# Physics Chapter 3

Total word count: 1718
Pages: 6

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 As you read this in your chair, how fast are you moving relative to the chair? Relative to the Sun? You are not moving relative to the chair, but you are moving over 100,000 km/h relative to the Sun. A speedometer normally measures instantaneous speed. What is the average speed in kilometers per hour of a horse that gallops a distance of 15 km in a time of 30 min? 30 km/h The difference between speed and velocity involves direction. If a car moves with a constant velocity, does it also move with a constant speed? Yes, because constant velocity requires constant speed in the same direction. If a car is moving at 90 km/h and it rounds a corner, also at 90 km/h, does it maintain a constant speed? A constant velocity? If a car is moving at 90 km/h and it rounds a corner, also at 90 km/h, does it maintain a constant speed? A constant velocity? It maintains a constant speed, but does not maintain a constant velocity. How can you use the graph of velocity versus time to estimate the acceleration of the ball? By estimating the value of the slope of the graph. How does the acceleration of the ball change as the angle of the inclined plane increases? It increases. As the angle of the inclined plane increases, how does the final speed attained by the ball at the bottom of the inclined plane change? It increases. Why does the final speed attained by the ball at the bottom of the inclined plane change in the way that it does when the angle of the incline plane increases? The ball accelerates at a greater rate for the same duration of time. How does the distance traveled by the ball in the second half second compare with the distance traveled by the ball in the first half second? It increases. Why does the distance traveled by the ball in each half second after it is released change in the way that it does? Gravity is pulling down on the ball, so it accelerates down at a steady rate. Which BEST describes what occurs when a body accelerates? Change in velocity per unit time. A ball rolling down an inclined plane each second picks up the same amount of speed each second. Galileo discovered that when air resistance can be neglected, all objects fall with the same acceleration. What is the acceleration of a car moving along a straight road that increases its speed from 0 to 100 km/h in 10 s? 10 km/h·s What is the gain in speed per second for a freely falling object? It gains approximately 10 m/s. What exactly is meant by a "freely falling" object? An object in free fall falls under gravity alone with no friction. When we are talking about how quickly "how fast" changes, we’re talking about acceleration. In its first second of free fall, a dropped softball will fall a vertical distance of 5 m What is the effect of air resistance on the acceleration of falling objects? Air resistance decreases the acceleration of falling objects. What is the speed over the ground of an airplane flying at 100 km/h relative to the air caught in a 100-km/h right-angle crosswind? 141 km/h Jogging Jake runs at 4 m/s along a train flatcar that moves at 10 m/s in the opposite direction. Jake’s speed relative to the ground is 6 m/s When you walk at an average speed of 4 m/s, in 5 s you’ll cover a distance of 20 m A vehicle undergoes acceleration when it 1) Changes its direction 2) Gains speed 3) Loses speed (ALL OF THE ABOVE) While a car travels around a circular track at a constant speed, its 1) Inertia is zero 2) Velocity is zero 3) Acceleration is zero (NONE OF THE ABOVE) If a car increases its velocity from zero to 60 m/s in 10 seconds, its acceleration is 6 m/s^2 An object covers a distance of 8 meters in the first second of travel, another 8 meters during the next second, and 8 meters again during the third second. Its acceleration is 0 m/s^2 A cart changes its speed from 90 m/s to 100 m/s in 10 seconds. During this interval its acceleration is 1 m/s^2 If an object moves with constant acceleration, its velocity must change by the same amount each second. A rock dropped from a 5-m height accelerates at 10 m/s2 and strikes the ground 1 s later. If the rock is dropped from a height of 2.5 m, its acceleration of fall is the same. A ball tossed vertically upward rises, reaches its highest point, and then falls back to its starting point. During this time the acceleration of the ball is always directed downward. A car’s speed 3 seconds after accelerating from rest at 2 m/s2 is 6 m/s. A ball starting from rest at the top of an inclined plane gains a speed of 2 m/s for each second it rolls. What is its acceleration down the incline? 2 m/s^2 The time it takes a car to attain a speed of 30 m/s when accelerating from rest at 2 m/s2 is 15 s What is the acceleration of a car that starts from rest and 5 seconds later reaches a speed of 20 m/s? 4 m/s^2 If a stone falls to the bottom of a mineshaft in 6 seconds, then the depth of the shaft is about 180 m If a freely falling object were equipped with a speedometer, its speed reading would increase each second by about 10 m/s. If a freely falling object were equipped with a speedometer on a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is 20 m/s2, then its speed reading would increase each second by 20 m/s. A ball is thrown upwards and returns to the same location. Compared with its initial speed its speed when it returns is about the same. At one instant an object in free fall is moving downward at 50 m/s. One second later its speed is 60 m/s. At one instant a heavy object in air is moving upward at 50 m/s. One second later its speed is approximately 40 m/s If you throw a ball straight downward (in the absence of air resistance), after leaving your hand its acceleration is 10 m/s^2 The total time it takes a projectile fired straight up at 10 m/s to reach the top of its path and return to its starting point is about 2 s When a ball thrown straight upwards reaches the very top of its path, its acceleration is 10 m/s^2 Neglecting air resistance, a bullet fired straight down from the top of a high cliff has an acceleration of 10 m/s^2 Phil Physiker standing at the edge of a cliff throws one ball straight up and another ball straight down, both with the same speed. Neglecting air resistance, which ball hits the ground below with the greater speed? Neither, both hit with the same speed. A pot that falls from a ledge and hits the ground 45 m below hits the ground at 30 m/s Phil leans over the edge of a cliff and throws a rock upward at 5 m/s. Neglecting air resistance, one second later the rock’s speed is 5 m/s Phil leans over the edge of a cliff and throws a rock upward at 5 m/s. Neglecting air resistance, two seconds later the rock’s speed is 15 m/s An 800-km/h airplane caught in a 60-km/h crosswind has a resultant speed of 100 km/h A river 100 m wide flows 1 m/s due south. A boat that travels 1 m/s relative to the water is pointed due east as it crosses from the west bank. Relative to its starting point, the boat travels 141 m A river 100 m wide flows due south at 1 m/s. A boat that travels 1 m/s relative to the water is pointed due east as it crosses from the west bank. The boat reaches the east bank 100 m farther south A motorboat that normally travels at 8 km/h in still water heads directly across a 6-km/h flowing river. The resulting speed of the boat is about 10 km/h A mosquito flying at 3 m/s that encounters a breeze blowing at 3 m/s in the same direction has a speed of 6 m/s A mosquito flying at 3 m/s that encounters a breeze blowing at 3 m/s in the opposite direction has a speed of 0 m/s The average speed of a horse that gallops 10 kilometers in 30 minutes is 20 km/h A cart maintains a constant velocity of 100 m/s for 10 seconds. During this interval its acceleration is zero. A ball starting from rest at the top of an inclined plane accelerates at 2 m/s^2 and reaches the bottom of the plane in 3 seconds. What is the length of the plane? 9 m A freely-falling watermelon falls with constant acceleration. If a rocket initially at rest accelerates at a rate of 50 m/s^2 for one minute, its speed will be 3000 m/s Ten seconds after starting from rest, a car is moving at 40 m/s. What is the car’s acceleration? 4.0 m/s^2 The accelerations possible for a ball on an inclined plane range from zero to g. The distance a freely falling bowling ball falls each second increases. While an iron block near the Earth’s surface is in free fall, it undergoes an increase in speed. If an object falling freely were somehow equipped with an odometer to measure the distance it travels, then the amount of distance it travels each succeeding second would be Greater than the second before. An object at rest near the surface of a distant planet starts to fall freely. If the acceleration there is twice that of the Earth, its speed one second later would be 20 m/s The distance a freely falling object falls from rest in one-half second is none of the above (5 m) One half second after starting from rest, a freely falling object will have a speed of about 5 m/s An object falls freely from rest on a planet where the acceleration due to gravity is twice as much as on Earth. In the first 5 seconds it falls a distance of 250 m An airplane that flies at 100 km/h in a 100-km/h crosswind has a ground speed of 141 km/h

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