Physiology Chapter 11 (mastering a&p)

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Neurons in the parasympathetic pathway use which of the following neurotransmitters?


Which of the following is the type of adrenergic receptor found in most sympathetic target tissues?

alpha 1

What would be the effect of ACh binding to its receptor on the postsynaptic muscle cell?

Na+ would flow into the cell and K+ would flow out of the cell

The diameter of blood vessels varies under the control of ________ neurons, which cause the diameter to ________.

sympathetic; either increase or decrease, depending upon the type of receptor present

The division of the efferent nervous system that controls smooth and cardiac muscles and many glands is the ________ division.


These neurons secrete the neurotransmitter acetylcholine onto their targets:

somatic motor and parasympathetic motor

The two main types of acetylcholine receptor are known as

nicotinic and muscarinic

The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle causes which of the following?

muscle contraction

The target tissue(s) of somatic motor neurons is/are ________.

skeletal muscle

What is an appropriate classification for the ACh receptor found in the neuromuscular junction?

ligand-gated, nonspecific, cation channel

What type of acetylcholine receptor is present in the postganglionic neurons and on the target tissue in autonomic pathways?

nicotinic on the postganglionic neurons and muscarinic on the target tissue

Which nervous system division has parasympathetic and sympathetic branches?

the autonomic division of the efferent nervous system

Which statements apply to the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?

It is dominant during "resting and digesting" and its ganglia are nearby, on or near their target organs

The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the ________ division.


The adrenal medulla is important to the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system because

it is a source of catecholamines, it is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion, and it releases epinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood

Which area(s) of the brain exert(s) control over the autonomic nervous system?
1. cerebrum
2. cerebellum
3. hypothalamus
4. pons
5. medulla
6. thalamus

1, 3, 4, 5

Which functions are controlled through the autonomic nervous system?

1, 2, 3, 4

"Dual innervation" refers to an organ receiving

both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

The neural pathway from the spinal cord to the target tissue has two neurons, the preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron.

true for the sympathetic & parasympathetic division

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released by neurons at the neuroeffector synapse.

true only for the parasympathetic division

It releases norepinephrine at the neuroeffector synapse.

true only for the sympathetic division

The adrenal medulla is closely allied with this system.

true only for the sympathetic division

On average, one preganglionic neuron synapses with eight or nine postganglionic neurons, each innervating a different target.

true for the sympathetic & parasympathetic division

It is important during stress or emergencies (fight-or-flight).

true only for the sympathetic division

It dominates during resting-and-digesting activities.

true only for the parasympathetic division

The two types of cholinergic receptors are

nicotinic and muscarinic

Cholinergic muscarinic receptors are found at the ________ in the ANS.

parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions

Cholinergic nicotinic receptors are found in the ________ of the ANS.

autonomic ganglia

The two varieties of adrenergic receptors are

alpha and beta

Epinephrine and norepinephrine that are released from the adrenal glands affect target tissue for a longer period of time than the same substances released from neurons at their peripheral receptors. Why?

There are no enzymes to break down epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood and very little in peripheral tissues

Somatic motor neurons secrete the neurotransmitter ________ onto ________ receptors at the target tissue.

acetylcholine; nicotinic

How do the synapses of the autonomic nervous system differ from a neuromuscular junction (NMJ)?

Neurotransmitter receptors are concentrated on the postsynaptic membrane in the NMJ but diffusely arranged across the tissue in a varicosity

Which type of receptor is found in the neuromuscular junction?


What is the trigger for ACh release into the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction?

An action potential at the axon terminal opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels

How many molecules of ACh are necessary to completely activate the cholinergic nicotinic receptor?


The motor end plate is

a folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold

What is the main enzyme responsible for the breakdown of catecholamines?

Monoamine oxidase

Why is the parasympathetic nervous system also called the cranio-sacral division?

Its nerves arise in the head and sacrum

The effects of the sympathetic nervous system are divergent, meaning that a single stimulus can have an effect on a large number of targets. In other words, when the SNS is activated, all of the organs it innervates are stimulated. This does not occur in the parasympathetic system. Why?

The sympathetic ganglia spreads the stimulus to all postganglionic sympathetic neurons

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