Physics Chapter 22 Electricity and Magnetism- Terms, Practice Homework, Practice Test

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Electricity

Name given to a wide range of Electrical Phenomena, such as lighting, spark when we strike a match and what holds atoms together.

Just as "gravity" is the study of a wide range of gravitational interactions, "electricity" is the study of a wide range of

electrical interactions

Electrostatic

Involves Electric Charges, the forces between them, the aura that surround them, and their behavior in materials

What term is used for "electricity at rest"

Electrostatic

What are four areas that are involved with the study of Electrostatics

1.Electric Charges 2.The forces between them 3.The aura that surround them 4.Their behavior in materials

Electric Force and Charges: Central Rule of Electricity

Opposite charges attract one another; like charges repel

Electric Force and Charges: Protons

1.Positive Electric Charges 2.Repel Positives, but attract negatives

Electric Force and Charges: Electrons

1.Negative Electric Charges 2.Repel Negatives, but attract positives

Rub electrons from your hair with a comb and the comb becomes

Negatively Charged

If electrons are stripped from an atom it becomes a

Positive Ion

Electric Force and Charges: Neutrons

1.Neutral Electric Charge

Electric Force and Charges: Fundamental Facts about Atoms

1.Every atom is composed of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons 2.Each of the electrons in any atom has the same quantity of negative charge and the same mass.

A fundamental rule of electricity is that

Unlike kinds of charges attract and like kinds of charges repel

The fundamental force underlying all chemical reactions is

Electrical

Protons and Neutrons are compose of

Nucleus

Protons

are about 1800 times more massive than electrons, but each one carries an amount of positive charge equal to the negative charge of electrons

In an electrically neutral atom the number of protons in the nucleus is equal to the number of

electrons that surround the nucleus

Neutrons

have slightly more mass than protons and have not net charge

Which of these does NOT have an electrical charge

Neutrons

Atoms

have as many electrons as protons, so the atom has zero net charge

An electrically charged atom is an

Ion

Which part of an atom is positively charged, and which part is negatively charged

The nucleus is positively charged and the electron cloud is negatively charged

What is the most common net charge of an atom

Neutral

Electric Force and Charges: Ion

1. Positive Ion 2.Negative Ion

Electric Force and Charges: Positive Ion

Atom Losing one or more Electrons have positive net charge

Electric Force and Charges: Negative Ion

Atom Gaining one or more Electrons has negative net charge

The electrical force between electric charges depends only on their

1. Magnitude 2. separation Distance

What is a positive ion? What is a negative ion?

A positive ion is a neutral atom that has lost one or more electrons. A negative ion is a neutral atom that has gained one or more Electrons

A positive ion has more

protons than electrons

Which part of an atom is positively charged, and which part is negatively charged

The nucleus is positively charged and the electron cloud is negatively charged

Electric Force and Charges: Electrons in an Atom

1.Innermost 2.Outermost

Electrons in an Atom: Innermost

Attracted very strongly to oppositely charged Atomic Nucleus

Electrons in an Atom: Outermost

Attracted loosely and con be easily dislodged

Why are metals good conductors of both heat and electricity

The outer shell electrons in metals are free to move from atom to atom

When you brush your hair and scrape electrons from your hair, the charge of your hair is

Positive Charge

If electrons were scraped off the brush onto your hair, your hair would have

Negative Charge

Conservation of Charge

In any charging process No Electrons are Created or Destroyed. Electrons are simply transferred from one material to another. The total charge before an interaction equals to total charge after

It is said that electric charge is conserved, which means that electric charge

can be neither created nor destroyed

What is meant by conservation of charge

Net charge cannot be created or destroyed

To say that electric charge is conserved means that no case has ever been found where

net charge has been created or destroyed

Coulomb’s Law

The relationship among electrical force, charge and distance: 1.If the charges are alike in sign, the force is repulsive 2.If the charges are unlike, the force is attractive.

Coulomb’s law is most similar to which of these laws

Newton’s law of gravity

The unit of electric charge, the coulomb, is the charge on a

specific large number of electrons

Differences between gravitational and
electrical forces

1.Electrical forces may be either attractive or repulsive. 2.Gravitational forces are only attractive

How is Coulomb’s law similar to Newton’s law of gravitation? How is it different

Newton’s law of gravitation is attractive, whereas Coulomb’s law is attractive or repulsive. Both are proportional to the inverse square of distance.

Coulomb

The SI Unit of Electric Charge. One Coulomb (symbol C) is equal to the total charge of 6.25 * 10^18

How does one coulomb of charge compare with the charge of a single electron

A coulomb of charge is the charge associated with 6.25 × 1018 electrons

According to Coulomb’s law, a pair of particles that are
placed twice as far apart will experience forces that are

One-quarter as strong

Coulomb’s Law: Charge Polarization

Atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned with a slight excess of positive charge on one side and slight excess of negative charge on the other are called Electrically Polarized

In terms of net charge, how does an electrically polarized object differ from an electrically charged object

An electrically polarized object can have zero net charge, while a charged object cannot have zero net charge

Charge Polarization

If the charged rod is negative then the positive part of the atom or molecule is tugged in a direction toward the rod, and the negative side of the atom or molecule is pushed in a direction away from the rod -The positive and negative parts of the atoms and molecules become aligned. They are Electrically Polarized

What is the primary purpose of a lightning rod

To prevent a fire caused by lightning

When a charged comb is brought nearby, molecules in the paper are

polarized

Rub an inflated balloon on your hair and place the balloon on the wall. The balloon sticks to the wall due to charge polarization in the atoms or molecules of the wall

Charge polarization

Conductor

Materials in which one or more of the electrons in the outer shell of its atoms are not anchored to the nuclei of particular atoms but are Free to Wander in the material. Example: Metals such as copper and aluminum

Insulators

Materials in which electrons are Tightly Bound and belong to particular atoms in the material, which charge does not easily flow Example: Rubber, and Glass

Why are materials such as glass and rubber good insulators

Electrons are tightly bound to their atoms, making them poor conductors of heat.

Semiconductors

A material with properties that fall in the middle range of electrical resistivity between insulators and conductors -They are insulators when they are in their pure state. -They are conductors when they have impurities

Semiconductors conduct when light shines on it

If a charged selenium plate is exposed to a pattern of light; the charge will leak away only from the areas exposed to light.

When you buy a water pipe in a hardware store, the water
isn’t included. When you buy copper wire, electrons

Are already in the wire

Superconductors

Materials that is a perfect conductor with zero resistance to the flow of electric charge -Once electric current is established in a superconductor, the electrons flow indefinitely -With no electrical resistance, current passes through a superconductor without losing energy -No heat loss occurs when charges flow

Electrons transfer from one material to another by

Simply Touching – When a negatively charged rod is placed in contact with a neutral object, some electrons will move to the neutral object

Charging by Friction and Contact

The transfer of electric charges between objects by rubbing or simple touching. Example: Stroking cats fur, combing your hair rubbing your shoes on a carpet

Charging by induction

The redistribution of electric charges in and on objects caused by the electrical influence of a charged object close by but not in contact. Example: The Negative charge at the bottom of the cloud induces a positive charge on the buildings below

Electric Field

1. An Electrical Force per unit of charge. 2. Space surrounding an Electric Charge, Which is a storehouse of Electric Energy 3.The field decreases (directly) with inverse square law 4. They are parallel plates 5. They are Uniform

Electric Field Direction

1.Same direction as the force on a positive charge 2.Opposite direction to the force on an electron

Electric Field Equation Form

Electric Field= F/q

How is the direction of an electric field defined

The direction of the field is the direction of the force on a positive test charge

Electric Potential Energy

1.Energy possessed by a charged particle due to its location in an Electric Field. 2.Work is required to push a charged particle against the electric field of a charged body 3.Called Voltage-Potential Energy per Charge

Electric Potential Equation Form

Electric Potential=Electric potential energy/amount of charge

Electric potential energy is measured in joules. Electric
potential, on the other hand (electric potential energy per
charge), is measured

In Volts

Electric Potential: Voltage

1.High voltage can occur at low electric potential energy for a small amount of charge. 2.High voltage at high electric potential energy occurs for lots of charge

Capacitor

1. An Electrical Device 2. A pair of parallel conducting plates separated by a small distance 3. Stores Electric Charge and Energy 4.When the plates are connected to a charging device, such as the battery, electrons are transferred from one plate to the other.

It is said that electric charge is quantized, which means that the charge on an object

is a whole-number multiple of the charge of one electron

The electrical force between charges is strongest when the charges are

Close together

What term is used for electricity at rest

Electrostatics

What would happen to the two balls if one of them were kept positively charged and the charge on the other ball were slowly increased, making it more and more positive

The balls would begin to move closer together.

What would happen to the two balls if one of them were kept positively charged and the charge on the other ball were slowly made increasingly negative

The balls would begin to move closer together

What would happen to the two balls if both of them had a non-neutral charge and you slowly increased the mass of the balls?

The angle of the balls with respect to the vertical would decrease.

What is a positive ion? What is a negative ion?

A positive ion is a neutral atom that has lost one or more electrons. A negative ion is a neutral atom that has gained one or more electrons.

Two charged particles repel each other with a force F. If the charge of one of the particles is doubled and the distance between them is also doubled, then the force will be

F/2

Two charges that are separated by one meter exert 1-N forces on each other. If the magnitude of each charge is doubled, the force on each charge is

4N

Why is there no electric field at the center of a charged spherical metal ball

Because of mutual repulsion, mobile electrons in the conductor will spread out uniformly over the outer surface of the ball, so the force and the field on a test charge at the center is zero because opposing forces balance in every direction

An electron and a proton

attract each other

To become a negative ion, an atom must

gain an electron

To become a positive ion, an atom must

lose an electron

Electric charge can be transferred from one conducting body to another

by both contact and closeness

How does the charge of one electron compare to that of another electron? How does it compare with the charge of a proton? How do the masses of protons and electrons compare

All electrons have the same charge. Electron charge is equal and opposite to the proton charge. A proton has 1800 times the mass of an electron

Why does the gravitational force between Earth and Moon predominate over electrical forces

The electric force between Earth and Moon cancels out because they have an equal number of positive and negative charges

The force that binds atoms together to form molecules is

electrical

The net charge on a polarized molecule is normally

zero

A main difference between gravitational and electric forces is that electrical forces

repel or attract

Most atoms normally have a net charge that is

zero

When the distance between two charges is halved, the electrical force between them

quadruples

What is meant by saying that charge is quantized

All charged objects have a charge that is an integer multiple of the charge of an electron.

What is an electric dipole

In an electric dipole, positive and negative charges are separated on opposite sides of an object

How much energy is given to each coulomb of charge that flows through a 1.5-V battery

1.5 joules

Give two examples of common force fields and name the sources of these fields

Gravity fields made by mass, electric fields made by charge

Electric potential, unlike electric potential energy, is measured in units of

volts

When we say charge is conserved, we mainly mean that charge can be

transferred without loss like money in a bank

What happens to electrons in any charging process

Electrons transfer from one place to another

How does the flow of current differ in a superconductor compared with the flow in ordinary conductors

Superconductors have infinite conductivity (current flows forever), whereas ordinary conductors have a small resistance to the flow of electric charge

Two charged particles held a certain distance apart are released. As they move, the acceleration of each decreases. Therefore, their charges have

the same sign

Where is the energy stored in a capacitor

The energy is stored in the electric field between the plates

Two charges separated by one meter exert 1-N forces on each other. If the charges are pulled 3 meters apart, the force on each charge will be

0.11N

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