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What are the two main parts of the nephron?

the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule

Which of the following describes the order in which blood flows through the nephron?

afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole

What is the function of the kidneys?

– maintenance of electrolyte balance – maintenance of acid-base balance – maintenance of plasma osmolarity

Which of the following should NOT be found in the filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule?

White blood cells

What is found in the filtrate in the Bowman’s capsule?

potassium, glucose, sodium

Which structures form the filtration membrane in the nephron?

glomerulus and the glomerular capsule

Which of the following resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate?

decreasing the efferent arteriole diameter and increasing the afferent arteriole diameter

Which of the following resulted in a decrease in glomerular capillary pressure?

increasing the efferent arteriole diameter and decreasing the afferent arteriole diameter

What is the normal range for glomerular filtration rate?

80 – 140 ml/min

What is(are) the driving force(s) for filtration in the nephron?

hydrostatic pressure gradients and osmotic pressure gradients

The functions of the nephron include all of the following EXCEPT _______.

glomerular secretion

What are some functions of the nephron?

tubular secretion glomeruluar filtration tubular reabsorption

What is the name for the "ball" of capillaries found in the renal corpuscle?


As the pressure in the beaker was increased, which of the following occurred?

Glomerular filtration rate increased, and urine volume increased.

With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed, _______.

urine volume was zero

With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed and with the pressure increased, _______.

the glomerular filtration rate increased and the glomerular pressure increased

Altering the radii of the afferent and efferent arterioles provides for _______.

glomerular filtration rate homeostasis and glomerular hydrostatic pressure homeostasis

Because the alteration of the afferent or efferent arteriole occurs within the nephron, we refer to this mechanism as _______.


Which of the following would decrease glomerular filtration rate?

increasing the efferent arteriole radius and/or decreasing the afferent arteriole radius

Secretion of ADH would _______.

decrease urine output

The reabsorption of water and solutes _______.

is passive, depends on concentration gradients and is into the peritubular capillaries

When ADH is present in the filtrate, _______.

urine concentration increases

Glucose is reabsorbed _______.

by secondary active transport by facilitated diffusion through transmembrane proteins into the peritubular capillaries

Glucose reabsorption occurs in the _______.

proximal convoluted tubule

Glucose is transported _______.

through the basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion

As the number of glucose carriers increased, the concentration of glucose in the _______.

distal tubule decreased and bladder decreased

At which concentration of glucose carriers was the glucose concentration reduced to zero?


When the glucose transport maximum is reached, _______.

glucose is excreted in the urine and not all of the glucose is reabsorbed

ADH is produced in the _______.


The secretion of aldosterone is directly stimulated by _______.

angiotensin II

The secretion of ADH is directly stimulated by _______.

a change in body fluid osmolarity

The addition of aldosterone _______.

decreased the urine volume

With ADH added but in the absence of aldosterone, _______.

the potassium concentration increased and urine volume decreased

The urine was the most concentrated _______.

with both ADH and aldosterone

Which hormone had the greater effect on urine volume?


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