Physiology Mid Term

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Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of

Mental process

Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people’s inner sensations and mental images.

Edward Titchener

William James was a prominent American


Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

thoughts and emotions

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as


Early behaviorists such as John B. Watson would have considered the introspective study of self-esteem to be

unscientific method

Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people’s

potential for healthy growth

Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between

thought process and brain functions

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of

behavior and mental processes

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on

uncontious conflicts

Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?


The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

how people encode, store process and retrieve information

Which perspective in psychology is most likely to focus on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?

social cultural

A hypothesis is a(n)

testable prediction with research

A testable prediction that is often implied by a theory is called a(n)


A statement describing the exact procedures for measuring an anticipated experimental outcome is known as a(n)

operational definition

Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definitions

The case study is a research method in which

single individual studied in great depth

Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors

vary together

Which of the following is a statistical measure of the strength of a relationship between two variables?

correlation co-efficient

A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between

grades and absences

Psychoanalytic Perspective:

personalities in stone by 7

Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients’ symptoms:

made no neurological scene

Free association is central to the process of:


Freud believed that ________ are the "royal road to the unconscious."


According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:


The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:


The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is:


The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:

self determinization

Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for:

self actualization

Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are least likely to be highly:


Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.

self concept

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:

the actual and ideal self

Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called:


Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.

describing, explaining

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic:

personality traits

Which of the following tests was empirically derived?


A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is called a(n) ________ test.

empically deried

The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to:


According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among:

enviornmental events

Personality is fruitfully studied at multiple levels of analysis because people are best understood as:

biophychosocial organism

The perception that one’s fate is determined by luck reflects:

external locus of control

The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate’s performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual’s:

past performance in similar situations

The social-cognitive perspective is least likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of:


A sense of personal self-worth is called

self esteme

Self-efficacy refers to the experience of one’s own


Research on self-esteem indicates that most people

view themselfs favoribly

Narcissism refers to excessive

self love

Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by


A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

social harmony

Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is:

devient distressful and dysfunctional

The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of:

medical model

The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of:

social circumstances

The DSM-V does not:

explain the causesof physco disorders

DSM-V focuses on clinicians’ reports of observable behavior in order to:

facilitate the reliability of a diagnosis

DSM-V is most likely to be criticized for:

exesivly classifying an a

Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of:

an anxiety disorder

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn’t know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from:

general anxiety

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by:

continuing state if tention

Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is:

free floating

The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of:


Repeatedly washing your hands is to ________ as repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________.

compulsion, obsesion

Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of:


Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor:


There is some evidence that a relatively low level of autonomic nervous system arousal may contribute to:

Antisocial disorder

The reduced self-control of murderers is most closely related to reduced brain activity in their ________ lobes.


Psychological disorders that can be overcome with psychological techniques such as counterconditioning are most likely to be treated with


The treatment of serious psychological disorders with prescribed medications or medical procedures that directly influence the nervous system is called

biomedical therapy.

A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who

uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches.

Insight therapies aim to improve psychological functioning by

increasing a person’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.

Humanistic therapists are likely to teach clients to

take more responsibility for their own feelings and actions.

Carl Rogers encouraged client-centered therapists to ______ during the process of therapy.

genuinely express their own true feelings

Empathic understanding of the patient’s subjective experiences is a major goal of a

client-centered therapist.

Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as

unconditional positive regard.

Which of the following is a type of exposure therapy?

systematic desensitization

A token economy is to operant conditioning as ________ is to classical conditioning.

systematic desensitization

Systematic desensitization involves

associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.

In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?

aversive conditioning

Therapists practice ________ by using positive reinforcers to reward closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior.

behavior modification

Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of

behavior modification

Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who specialize in the practice of psychotherapy are typically

clinical psychologists.

Psychopharmacology involves the study of how

drugs affect mind and behavior

Which form of therapy has most directly contributed to the sharp reduction in the number of residents in U.S. mental hospitals?

drug therapy

When testing a new drug, researchers control for a placebo effect by using

the double-blind procedure.

Tardive dyskinesia is characterized by

involuntary muscle movements.

Antidepressant drugs are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of

anxiety disorders.

One good alternative to antidepressant drugs is

aerobic exercise.

Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of


Which of the following is used to treat depression with a chest-implanted electrical device that periodically sends signals that affect the limbic system?

vagus nerve stimulation

Deep-brain stimulation involves the implantation of ________ into the brain.


Deep-brain stimulation has been reported to provide relief from


Psychosurgery involves

removing or destroying brain tissue.

Inserting a medical instrument through each eye socket was part of a procedure known as

a lobotomy.

During the 1940s and 1950s, lobotomies were most likely to be performed on psychologically disturbed patients who were

uncontrollably violent.

MRI-guided precision surgery is occasionally done to cut the brain circuits involved in severe cases of

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

2. gender/sex
5. Prevalence
6. Comorbidity

To have major depressive disorder you need 5 of the 9 symptoms

1-depression most of the day 2-no interest 3-weight loss 4-no sleep 5-agitated 6-fatigue 7-feeling worthless 8-hard to concentrate 9-thougrhts of death

are there any gender relation to major depresive disorder

it is more prominate in females

what age group is mostly effected by Major depresive disorder

7% of the Us-18-29 is most prominate

what is the prognosis of Major depresive disorder

40% genetic-Modifiers:ANXIETY, -enviornmental (childhood)- stress levels

prevelance of Major Depresive disorder

7% of the US

comorbidity of Major Depresive disorder

anorexia,nervious, panic,ocd, personality disorde

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