physics ch. 8

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Bernoulli’s principle says

whenever the fluid, the speed of a fluid increases, its internal pressure decreases

An ideal gas is confined to a container with an adjustable volume. If the pressure and mole number are both maintained constant, by what factor will the volume change when the absolute temperature is doubled?


The temperature of an ideal gas increase from 3C to 6C while remaining at constant pressure. What happens to the volume of the gas?

It increases slightly

If the pressure acting on an ideal gas at constant temperature is doubled, its volume is

Reduced to one-half

If the pressure acting on an ideal gas at constant temperature is tripled, its volume is

Reduced to one-third

Which one of the following statements best explains why gases are not commercially sold by volume?

Gas volume depends on temperature and pressure

A sample of neon gas at 30 degrees Celsius is confined to a cylinder with a movable piston. It is then heated until its pressure is doubled. What is the final temperature of the gas?

This cannot be found since the final and initial volumes are unknown.

A sample of a monatomic ideal gas is originally at 27 degrees Celsius. What is the final temperature of the gas if both the pressure and volume are doubled?


An ideal gas at 0 °C is contained within a rigid vessel. The temperature of the gas is increased by 2 C°. What is Pf/Pi, the ratio of the final to initial pressure?


Which one of the following properties of a gas is not consistent with the ideal gas?

The average speed of the molecules is smaller at high temperatures

Which one of the following factors is directly responsible for the pressure exerted by a confined gas?

Collision of gas molecules with the sides of the containing vessel

A copper rod has one of its ends placed in a Bunsen flame and the other end embedded in an ice cube. By what factor is the rate of heat flow changed when the rod length is tripled?


If holding hands to one side of a flame, the predominant form of heat transfer is what process?


The primary reason why a sandy beach gets so hot on a sunny day is because

sand has a small specific heat

The space between the inner walls of a thermos bottle is evacuated to minimize heat transfer by

conduction and convection

If your hands are being warmed by holding them above a flame, then the primary form of heat transfer is which?


Sea breezes on a beach are attributed to a difference between land and water with respect to what property?

specific heat

If you triple the absolute temperature of an object, it will radiate energy

81 times faster

Convection can occur

only in liquids and gases

By what primary heat transfer mechanism does the sun warm the earth


By what primary heat transfer mechanism does one end of a metal spoon become hot when the other end is placed in a boiling water?


When a vapor condenses

heat energy leaves the substance

Saturation occurs in air when the

air contains as many water molecules as it can contain at a given temperature

When water freezes, the entropy of the water


Is it possible to transfer heat from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir?

yes, but work will have to be done

The second law of thermodynamics leads us to conclude that

disorder in the universe is increasing with the passage of time

What is the theoretical efficiency of a Carnot engine that operates between 600 and 300 kelvin?


A substance can absorb heat energy by the process of

all of the above

Metals are both good heat conductors and also good electrical conductors because of the

looseness of outer electrons in metal atoms

A good heat conductor is a

poor insulator

Your feet feel warmer on a rug than on a tile floor because the rug

is a better insulator than tile

Energy transfer by convection is primarily restricted to


Warm air rises because faster moving molecules tend to move to regions of less

density and pressure (both of these)

Objects that radiate relatively well

absorb radiation relatively well

Hot water will cool to room temperature faster in a

black pot

Cold water will warm to room temperature faster in a

black pot

If air were a better conductor that it is, at nighttime the earth would be

considerably colder

A water-filled paper cup held in a flame will not catch fire. This is because

the paper cup cannot become appreciably hotter than the water it contains

An object will normally be a net radiator of energy when its thermal energy is

can’t say, because thermal energy is not a temperature

The silver coating on the glass surfaces of Thermos bottle reduces energy that is transferred


If a volume of air is warmed, it expands. If a volume of air expands, it


When a volume of air is compressed, its temperature


If a poor absorber of radiation were a good emitter, its temperature would be

less than its surroundings

A good absorber of radiation is

a good emitter of radiation

A good reflector of radiation is

a poor absorber of radiation

If you were caught in freezing weather with only a candle for heat, you would be warmer in

an igloo

If molecules in a sample gas moved so they completely missed each other the gas’s temperature

would stay the same

Hydrogen and oxygen molecule in a sample gas have the same temperature. This means the hydrogen molecules, on average, have the same

kinetic energy, but more speed

Suppose you served coffee at a restaurant before you are ready to drink it. In order for it to be the hottest when you are ready for it, you should add cream

right away

The planet Earth loses heat mainly by


Double the absolute temperature of helium gas, and the molecules of helium, on average speed up,

less than twice

Evaporation is a cooling process because

the more energetic molecules are able to escape the liquid

Steam bums are more damaging than burns caused by boiling water because steam

both of these, gives up additional energy and has more energy per kilogram

We are warmed by condensation because water molecules in the air that strike our bodies

transfer some of their kinetic energies to us

When heat is added to boiling water, the water temperature

stays the same

Increased air pressure on the surface of hot water tends to

prevent boiling

In the mountains, water boils at

a lower temperature than at sea level

Compared to a glass oc ice water with ice in it, a glass of plain ice-cold water without ice on a warm day will warm up


When bringing water to a boil in the mountains, the time needed to reach the boiling point is

less than at sea level

Food in a pressure cooker is cooked faster because of the

higher temperature

Food cooked in boiling water in the mountains cooks slower than when cooked at sea level. If the temperature under the pot is increase, the food will cook


If you want to cook eggs by boiling them while in the mountains, then compared to sea level cooking, you should

boil the eggs for a longer time

An inventor discovers a harmless and tasteless salt, which, when added to water changes its boiling point. The market value for this salt will be best if the salt

raises the boiling point of water

Consider a steaming aluminum soda-pop can that contains a small amount of boiling water. When it is quickly inserted into a bath of cooler water, the can is dramatically crushed by atmospheric pressure. This occurs because the pressure inside the can is rapidly reduced by

condensation of steam inside

When a gas is changed to a liquid phase, the gas

releases energy

When a solid is changed to a liquid phase, the solid

absorbs energy

When liquids change to a solid phase, they

release energy

Which would bum the must

100g of steam at 100 degrees Celsius

Suppose you walk on red coals with bare feet. Providing bits of coal do no stick to your feet, it would be best if your feet are


Te melt 50 g of 0 degree Celsius ice requires

4000 calories

To turn 50 g of boiling water to steam requires

27,000 calories

A refrigerator

removes thermal energy from inside the refrigerator

The cooling effect inside a refrigerator is produced by

vaporizing the refrigeration liquid

Ice is put in a cooler in order to cool the contents. To speed up the cooling process, the ice can be


which involves the larger number of calories?

the condensation of 1 g of steam at 100 degrees Celsius to 100 degree Celsius water

The number of grams of ice that can be melted by 1 gram of 100 degree Celsius steam is

8 g

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