PoliSci 102 Unit 3 Inquizitive

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Liberty

Government interference in individuals’ lives should be kept to a minimum

Democracy

Every citizen should have the opportunity to take part in the government process

Equality of opportunity

All individuals should be allowed to seek personal and material success

When individuals try to form opinions about a particular policy issue, they tend to be influenced by…

the media interest groups government

According to a 2014 public opinion poll, which of the following issues are women more likely to favor than men?

banning assault rifles raising minimum wage cutting defense spending

What is the goal of a push poll?

To shape the respondent’s perception of the candidate or issue in question

If a public-opinion survey suffers from selection bias, what has occurred?

The survey organization did not get a random sample

Th mass media _________ neutral messengers for others’ ideas. The media have had _____________ independent impact on public opinion

are not significant

By using ________________________, average citizens form opinions that are ________ consistent with their underlying preferences

informational shortcuts often

What of the following statements about Americans’ ideology is correct?

More Americans today identify themselves as "conservatives" than "liberals"

What is correct about the effect of party polarization on public opinion?

– Party endorsements have a larger impact on opinion formation than it used to – Party polarization decreases the impact of other information on public opinion

What elements do pollsters have to consider before conducting a poll that will forecast the election?

– Wording of survey questions – A large sample – Ability to randomly select respondents

Which topic is public opinion most influenced by presidential messages?

foreign policy

Government policy _______ to public opinion; public opinion ________ to government policy.

responds; responds

T/F

The government can easily and substantially influence public opinion

False

People of all incomes participate at about the same rate in what type of political participation?

Attending a protest or march

People who earn higher incomes participate more in which types of political participation?

– signing a petition – contacting a member of Congress – attending a city council meeting

Incidents of excessive use of police force have been widely publicized recently. What effect have they had on white perceptions of racism in America?

– About half of white feel that blacks and white are not treated equally by police – The number of white who feel that racism is a big problem has increased over time

When Americans with different income levels differ in policy preferences, what steamers are correct regarding actual policy outcomes?

– Actual policies reflect the preferences of the affluent – Actual polices show little relationship to the preferences of the poor and middle class

What factors influence American’s beliefs and opinions?

race age religion income gender geographic region

Pollsters are using online surveys, which are ________ costly and ______ slow than telephone surveys. However, online surveys are _________ likely to collect a random sample than telephone surveys

less (all three)

What are the three reasons that policy change may shape public opinion?

– The policy may expose the public to a new idea – A policy might act as a signal of an ethical or moral view – The policy may give the public new information

Which religious groups are more likely to favor the Democrat party?

black protestants hispanic catholics jews

Which religious groups are more likely to favor the Republican party?

white evangelicals white catholics

Today a plurality of Americans consider themselves ________________. Among young voters, about _______ percent of people identify this way

conservative; 15

In general which political or ideological group is most likely to support the economic and social status quo?

conservatives

When elected officials pursue policies that are not in line with centrist opinion, it is often because…

they are prioritizing the views of a loyal voting bloc over others

On which of the following topics is the government most likely to respond to shifts in public opinion?

same sex marriage

What is the best definition for political socialization?

the process through which political beliefs and values are formed

What sample size is generally sufficient for accurately measuring national public opinion?

1000

What is correct regarding the effect of marketplace of ideas on opinion formation?

Competing forces try to persuade as many people as possible, and few people resist modification of their beliefs

In public opinon polling, what is a random sample?

Each person within the specified population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent

On which topics is public opinion is most influenced by presidential messages?

foreign policy

How has the media landscape changed as the FCC’s regulatory powers changed in the past several decades?

Restrictions on media ownership have been relaxed

How does social media make consumption of news different for Millennials?

It creates a feedback loop that established relationships with politicians

1970s (press)

adversarial journalism

1840s (press)

newspapers subordinate to political parties

1930s (press)

politicians utilizing nonpartisan press

Most leaked confidential information comes from _________ government officials, with ______________ relationships with journalists.

senior; long-term

Why do press releases commonly appear in newspapers?

– press releases can be nearly indistinguishable from a real story – reporters are able to update content while doing little work – the newspaper can fill its pages at little cost

What is true regarding changes in the media landscape since 1991?

– the internet has replaced the newspaper as people’s secondary source for news – newspaper readership has declined

Which forms of social media participation do 18 to 29 year old adults participate more than other age groups?

– comment on a news story online – post pictures related to political issues – discuss politics online

What federal regulations on the media are still in effect?

– equal time provision – right of rebuttal

What media forms is the FCC able to regulate content on?

-FM radio -AM radio -TV stations

Why did the FCC stop enforcing the fairness doctrine?

There are so many radio and TV stations that different viewpoint are already being presented

The FCC was developed to serve which functions?

– allocate radio and TV frequencies – regulate broadcast content – promote competition in the broadcast industry

Following 9/11, the media wrote many stories about Bush’s performance on protecting the nation from terrorism and few stories on the economy. What two means of media influence is this an example of?

– priming – agenda setting

How has the Supreme Court responded to newspapers’ attempts to publish information?

It has supported publication of leaked information

What characteristics reflect traditional and online media?

– online media have a higher potential for misinformation than traditional media – traditional media are often forced to account for online media reports in their stories

Why is the FCC unable to regular "indecent" sexual material on the internet?

The Supreme Court overturned congressional regulations

How have some newspapers responded to declining circulation numbers?

– charging customers for reading news online – closing foreign bureaus and offices in DC

Why did adversarial journalism emerge in the 1960s and 1970s?

– American officials leaked information that was critical of administration policy to reporters – White House officials pressured publishers to block reports critical of war – National newspapers discovered an audience of coverage critical of administration policy

What factor led to the development of professionalized journalists and the norm of "objectivity"?

The best way to appeal to a large audience is to produce a standardized, neutral news product

What functions does the media serve in democratic politics? (3)

– publicize and assess the claims of political candidates – examine government policies and platforms – reveal wrongdoing

Most of the national news published by local newspapers is provided by which of the following sources?

– major newspapers – the AP

When the media does not report on a particular idea, which form of influence are they exercising?

agenda settting

In the past twenty years, the number of media sources has __________. In that same period of time, political knowledge in the electorate has _______________________.

increased; remained constant

The following terms are often confused: ___________________ are concerned with influencing the policies of government, ____________________ are interested in influencing who gets elected, and ________________ are interested in the personnel of government, often directly running individuals for political office.

interest groups political action committees political parties

During the 1890s and 1930s, we saw a massive increase in the number of interest groups because of ____________________________.

rapid growth in the size of government

Which interest group is most likely to be involved in protesting the expansion of oil pipelines in the US?

citizen

T/F

Changes in technology have helped activist groups grow since the 1970s

True

What represent the things that most interest group organizational structures have in common?

leadership, money, and members

What is an example of an outsider strategy?

grassroots mobilization

Which three PAC groupings were most beneficial overall to Republican candidates?

finance, insurance, and real estate health ideology/single issue

What characterize states with more trade associations?

wealthier states larger population states

T/F

In general, groups organized on behalf of businesses and industries have more lobbyists and more financial resources than citizen groups

True

The National League of Cities, the National Governor’s Association, and Harvard University are all examples of what kind of interest group?

public sector

What best explains the pattern of lobbying expenditures by the Chamber of Commerce?

The Chamber of Commerce spends more during election years

What are examples of New Politics interest groups?

environmental protection women’s rights

T/F

Online advocacy (net roots) organizations differ from traditional interest groups in that they have a more streamlined staff structure and less bureaucracy

True

What statements accurately describe how lobbyists interact with Congress?

Lobbyists provide information to busy members of Congress Lobbyists can often have direct input into the exact language that appears in legislation

Example of public-sector interest group

National League of Cities

Example of professional associations

American Bar Association

Example of economic and corporate groups

Independent Petroleum Association of America

Example of labor groups

AFL-CIO

Example of citizen groups

Natural Resources Defense Council

Super PACs

cannot contribute directly to candidates may raise unlimited sums from corporations, unions, and individuals

PACs

started in the 1970s can contribute up to $5000 to a federal candidate for office

Example of purposive benefit

An individual draws pride from having contributed to an interest group’s introduction of a particular piece of legislation

Example of solidary benefit

An individual joins an environmental protection organization to meet and network with other local environmentalists

Examples of material benefits

An interest group member receives a free t-shirt for joining An interest group member receives discounts from local businesses related to the interest group

When an organization’s members send letters and make telephone calls to their elected officials on behalf of an interest group, it is called ________________ lobbying. This contrasts with _______________ lobbying, which is designed to mimic a spontaneous outpouring of support by members but is, in actuality, carefully orchestrated by an interest group

Grassroots Astroturf

Interest groups have to do more with political ______________ whereas political policies have to do with political ________________.

policies; personnel

How did the federal government in the 1960s and 1970s affect the number of interest groups?

New social programs and court rulings led to the formation of many new interest groups

Which statements about PACs are accurate?

The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) failed to restrict PAC operations overall Evidence suggests that interest groups’ campaign contributions influence behavior in Congress

_________________ benefits are provided in the form of emails, conferences, training events, and other communications from a group. Netroots organizations are less likely than traditional associations to offer ________________ benefits to members.

Informational; material

Which period saw beginning of expansion of labor unions and the creation of many trade associations such as the National Association of Manufacturers?

1880s and 1890s

What primarily brought about the formation of the New Politics movement, which spurred interest group growth?

the experiences of the civil rights and antiwar movements

What decade saw the beginning of the New Politics movement and interest groups associated with it?

1960

What role do members play in staff organization interest groups?

Pay dues and make contributions

Why does the notice and comment process matter to interest groups?

It allows interest groups an opportunity to influence the implementation of laws by federal agencies

In what way does an issue network differ from an icon triangle?

An issue network includes interested individuals and activists who would not be part of a strict iron triangle

T/F National conventions no longer spend much time on debating the selection of the presidential nominee for their party

True

What is the key feature that makes American political parties different from interest groups?

They try to control the government by winning elections

T/F The Democrats and Republicans have grown more similar in terms of their policy positions over the last fifty years

False

The "New Deal" Coalition that developed in the 1930s system was eventually undone by conflicts over which of the following issues?

The Vietnam War; civil rights

To prevent having multiple candidates from the same party confusing voters in a general election, political parties take which of the following actions?

hold nomination races

After the decline of party machines, state and local party organizers have become active in which ways?

recruiting candidates; voter registration drives; spending money on "party building" activities

What best characterizes people’s attachments to political parties?

Party attachments tend to be stable emotional and rational ties

What group is responsible for changes to a national political party’s rules on voting practices, such as the 1972 change in rules that called for the use of proportional representation voting system in the Democratic National Convention?

the national party itself

From the 1950s until the early 2000s, which party was more successful at using the presidency for party building and mobilizing its base to win elections?

Republican

The transfer of national ________ money to state and local organizations has led to _________ differences between state and national parties.

soft; fewer

The state with the highest turnout in presidential primaries is usually ____________________. The state with the highest turnout in presidential caucuses is usually __________.

New Hampshire; Iowa

Traditionally, ____________________ were the leaders in voter registration activity. More recently, __________________ have taken a more active role.

political parties; civic groups

Major moments in the history of American political parties in order from earliest to latest

1. Federalists represent New England merchants and argue for protective tariffs 2. The Democrats and Whigs become the two major political parties 3. The Republican Party comes into existence 4. The New Deal realignment leaves the Democratic Party dominant for several decades

What are the three fundamental problems of democracy that political parties solve?

mobilizing voters; regulating the number of people seeking office; accomplishing legislative goals

What do we call the meetings where political or legislative groups get together to select candidates, plan strategy, and make decisions regarding legislation?

caucus

What is an example of external mobilization?

aspiring politicians creating party organizations

What does Donald Trump’s victory in 2016 presidential election suggest about the power political parties have over their candidates and fellow party members?

Party leaders are limited in their abilities to choose and control their nominees

How do parties influence the committee system?

membership depends on the percentage of seats held by the party; transfer from one committee to another require party authorization

T/F The US uses a proportional representation system

False

Which are the main characteristics of the American national electoral system?

plurality system; single-member district

Which of the following are examples of patronage that political party organizations used during the party machine era?

distributing food to supporters; offering a garbage collector job to a supporter; helping immigrants process citizenship paperwork

Why are third parties often short-lived?

The major parties absorb their programs and their popular ideas

What is the current state of party discipline in Congress?

It is stronger today than it used to be

Which two statements best reflect the current state of parties in the electorate?

party identification has gotten stronger among active voters; there are more independent voters now than ever before

The Whig Party emerged from the _____________ Party in the second-party system. By the end of the third party system, the Whigs had largely been subsumed by the _________________ Party

Federalist; Republican

Under the law, 527 committees can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money, as long as which of the following provisions are met?

The 527’s activities are not coordinated with the formal party organization; The goal of the spending is to increase voter turnout

What is the most important factor in determining how many major political parties a country has?

electoral rules

Why do party activists tend to devote their time to politics?

they have strong beliefs

In order to equally represent and mobilize the broadest range of voters, which two of the following characteristics do political parties need to have?

responsible; competitive

At the Democratic and Republican national conventions, delegates meet to

draft the party’s campaign platform; nominate the party’s presidential candidate

What happens during an electoral realignment?

A new party supplants the ruling party

What is "dark" about dark money?

The donors and the amount they contribute do not have to be made public

One of the defining features of modern American politics is the division between the two major parties on most policy issues with little crossover. This is known as party ______________.

polarization

Federalists:

protective tariffs; creation of national bank

Jeffersonian Republicans:

free trade; promotion of agricultural interests

How is the Speaker of the House chosen?

selected by the House majority party

What is the most effective way to boost voter mobilization?

face-to-face interaction with a canvasser

T/F

More stringent voter ID laws reduce overall turnout.

True

Popular in western states like Oregon, Washington and California, __________________________ tend(s) to boost turnout among those less likely to vote.

permanent absentee ballots

The process by which people are organized for political activity is….

mobilization

Which two laws and amendments guaranteed suffrage for African Americans?

Voting Rights Act of 1965 & 15th Amendment

To vote in US elections, one must first meet which of the following requirements?

register to vote

Allowing citizens to vote directly on things like legalization of marijuana or changing the minimum wage are examples of ______________________. These have a tendency to _____________ turnout.

ballot initiatives; increase

Put groups in the order in which they received the right to vote from earliest to most recent.

1. white males with property 2. black males 3. women 4. people aged 18-20

What are considered "battleground" states in presidential elections?

Penn, Ohio, Florida

What are considered "non battleground" states in presidential elections?

NY, CA, TX

Statewide ballot initiatives tend to ___________ turnout, especially in __________ election years

increase; midterm

How many of the 435 House of Reps races are competitive every year?

A few dozen

Why do younger people vote less often than older people?

– older voters are better organized to participate – campaign ads rarely target younger voters

Which form of political participation is most common in the US?

Voting in a general election

As a consequence of mobilization efforts like the Moral Majority which religious group began supporting the Republican Party in the 1980s

evangelical Protestants

T/F:

One advantage digital media has over traditional media concerning campaigns is its low cost.

True

Congressional elections happen every _____ years.

2

The 2010 Supreme Court decision in Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission had what effect of campaign financing?

allowed SuperPACs to spend unlimited money in independent support of candidates

Which of the following groups was most important for Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 presidential general election?

white working-class voters

Which of the following terms describes a candidate who is running for re-election to a position in Congress that she already holds?

incumbent

If Joe Smith, a registered Republican voter, is allowed to vote in the Democratic primary, he must live in a state that uses which type of primary system?

open primary

Since America’s founding, candidates for president have been nominated using a variety of methods. Put the following nomination methods in order from earliest in American history to the most recent.

1. congressional King Caucus 2. delegates chosen by state party leaders 3. delegates chosen by primaries and caucuses

Grassroots campaign:

organizationally driven, local campaign

Mass media campaign:

money-intensive, statewide campaign

Buckley vs. Valeo (1974)

introduced idea that campaign contributions count as speech

Citizens United vs. FEC (2010)

government could not restrict independent expenditures by corporations

McCutcheon et al. vs. FEC (2014)

removed limits on individuals’ campaign contributions

In the US which levels of government are most responsible for administering elections?

county gov’ts, state gov’ts, city gov’ts

Which of the following set groups such as 527s and 501c4s apart from more traditional campaign finance groups such as political action committees?

– these groups cannot coordinate directly with campaigns – these groups are not subject to the spending limits of the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act

Which characteristics describe citizens in states with ballot initiatives?

– more knowledge about politics – higher levels of turnout

Which group was the primary election system introduced to weaken?

party leaders

Which form of electoral system is most common in the US?

plurality system

As a retrospective voter, you might consider which of the following?

how the economy did during the president’s previous term in office

The trend in campaign finance law over time has been toward which of the following?

fewer restrictions on campaign donations

Why have most major party candidates declined federal funding for their presidential campaigns recently?

they could raise and spend far more money on their own

Which issues are candidates likely to emphasize in an election?

those that most voters agree with

What is the first step in a campaign for an aspiring presidential candidate?

forming exploratory committee

In the 2016 election, which electoral factor was most significant in Hillary Clinton’s loss to Donald Trump?

A large part of her voters were concentrated in a few high-population states

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