POLI SCI 102 Chapter 4

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How has the government protected the right to privacy?

Various supreme court cases have recognized the right to privacy

What encouraged more legal action regarding the education of women?

The supreme court ruled that gender discrimination could result in monetary damages

The fourth amendment protects citizens from unreasonable __. It does this by guaranteeing citizens due process of law and applying the __, which makes "evidence" from illegal searches inadmissible.

Search and seizures; exclusionary rule

The constitution does not provide a basis for the right to privacy.


Freedom of religion is one of several civil liberties protected in the first ten amendments to the constitution, __. The __ amendment specifically addressed religious freedom and has two bolstering clauses- the establishment clause and the __.

Bill of Rights; First; free exercise clause

In what ways is the second amendment different from the first amendment?

First amendment: allows for the freedom of the press, allows for the freedom of speech Second amendment: allows for the right to bear arms

How are the first and second amendment similar?

protects individual freedoms, limits the governments power, within the Bill of Rights, reserves powers to the public

The bill of rights was adopted as part of the constitution as a concession to which political faction?


Prior Restraint

governments efforts to block the publication of material

Speech Plus

Speech accompanied by actions such as protesting

Public Forum Doctrine

Protection of public spaces, traditionally used for assembly

The supreme court has not been consistent in its protection of the right to privacy. For example, it __ several decisions that limited the right to privacy. Initially, the Court did not extend the right to privacy to __. However in 2003, the Court ruled that states __.

reversed; homosexuals; cannot prohibit homosexual conduct

How has affirmative action policies evolved over time?

President Johnson compels the federal civil service to hire minorities, the federal government makes affirmative action a priority, the supreme court said affirmative action policies must survive strict scrutiny.

Fourteenth amendment

Extended equal protection under the law to all Americans (guaranteed equal protection under the law)

Twenty-fourth amendment

Eliminated the poll tax

Fifteenth amendment

allowed black men to vote

Thirteenth amendment

ended slavery

In chronological order the evolving definitions of unprotected obscenity

obscenity is material that appeals to "prurient interest", obscenity is prurient material, having no social value, depicting sexual conduct in an offensive way, obscenity was largely deregulated

What role does the grand jury serve?

The grand jury determines if satisfactory evidence is accessible to warrant a trial

Which of the following cases weakened affirmative action?

Adarand Constructors v. Pena and Gratz v. Bollinger

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Outlawed job discrimination by all employers

Fair Housing Act

Allowed the government to initiate legal action in cases of housing discrimination

Brown v. Board of Education

ended the era of "separate but equal" schools

The evolution of privacy rights in order from oldest to most recent

The supreme court ruled in favor of martial privacy, the supreme court expanded the right to privacy with regard to abortions, the supreme court ruled that gays did not have a right to privacy, the supreme court ruled that gays have a right to privacy

What did the supreme court do to stop the formation of private militias during the late 1800s?

The supreme court clearly defined what militias were for

Which gun laws are practiced in Wyoming?

does not have a ban on possessing any type of gun, does not implement a probationary waiting period before purchasing a gun, does not require a permit when holding a concealed weapon

Fifth amendment

protects citizens from being tried twice for the same alleged crime (double jeopardy)

Sixth amendment

protects citizens by giving the right to receive counsel for defense of a crime

Fourth amendment

protects against unreasonable searches and seizures

Eighth amendment

protects citizens from being tortured or excessively threatened

In the 1965 Griswold case, the Supreme Court ruled that states may __ the use of contraceptives without violating __. The Court ruled that the Third, __, and Fifth Amendments protected the right to privacy. This was the first time the Court formally recognized privacy rights.

not ban; martial privacy; fourth

Federal government

tenth and seventh amendment

State and Federal government

First and eighth amendment

Federal agencies, as part of the shift from desegregation to integration in schools, required school districts to present integration plans or risk losing federal funds. What had to be considered in those plans?

busing students across district lines, closing certain schools, redistributing faculty, and redistributing students

Ernesto Miranda’s case led to the Miranda rule because he was coerced into confessing to the kidnapping and rape of an 18-year-old woman. Miranda’s case went to the __, which used the Fifth Amendment to clarify the protection from __ and the Sixth Amendment to guarantee a __. These rights had been greatly neglected until Miranda’s case.

Supreme court; self-incrimination; right to counsel

Which of the following rights appeared in the original text of the Constitution, before the addition of the Bill of Rights?

right of habeas corpus and right to trial by jury in the state where a crime was committed

"Fighting Words" fall outside the constitutional protection because they

Directly incite violence

Civil liberties are

Limitations on government action

Eminent domain is the power of government to

take private property for public use

In 2008, the US supreme court declared that the Second Amendment protects

an individuals right to possess a firearm for self-defense

Selective incorporation

considers the provisions of the Bill of Rights one by one and selectively applies them as limits on states through the Fourteenth Amendment

Speech that is accompanied by conduct and that can be regulated by the government to preserve public order is called

speech plus

The bill of rights consist of the

the first ten amendments to the US constitution

The supreme court rules in Lawrence v. Texas that the right to privacy

extends to gay and lesbian citizens

The exclusionary rule is illustrated by which Supreme Court case

Mapp v. Ohio

The free exercise clause protects

the right to believe in and practice one’s religion of choice

The idea of separation of church and state is most closely associated with the

establishment clause

The most dramatic restraint imposed on police by the Bill of Rights, which can free those people who are known to have committed the crime of which they have been accused of, is the

Exclusionary rule

The right of the people "to keep and bear Arms" is based on

participation in state militias

Which of the following is established by the fifth amendment

the courts cannot hold trials for serious offenses without provision for a grand jury

Which of the following is true of the Supreme courts treatment of student speech?

It has allowed limitations on student free speech depending on the content of the speech

Which of the following statements is about the death penalty is accurate

the united states is the only western nation that still executes criminals

__ Liberties place restraints on how government is suppose to act, while __ liberties limit what the government has the power to do.

Procedural; substantive

Which of the following supreme court cases confirmed that women have a constitutional right to abortion

Roe v. Wade

Which of the following supreme court cases incorporated the fifth amendment protection from "double jeopardy" to the states

Benton v. Maryland (1969)

Which supreme court cases set a precedent that corporations have religious liberty rights under the first amendment free exercise clause

Hobby Lobby v. Burwell (2014)

Which of the following supreme court cases shows how the supreme court regulates high school students free speech rights

Tinker v. DesMoines and Morris v. Frederick

In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), the supreme court ruled that Michigan Law School’s affirmative action policy was

Constitutional, since race was used in a holistic and individualized way and not as a quota

Segregation or discriminatory practices that occur even when there is no explicit legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the united states today, is called __ segregation.

de facto

The civil rights act of 1964 addressed discrimination in, among other things,

public accommodation and employment

Which supreme court case first restricted the use of racial quotas in university admissions

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Which of the following statements about the efforts to pass an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is accurate

The amendment passed Congress easily, but fell three states short of the requirement for ratification by the deadline

Which of the following were protected categories against discrimination in the 1964 Civil Rights act

Race, religion, sex, and national origin

The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, was signed into law to close what loophole in gender pay discrimination

the requirement that women suffering pay discrimination file suit within 180 days of the act of discrimination

The movement for expanding the rights of the disabled in the US in the 1970s was inspired by what other civil rights group


Which clause of the 14th amendment to the constitution has been most often utilized to obtain civil rights protections by groups in the US

Equal protection clause

In ensuring rights for citizens, the Bill of Rights checks the powers of the branches of government. Match the following branches of government to their corresponding amendments.

Executive: second, third, and fourth amendment Judicial: fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth amendment Legislative: first amendment

Which of the following were among Alexander Hamilton’s arguments concerning the Bill of Rights?

Hamilton argued that a bill of rights would be irrelevant because the national government had only delegated powers. To limit powers it had not been granted might lead the government to claim more powers. Hamilton argued that the Constitution was a bill of rights in itself since it contained provisions that amounted to a bill of rights.

Which amendments have been, through selective incorporation, incorporated or applied to the states using the Fourteenth Amendment.

Federal: tenth and seventh amendment State and federal: first and eighth amendment

How does the "wall of separation" apply to the establishment clause?

It prevents the government from establishing an official religion.

What was the precedent-setting case concerning the free exercise clause?

West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette

What does the free exercise clause allow citizens to do?

The clause allows citizens to believe and practice whatever religion they choose. The clause allows individuals to abstain from religion.

Read the following instances of commercial speech and select those that can and cannot be regulated by the government.

CAN: A pastry shop places a large sign on the grounds of a local police station. A juice company falsely claims that its product is a treatment for cancer. CANNOT: A major corporation runs ads supporting a political candidate. An organization publishes a newspaper advocating the use of birth control.

Why is the doctrine of strict scrutiny important to free speech?

Strict scrutiny forces the government to effectively prove a reason for the restriction or censorship of speech.

Examples of protected speech

A protestor burns the Texas state flag. A person protests outside a politician’s funeral. Walter’s Widgets, Inc., runs ads supporting a political candidate.

Examples of unprotected speech

A newspaper publishes detailed U.S. military positions during wartime. A student violates a school’s ban on wearing clothing advertising cigarettes.

Which of the following situations demonstrate libelous speech?

A newspaper falsely accuses a mayor of corruption with the intention of damaging the mayor’s career. A magazine that wants to boost its circulation runs an article falsely accusing a senator of running a gambling ring.

What is the purpose of a "shield law"?

It protects the confidentiality of journalists’ sources.

A radical right-wing group holds a small rally in a town square. The group’s members are careful not to block traffic or disrupt the businesses in the area. Their right to assemble in this way is protected by what doctrine?

public forum doctrine

Freedom of the press

prior restraint

Freedom of assembly

public forum doctrine

Freedom of speech

fighting words

In New York Times v. Sullivan, the Supreme Court established two conditions for libel against a public figure. What are they?

1. The story must be untrue. 2. The story must be motivated by "actual malice" or "reckless disregard" for the truth.

How have the following statutes and cases had a profound effect on gun control?

The Second Amendment established the right to bear arms. District of Columbia v. Heller the Supreme Court banned handguns in the country’s capital. McDonald v. Chicago the Supreme Court allowed individuals to own guns within the city limits of a major metropolitan area.

What age and race did males have to be to serve in a militia during the 1700s?

Males had to be white and between the ages of 18 and 45.

Why do the states have more responsibility in regulating gun ownership than the federal government?

The Second Amendment limits the federal government’s power on gun regulation, reserving that power for the states.

The Second Amendment was written during the 1700s, when state governments could not guarantee weapons for __. The states could not be trusted to distribute weapons in times of emergency, so eligible citizens kept their own __ in their homes. Therefore, the right "__" was directly related to whether the states could provide weapons for their militias. Most states could not.

state militias; firearms; to keep and bear arms

How does the Fifth Amendment affect U.S. citizens?

The Fifth Amendment is similar to the Fourth Amendment. Its goal is to protect citizens from unfair treatment by the government in criminal cases. It prevents citizens from being tried twice, which is also known as double jeopardy.

What is the primary function of the Eighth Amendment?

to protect citizens from cruel and unusual punishment

What parts of the Constitution have been used to expand the right to privacy?

First and Fourth Amendment.

Which two countries are more likely to protect the right to privacy?

Sweden and Canada

Put these major moments from civil rights history in chronological order.

The Equal Protection Clause is added to the U.S. constitution. Plessy v. Ferguson is decided by the Supreme Court. Brown v. Board of Education is decided by the Supreme Court. The Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act are passed in back-to-back years.

The gap between white and black voting rates was the smallest in __ before the Voting Rights Act. The Act had the biggest impact in closing the gap in __, where the gap closed by more than fifty percentage points. The Act had the smallest impact on black voter registration rates in __.

Virginia; Mississippi; North Carolina

What challenges did African Americans face after Brown v. Board of Education?

De facto school segregation continued in the North and South. African Americans still could not vote in many southern states. Many states refused to desegregate their schools. Housing remained racially segregated.

How have the following contributed to the advancement of women’s rights?

Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act established sexual harassment as a form of sex discrimination. Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools allowed monetary damages for Title IX violations. Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act made it easier for employees to sue in cases of wage discrimination. Equal Pay Act of 1963 made wage discrimination illegal.

How have the following contributed to the civil rights of gays and lesbians?

Lawrence v. Texas extended right of privacy as related to intimate contact to gay men and lesbians. Supreme Court ruling on the federal Defense of Marriage Act expanded recognition of same-sex marriages. repeal of "Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell" allowed gay men and women to serve openly in the military.

How have Native Americans expanded their civil rights?

The Supreme Court ruled that Native Americans are not subject to state laws prohibiting gambling. Native Americans have successfully used the courts to win reparations from the federal government.

In what case did the Supreme Court first formally address affirmative action?

Bakke v. Board of Regents

What has caused the Supreme Court to weaken affirmative action laws?

The Court decided that affirmative action policies must survive strict scrutiny. Some affirmative action policies violated the Fourteenth Amendment.

Which of the following rights was not included in the original constitution?

prohibition of warrantless search and seizure

Which of the following provided that all of the protections contained in the Bill of Rights applied to the states as well as the national government

the fourteenth amendment

The process by which some of the liberties in the Bill of Rights were applied to the states (or nationalized) is known as

selective incorporation

Which of the following protections are not contained in the first amendment

freedom from unlawful searches and seizures

the judicial doctrine that places a heavy burden of proof on the government when it seeks to regulate or restrict speech is called

strict scrutiny

In McDonald v. Chicago, the supreme court ruled that

the second amendment applies to states as well as the federal government

The fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments, taken together, define

due process of law

In which case did the supreme court rule that state governments no longer had the authority to make private sexual behavior a crime?

Lawrence v. Texas

When did civil rights become part of the Constitution

With the adoption of the fourteenth amendment in 1868

Which of the following was not a way the twenty-fourth amendment of 1964 and the voting rights act of 1965 significantly extended and protected voting rights?

requiring all voters to register two weeks before any federal election

Which of the following is not an example of an area in which women have made progress since the 1970s in guaranteeing certain civil rights?

the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment

The supreme courts decision in Bakke v. Board of Regents was significant because

it stated that diversity is a compelling state interest and that university admissions that take racial categories into account are constitutional as long as they are highly individualized

Affirmative action

government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of these groups with access to educational and employment opportunities

Bill of Rights

the first 10 amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791; they ensure certain rights and liberties to the people

Bill of attainder

a law that declares a __ guilty of a crime without a trial

Brown v. Board of Education

the 1954 supreme court decision that struck down the "separate but equal" doctrine as fundamentally unequal; this case eliminated the power to use race as a criterion for discrimination in law and provided the national government with the power to intervene by exercising strict regulatory policies against discriminatory actions

Civil liberties

areas of personal freedom constitutionally protected from government interference

Civil rights

obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens

Clear and present danger test

test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capacity to present a "clear and present danger" to society

de facto

literally, "by fact"; practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the United States today

de jure

literally, "by law"; legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the south before the 1960s

double jeopardy

the fifth amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime

due process law

the right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national or state governments

eminent domain

the right of government to take private property for public use

equal protection clause

provision of the fourteenth amendment guaranteeing citizens "the equal protection of the laws"; this clause has served as the basis for the civil rights of African Americans, women, and other groups

establishment clause

the first amendment clause that says that "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"; this law means that the "wall of separation" exists between church and state

exclusionary rule

the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the fourth amendment

ex post facto laws

laws that declare an action to be illegal after it has been committed

fifteenth amendment

one of three civil war amendments; it guaranteed voting rights for African American men

fighting words

speech that directly incites damaging conduct

fourteenth amendment

one of three civil war amendments; it guaranteed equal protection and due process

free exercise clause

the first amendment clause that protects a citizen’s right to believe and practice whatever religion one chooses

grand jury

jury that determines whether sufficient evidence is available to justify a trial; grand juries do not rule on the accused’s guilt or innocence

habeas corpus

a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause of detention


a written statement made in "reckless disregard to the truth" that is considered damaging to a victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory"

Miranda rule

the requirement, articulated by the Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona, that persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to remain silent and to have the benefit of legal counsel

prior restraint

an effort by a governmental agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship; in the united states, the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances

right to privacy

the right to be left alone, which has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to entail individual access to birth control and abortion

selective incorporation

the process by which different protections in the Bill of Rights were incorporated into the fourteenth amendment, thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national governments

"separate but equal" rule

doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still be considered equal


an oral statement made in "reckless disregard of the truth" that is considered damaging to the victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory"

"speech plus"

speech accompanied by conduct such as sit-ins, picketing, and demonstrations; protection of this form of speech under the first amendment is conditional, and restrictions imposed by state or local authorities are acceptable if properly balanced by considerations of public order

strict scrutiny

a test used by the supreme court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights that places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challenges to show that the law in question is constitutional

thirteenth amendment

one of three civil war amendments; it abolished slavery

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