules, programmers often use a program ____, which operates similarly to an organizational chart, to show the overall picture of how modules are related to one another.

hierarchy chart

Depending on the programming language being used, modules are also known as ____ .

subroutines, procedures, or methods

As programs become larger and more complicated, the need for good planning and design ____ .


The action or actions that occur within a loop are known as a(n) ____.

loop body

One way to straighten out an unstructured flowchart segment is to use the ____ method.

spaghetti bowl

In older languages, you could leave a selection or loop before it was complete by using a ____ statement.

go to

The ____ is the standard terminal symbol for a flowchart.


Software can be classified into two broad types: application software and programming software.


To enter the program into a computer so you can translate and execute it, you usually use a keyboard to type program statements into a(n)____.


____ is the process of paying attention to important properties while ignoring nonessential details.


In most programming languages, before you can use any variable, you must include a ____ for it.


In a flowchart, an ____ is most often represented by a three-sided box that is connected to the step it references by a dashed line.

Annotation symbol

Logically snarled program statements

Spaghetti code

A basic unit of programming logic


With this, you ask a question, and, depending on the answer, you take one of two courses of action structure


Continue to repeat actions while a condition remains true

Loop structure

An added statement that gets the first input value in a program

Priming read

Placing a structure within another structure

Nesting structure

A case in which no action is taken

Null case

Attaching structures end-to-end

Staking structures

Often can be used in multiple programs


A variation of the selection structure

Case structure

The following pseudocode is an example of a ____ structure.
get firstNumber
get secondNumber
add firstNumber and secondNumber
print result


After a programmer plans the logic of a program, the next step is ____.

coding the program

Modularization makes it harder for multiple programmers to work on a problem.


Structured programs use spaghetti code logic.


____ variables and constants are known to the entire program.


Programmers say that variables and constants declared within a module are

In scope

In an assignment statment, the part of the statement on the left-hand side of the equal sign is called what?


Programmers say the statements that are contained in a module have been ____.


The process of walking through a program’s logic on paper before you actually write the program is called ____.


____ errors are relatively easy to locate and correct because the compiler or interpreter you use highlights every error.


In many programming languages, if you declare a variable and do not initialize it, the variable contains an unknown value until it is assigned a value.


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