Principles of programming CH. 7,8,9

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To generate a control break report, your input records must be organized in ____ order based on the field that will cause the breaks.


You can merge more than two files.


The ____ file holds temporary data that is used to update the master file.


When the records in a file are sorted in order from lowest to highest values, the records are in ____ order.


The combination of the disk drive plus the complete hierarchy of directories in which a file resides is its ____.


Directories and ____ are organization units on storage devices.


____ is processing that involves performing the same tasks with many records, one after the other.

Batch processing

Is not lost when a computer loses power

nonvolatile storage

Is lost when the program ends or the computer loses power

volatile storage

Thousands of bytes


Millions of bytes


Billions of bytes


Letters, numbers, and special symbols, such as "A", "7", and "$"


Single useful data items that are composed of one or more characters


Groups of related records


Holds complete and relatively permanent data

master file

A file in which records can be located in any order

random access file

____ storage is not lost when a computer loses power.


____ is the more general term for an entity that organizes files.


Because they enable you to locate a particular record directly (without reading all of the preceding records), random access files are also called ____ files.

direct access

Images and music are contained in binary files.


When you copy data from RAM into a file on a storage device, you read to the file.


A ____ break is a break in the logic of the program that is based on the value of a single variable.

single-level control

When you write a program that stores a value in a variable, you are using ____ storage.


A database holds groups of files or ____ that together serve the information needs of an organization.


When you store data records, they exist in ____.

some type of order

As pages in a book have numbers, computer memory and storage locations have ____.


When you create a ____ report, the records must have been sorted in order by a key field.

control break

When mathematicians use a two-dimensional array, they often call it a ____ or a table.


When you use an index, you can store records on a ____ storage device.


When computers sort data, they always use ____ values when making comparisons between values.


A bubble sort is sometimes called a ____.

sinking sort

A record’s ____ field is the field whose contents make the record unique among all records in a file.


To correctly swap two values, you create a(n) ____ variable to hold one of the values.


The ____ is often used as a statistic in many cases because it represents a more typical case.


When a large data file needs to be processed in ascending or descending order based on a particular field, the most efficient approach is usually to store and access records based on their logical order.


It is relatively easy for people to keep track of arrays with more than three dimensions.


In a(n) ____, if an element is out of order relative to any of the items earlier in the list, you move each earlier item down one position and then insert the tested element.

insertion sort

____ are arrays that have more than one dimension.

Multidimensional arrays

Each element in a two-dimensional array requires ____ subscript(s) to reference it.


When using a bubble sort to sort a 10-element array, on the fourth pass through the array list you detect that no swap has occurred. This indicates ____.

all elements in the array are already in the correct order

The input value that makes the recursion stop is called the base case or ending case.


When you ____ a method, you write multiple methods with a shared name but different parameter lists.


When a data item is known to all of a program’s modules, it is a ____data item.


A program module that contains a series of statements that carry out a task


The declaration or definition

method header

A copy of a variable’s value is sent to the method and stored in a new memory location accessible to the method

passed by value

A new memory location is reserved and named


The arguments sent to a method in a method call

actual parameters

When the method receives the actual memory address of the array and has access to the actual values in the array elements

passed by refference

The ability of a method to act appropriately according to the context


When all the operations in a method contribute to the performance of a single task

functionally cohesive

Occurs when methods have access to the same globally defined variables

tight coupling

Occurs when a copy of data that must be shared is passed from one method to another

loose coupling

In implementation hiding, the calling method needs to understand only the interface to the method that is called and it need not know how the method works internally.


The method name and parameter list constitute the ____.


____ occurs when methods excessively depend on each other and makes programs more prone to errors.

Tight coupling

Variables and constants are ____ within, or local to, only the method in which they are declared.

in scope

You can think of the ____ in a method declaration as a funnel into the method.


A method can return nothing, in which case the method is a ____ method.


A method’s return type is part of its signature.


____ is a measure of the strength of the connection between two program methods.


When methods must share data, you can pass the data into and return the data out of methods.


Arrays, unlike simple built-in types, are passed by ____.


Every time you call a method, the address to which the program should return at the completion of the method is stored in a memory location called the ____.


____ refers to how the internal statements of a method serve to accomplish the method’s purpose.


____ is the ability of a method to act appropriately depending on the context.


A method that calls itself is a ____.

recursive method

The saved version of a master file is the ____ file; the updated version is the child file.


A ____ is a copy that is kept in case values need to be restored to their original state.

backup file

When you ____ a file, it is no longer available to your application.


A ____ is a temporary detour in the logic of a program.

control break

Characters are made up of smaller elements called ____.


____ files involves combining two or more files while maintaining the sequential order.


When you learn a method like sorting, programmers say you are learning a(n) ____.


The ____ is skewed by a few very high or low values.


Because "A" is always less than "B", alphabetic sorts are ____ sorts.


In a ____, items in a list are compared with each other in pairs.

bubble sort

An insertion sort is another name for a bubble sort.


You can make additional improvements to a bubble sort to reduce unnecessary comparisons.


A two-dimensional array contains two dimensions: ____.

height and width

Every time you add a new record to a linked list, you search through the list for the correct ____ location of the new record.


____ occurs when a method is defined in terms of itself.


Each time a method executes, any parameter variables listed in the method header are ____.


You can invoke or call a method from another program or method.


Programs that use recursion are error-prone but easy to debug.


A called method accepts the value of an argument passed to it as its ____.


A method’s name and parameter list constitute the method’s ____.


A method’s declared return type must match the type of value used in the return statement.


Using implementation hiding means that the ____ is the only part of a method with which the method’s client interacts.

interface to the method

A method could be called using any numeric value as an argument, whether it is a variable, a named constant, or a literal constant.


When you copy data from a file on a storage device into RAM, you ____ from the file.


Programmers usually use the word "write" to mean "produce hard copy output."


When a program uses a ____, it reads all the records in the file from beginning to end, processing them one at a time.

sequential file

In most programming languages, before an application can use a data file, it must ____

open the file

A ____ is a collection of data stored on a nonvolatile device in a computer system.

computer file

The terms "parent" and "child" can refer to file backup generations, but they are also used for a different purpose in object-oriented programming.


____ are groups of fields that go together for some logical reason.


____ applications require that a record be accessed immediately while a client is waiting.


One way to access records in a desired order, even though they might not be physically stored in that order, is to create a(n) ____.

linked list

You do not need to determine a record’s exact physical address in order to use it.


The sorting process is usually reserved for a relatively large number of data items.


When you sort records, two possible approaches are to place related data items in parallel arrays and to ____.

sort records as a whole

The most popular computer coding schemes include ASCII, Numeric, and EBCDIC.


When you ____ records, you store a list of key fields paired with the storage address for the corresponding data record.


Two-dimensional arrays are never actually required in order to achieve a useful program.


The last statement in a method is a(n) ____.

return statement

When a copy of a variable is sent to a method, it is passed by ____.


Programmers use the term ____ to describe any extra time and resources required by an operation.


Files in which records must be accessed immediately are sometimes called instant access files.


Files exist on ____ storage devices, such as hard disks, DVDs, USB drives, and reels of magnetic tape.


You update the transaction file with data from the master file.


To write a program that produces a report of employees by department number, the records must be grouped by department number before you begin processing.


An array whose elements you can access using a single subscript is a ____ array.


Some programming languages allow multidimensional arrays.


Arranging records one after another based on the value in a particular field

sequential order

Arranging records from highest to lowest value within a field

descending oder

The value of the middle item when the values are listed in order


The arithmetic average


A two-dimensional array


A "real" order for storage

physical order

A virtual order based on any criterion you choose

logical order

Used to identify computer memory and storage locations


Methods with identical names that have identical parameter lists but different return types are ambiguous.


A calling method sends a(n) ____ to a called method.


All modern programming languages contain many methods that are predefined.


The keyboard and printer are the default input and output devices.


When records are in ____ order, they are arranged one after another on the basis of the value in a particular field.


____ refers to how the internal statements of a method serve to accomplish the method’s purpose.


____ provide an overview of input to the method, the processing steps that must occur, and the result.

IPO charts

____ occurs when methods do not depend on others.

Loose coupling

Using implementation hiding means that the ____ is the only part of a method with which the method’s client interacts.

Interface to the method

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