PM chapter 5

Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

TRUE One of the most important and most difficult aspects of project management is defining the scope of a project. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

2. Deliverables are only product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software.

FALSE Deliverables can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.

3. Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project.

TRUE Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. It ensures that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products the project will produce and what processes the project team will use to produce them.

4. The scope management plan can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.

TRUE The scope management plan is a subsidiary part of the project management plan. It can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.

5. The project's size, complexity, importance, and other factors do not affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements for scope planning.

FALSE The project's size, complexity, importance, and other factors affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements.

6. Information from the project charter provides a basis for further defining the project scope.

TRUE The charter describes the high-level scope, time, and cost goals for the project objectives and success criteria, a general approach to accomplishing the project's goals, and the main roles and responsibilities of important project stakeholders.

7. Project scope statements must include the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.

FALSE Project scope statements should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria, and detailed information on all project deliverables. It is also helpful to document other scope-related information, such as the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.

8. The scope of a project is clear and specific from the start.

FALSE As time progresses, the scope of a project should become more clear and specific.

9. Many information technology projects also require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.

TRUE Many IT projects require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.

10. The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.

TRUE The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are created or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.

11. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.

TRUE The project scope management plan, scope statement, requirements documentation, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.

12. The scope baseline in a WBS consists of the requirements documentation and enterprise environmental factors.

FALSE The scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.

13. The WBS is organized solely around project phases.

FALSE A project team often organizes the WBS around project products, project phases, or the project management process groups.

14. A work package represents one component of the product that the project aims to deliver.

FALSE A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. It represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls.

15. A work package must always represent less than 80 hours of work.

FALSE A work package represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls. If a project has a relatively short time frame and requires weekly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one week or less. If a project has a very long time frame and requires quarterly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one month or more.

16. The tasks in a WBS must be developed as a sequential list of steps.

FALSE A concern when creating a WBS is how to organize it to provide the basis for the project schedule. You should focus on what work needs to be done and how it will be done, not when it will be done. In other words, the tasks do not have to be developed as a sequential list of steps.

17. The executing tasks of the WBS remain constant from project to project.

FALSE The executing tasks vary the most from project to project, but many of the tasks under the other project management process groups would be similar for all projects.

18. Many organizations provide different guidelines and templates for developing WBSs.

TRUE Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBSs, as well as examples of WBSs from past projects. Microsoft Project 2010 comes with several templates, and more are available on Microsoft's Web site and other sites.

19. Mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.

TRUE Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. This more visual, less structured approach to defining and then grouping tasks can unlock creativity among individuals and increase participation and morale among teams.

20. The format of the WBS dictionary is essentially the same for all projects.

FALSE WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed information about each WBS item. The format of the WBS dictionary can vary based on project needs.

21. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.

: TRUE A basic principle of creating a good WBS and its WBS dictionary is that a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.

22. Scope creep if not managed well can lead to the failure of information technology projects.

TRUE Even when the project scope is fairly well defined, many IT projects suffer from scope creep—the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. Many IT projects fail due to scope creep.

1. The term ______ describes a product produced as part of a project.
a. variance
b. scope
c. deliverable
d. work package

C Thee term deliverable describes a product created as part of a project. Deliverables can be product related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.

2. Scope refers to:
a. each level of work that is outlined in a work breakdown structure.
b. the end product created as part of a project that is delivered to the client.
c. tasks that are decomposed into smaller tasks in a work breakdown structure.
d. the work involved in creating the products and the processes used to create them.

D Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

3. _____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them.
a. Collecting requirements
b. Defining scope
c. Controlling scope
d. Validating scope

A Collecting requirements involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products for the project as well as the processes used for creating them. The project team creates requirements documentation and a requirements traceability matrix as outputs of the requirements collection process.

4. _____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.
a. Creating scope
b. Defining scope
c. Controlling scope
d. Validating scope

B Defining scope involves reviewing the scope management plan, project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.

5. _____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables.
a. Creating scope
b. Defining scope
c. Controlling scope
d. Validating scope

D Validating scope involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process.

6. Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the _____ process in project scope management.
a. planning
b. monitoring and controlling
c. closing
d. executing

A Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the planning process of the project scope management.

7. The ______ documents how project needs will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
a. requirements traceability matrix
b. requirements management plan
c. WBS
d. project scope statement

B The requirements management plan documents how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.

8. Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization is known as _____.

a. variance
b. benchmarking
c. prototyping
d. decomposition

B Benchmarking, or generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization, can be used to collect requirements.

9. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.
a. requirements traceability matrix
b. Gantt chart
c. state transition table
d. entity-attribute-value model

A A requirements traceability matrix (RTM) is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.

10. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
a. project charter
b. business case
c. project scope statement
d. work breakdown structure

D After collecting requirements and defining scope, the next step in project scope management is to create a work breakdown structure. A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope

11. The main technique used in creating a WBS is _____, which involves subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
a. conglomeration
b. accumulation
c. decomposition
d. catalyzation

C The main tool or technique involved in creating a WBS is decomposition—that is, subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.

12. A(n) ____ is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.
a. variance
b. objective
c. deliverable
d. work package

D A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.

13. The _____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.
a. project charter
b. scope statement
c. WBS
d. Gantt chart

B The scope statement should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project. It is very important to ensure consistency between the project charter, scope statement, WBS, and Gantt chart to define the scope of the project accurately.

14. In the _____approach for constructing a WBS, you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.
a. top-down
b. bottom-up
c. mind-mapping
d. analogy

D A method for constructing a WBS is the analogy approach. In the analogy approach, you use a similar project's WBS as a starting point.

15. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

C To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.

16. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS starts with the largest items of the project and breaks them into subordinate items.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

C To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items.The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective.

17. In the _____ approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

B In the bottom-up approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. Project managers often use the bottom-up approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.

18. The _____ technique for creating a WBS uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

ANS: D Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.

19. Which of the following is recommended for the creation of a good WBS?
a. Any WBS item should be the responsibility of all the people working on it.
b. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.
c. Each WBS item should be created assuming that the requirements are inflexible.
d. The work content of a WBS item is independent of the WBS items below it.

B Some basic principles apply to creating any good WBS and its WBS dictionary. Firstly, a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.

20. Scope creep refers to:
a. the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
b. subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
c. the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS.
d. a task at the lowest level of the WBS.

A Scope creep refers to the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.

21. _____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.
a. Scope validation
b. Scope planning
c. Scope control
d. Scope baseline

A Scope validation involves formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables. This acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables.

22. _____ refers to the difference between planned and actual performance.
a. Decomposition
b. Variance
c. Scope validation
d. Scope creep

B Variance is the difference between planned and actual performance

.

23. _____ refers to the process of developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.
a. Prototyping
b. Variance
c. Decomposition
d. Use case modeling

A Prototyping involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.

24. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.
a. Prototyping
b. JAD
c. RAD
d. Use case modeling

D Use case modeling is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. It is an effective tool for understanding requirements of information systems.

25. _____ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems.
a. Prototyping
b. JAD
c. RAD
d. Use case modeling

B Joint Application Design (JAD) uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders — the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on —to jointly define and design information systems.

1. _____ includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project.

ANS: Project scope management

2. _____ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

ANS: Scope

3. The main outputs of _____are the project scope statement and updates to project documents.

ANS: scope definition

4. Creating the _____ involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.

ANS: WBS work breakdown structure work breakdown structure (WBS) WBS (work breakdown structure)

5. _____ refer to "conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification."

ANS: Requirements

6. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.

ANS: requirements traceability matrix requirements traceability matrix (RTM) RTM

7. The main outputs of scope definition are the _____ and project document updates.

ANS: project scope statement

8. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope.

ANS: WBS work breakdown structure

9. Subdividing the project deliverables into smaller pieces is known as _____.

ANS: decomposition

10. The _____ includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.

ANS: scope baseline

11. Tasks in a WBS that are decomposed into smaller tasks are called _____ tasks.

ANS: summary

12. PMI uses the term "_____" to describe each level of work in the WBS.

ANS: task

13. A work package is a task at the _____ level of the WBS.

ANS: lowest

14. Some organizations prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects. These are known as _____.

ANS: guidelines

15. In the _____ approach to creating a WBS, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible.

ANS: bottom-up

16. _____ is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas when creating a WBS.

ANS: Mind mapping

17. A(n) _____ is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.

ANS: WBS dictionary

18. _____ is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.

ANS: Scope creep

19. The main tool for performing scope validation is _____ and group decision making techniques

ANS: inspection

20. _____ involves controlling changes to the project scope while keeping project goals and business strategy in mind.

ANS: Scope control

21. _____ is the difference between planned and actual performance.

ANS: Variance

22. _____ involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.

ANS: Prototyping

23. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.

ANS: Use case modeling

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Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

TRUE One of the most important and most difficult aspects of project management is defining the scope of a project. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

2. Deliverables are only product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software.

FALSE Deliverables can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.

3. Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project.

TRUE Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. It ensures that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products the project will produce and what processes the project team will use to produce them.

4. The scope management plan can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.

TRUE The scope management plan is a subsidiary part of the project management plan. It can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.

5. The project’s size, complexity, importance, and other factors do not affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements for scope planning.

FALSE The project’s size, complexity, importance, and other factors affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements.

6. Information from the project charter provides a basis for further defining the project scope.

TRUE The charter describes the high-level scope, time, and cost goals for the project objectives and success criteria, a general approach to accomplishing the project’s goals, and the main roles and responsibilities of important project stakeholders.

7. Project scope statements must include the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.

FALSE Project scope statements should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria, and detailed information on all project deliverables. It is also helpful to document other scope-related information, such as the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.

8. The scope of a project is clear and specific from the start.

FALSE As time progresses, the scope of a project should become more clear and specific.

9. Many information technology projects also require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.

TRUE Many IT projects require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.

10. The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.

TRUE The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are created or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.

11. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.

TRUE The project scope management plan, scope statement, requirements documentation, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.

12. The scope baseline in a WBS consists of the requirements documentation and enterprise environmental factors.

FALSE The scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.

13. The WBS is organized solely around project phases.

FALSE A project team often organizes the WBS around project products, project phases, or the project management process groups.

14. A work package represents one component of the product that the project aims to deliver.

FALSE A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. It represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls.

15. A work package must always represent less than 80 hours of work.

FALSE A work package represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls. If a project has a relatively short time frame and requires weekly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one week or less. If a project has a very long time frame and requires quarterly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one month or more.

16. The tasks in a WBS must be developed as a sequential list of steps.

FALSE A concern when creating a WBS is how to organize it to provide the basis for the project schedule. You should focus on what work needs to be done and how it will be done, not when it will be done. In other words, the tasks do not have to be developed as a sequential list of steps.

17. The executing tasks of the WBS remain constant from project to project.

FALSE The executing tasks vary the most from project to project, but many of the tasks under the other project management process groups would be similar for all projects.

18. Many organizations provide different guidelines and templates for developing WBSs.

TRUE Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBSs, as well as examples of WBSs from past projects. Microsoft Project 2010 comes with several templates, and more are available on Microsoft’s Web site and other sites.

19. Mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.

TRUE Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. This more visual, less structured approach to defining and then grouping tasks can unlock creativity among individuals and increase participation and morale among teams.

20. The format of the WBS dictionary is essentially the same for all projects.

FALSE WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed information about each WBS item. The format of the WBS dictionary can vary based on project needs.

21. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.

: TRUE A basic principle of creating a good WBS and its WBS dictionary is that a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.

22. Scope creep if not managed well can lead to the failure of information technology projects.

TRUE Even when the project scope is fairly well defined, many IT projects suffer from scope creep—the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. Many IT projects fail due to scope creep.

1. The term ______ describes a product produced as part of a project.
a. variance
b. scope
c. deliverable
d. work package

C Thee term deliverable describes a product created as part of a project. Deliverables can be product related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.

2. Scope refers to:
a. each level of work that is outlined in a work breakdown structure.
b. the end product created as part of a project that is delivered to the client.
c. tasks that are decomposed into smaller tasks in a work breakdown structure.
d. the work involved in creating the products and the processes used to create them.

D Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

3. _____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them.
a. Collecting requirements
b. Defining scope
c. Controlling scope
d. Validating scope

A Collecting requirements involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products for the project as well as the processes used for creating them. The project team creates requirements documentation and a requirements traceability matrix as outputs of the requirements collection process.

4. _____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.
a. Creating scope
b. Defining scope
c. Controlling scope
d. Validating scope

B Defining scope involves reviewing the scope management plan, project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.

5. _____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables.
a. Creating scope
b. Defining scope
c. Controlling scope
d. Validating scope

D Validating scope involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process.

6. Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the _____ process in project scope management.
a. planning
b. monitoring and controlling
c. closing
d. executing

A Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the planning process of the project scope management.

7. The ______ documents how project needs will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
a. requirements traceability matrix
b. requirements management plan
c. WBS
d. project scope statement

B The requirements management plan documents how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.

8. Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization is known as _____.

a. variance
b. benchmarking
c. prototyping
d. decomposition

B Benchmarking, or generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization, can be used to collect requirements.

9. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.
a. requirements traceability matrix
b. Gantt chart
c. state transition table
d. entity-attribute-value model

A A requirements traceability matrix (RTM) is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.

10. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
a. project charter
b. business case
c. project scope statement
d. work breakdown structure

D After collecting requirements and defining scope, the next step in project scope management is to create a work breakdown structure. A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope

11. The main technique used in creating a WBS is _____, which involves subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
a. conglomeration
b. accumulation
c. decomposition
d. catalyzation

C The main tool or technique involved in creating a WBS is decomposition—that is, subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.

12. A(n) ____ is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.
a. variance
b. objective
c. deliverable
d. work package

D A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.

13. The _____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.
a. project charter
b. scope statement
c. WBS
d. Gantt chart

B The scope statement should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project. It is very important to ensure consistency between the project charter, scope statement, WBS, and Gantt chart to define the scope of the project accurately.

14. In the _____approach for constructing a WBS, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point.
a. top-down
b. bottom-up
c. mind-mapping
d. analogy

D A method for constructing a WBS is the analogy approach. In the analogy approach, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point.

15. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

C To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.

16. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS starts with the largest items of the project and breaks them into subordinate items.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

C To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items.The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective.

17. In the _____ approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

B In the bottom-up approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. Project managers often use the bottom-up approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.

18. The _____ technique for creating a WBS uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks.
a. analogy
b. bottom-up
c. top-down
d. mind mapping

ANS: D Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas.Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.

19. Which of the following is recommended for the creation of a good WBS?
a. Any WBS item should be the responsibility of all the people working on it.
b. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.
c. Each WBS item should be created assuming that the requirements are inflexible.
d. The work content of a WBS item is independent of the WBS items below it.

B Some basic principles apply to creating any good WBS and its WBS dictionary. Firstly, a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.

20. Scope creep refers to:
a. the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
b. subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
c. the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS.
d. a task at the lowest level of the WBS.

A Scope creep refers to the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.

21. _____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.
a. Scope validation
b. Scope planning
c. Scope control
d. Scope baseline

A Scope validation involves formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables. This acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables.

22. _____ refers to the difference between planned and actual performance.
a. Decomposition
b. Variance
c. Scope validation
d. Scope creep

B Variance is the difference between planned and actual performance

.

23. _____ refers to the process of developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.
a. Prototyping
b. Variance
c. Decomposition
d. Use case modeling

A Prototyping involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.

24. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.
a. Prototyping
b. JAD
c. RAD
d. Use case modeling

D Use case modeling is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. It is an effective tool for understanding requirements of information systems.

25. _____ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems.
a. Prototyping
b. JAD
c. RAD
d. Use case modeling

B Joint Application Design (JAD) uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders — the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on —to jointly define and design information systems.

1. _____ includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project.

ANS: Project scope management

2. _____ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

ANS: Scope

3. The main outputs of _____are the project scope statement and updates to project documents.

ANS: scope definition

4. Creating the _____ involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.

ANS: WBS work breakdown structure work breakdown structure (WBS) WBS (work breakdown structure)

5. _____ refer to "conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification."

ANS: Requirements

6. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.

ANS: requirements traceability matrix requirements traceability matrix (RTM) RTM

7. The main outputs of scope definition are the _____ and project document updates.

ANS: project scope statement

8. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope.

ANS: WBS work breakdown structure

9. Subdividing the project deliverables into smaller pieces is known as _____.

ANS: decomposition

10. The _____ includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.

ANS: scope baseline

11. Tasks in a WBS that are decomposed into smaller tasks are called _____ tasks.

ANS: summary

12. PMI uses the term "_____" to describe each level of work in the WBS.

ANS: task

13. A work package is a task at the _____ level of the WBS.

ANS: lowest

14. Some organizations prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects. These are known as _____.

ANS: guidelines

15. In the _____ approach to creating a WBS, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible.

ANS: bottom-up

16. _____ is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas when creating a WBS.

ANS: Mind mapping

17. A(n) _____ is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.

ANS: WBS dictionary

18. _____ is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.

ANS: Scope creep

19. The main tool for performing scope validation is _____ and group decision making techniques

ANS: inspection

20. _____ involves controlling changes to the project scope while keeping project goals and business strategy in mind.

ANS: Scope control

21. _____ is the difference between planned and actual performance.

ANS: Variance

22. _____ involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.

ANS: Prototyping

23. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.

ANS: Use case modeling

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