Physical Geography- Ch6 (HW5)

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The state of water that is the most important yet least obvious in the atmosphere is ________.

water vapor

Evaporation ________.

is a cooling process

Which of the following promotes evaporation?
A. rising air
B. cold air
C. warm water
D. already-humid air
E. slow-moving air

C. warm water

Which of the following would SLOW evaporation from a water surface?

calm air

The transfer of moisture from land to air is termed ________.

evaporative cooling

The total amount of water vapor leaving the Earth’s surface is called ________.


________ refers to water vapor leaving the Earth’s surface through plants.


Potential evapotranspiration is ________.
A. very small when the atmosphere is warm
B. usually about the same as actual evapotranspiration
C. usually not as great as actual evapotranspiration
D. an amount much less than transpiration
E. not described by any of the above

not described by any of the above

Which of the following is NOT a measure of water vapor in the atmosphere?
A. absolute humidity
B. potential evapotranspiration
C. specific humidity
D. relative humidity
E. dew point

B. potential evapotranspiration

Vapor pressure is ________.

maximized during satuartion

Grams per cubic meter would be the measurement units used to describe ________.

absolute humidity

Water is unique because no other substance occurs in ________.

all three states of matter

Air containing all of the water vapor it can hold is ________.


Which measure of humidity is a mass to mass comparison?
A. dew point
B. specific humidity
C. absolute humidity
D. relative humidity
E. saturation

B. specific humidity

The capacity of air to hold water ________.

increases as temperature increases

Usually, the highest relative humidity is ________.

at dawn

Relative humidity is ________ related to air temperature.


Relative humidity is "relative" to ________.


________ is the critical temperature at which saturation is reached.

The dew point

The amount of water vapor expressed as the mass of water vapor in a given volume of air is ________.

Specific humidity

Maximum absolute humidity is governed by ________.


How warm or cold it feels to us is the ________ temperature.


The hydrologic cycle refers to the ________.

unending circulation of Earth’s water supply

If air’s capacity for holding water vapor is diminished, then the relative humidity will ________.


The relative humidity would be ________% if the actual water vapor in the air was 10 grams per cubic meter, the air’s capacity to hold water vapor was 20 grams per cubic meter and the dewpoint temperature was 20 degrees Celsius.


A certain volume of air holds 20 grams of water vapor. At that temperature, the maximum amount the air can contain is 100 grams. What is the relative humidity?


If the ________ of air changes, the value of the absolute humidity changes even though there is no change in the actual amount of water vapor present.


The release of latent heat from water molecules is called ________.


Which of the following is SMALLEST?
A. a small piece of hail
B. a small raindrop
C. raindrops in a convection storm
D. an average pellet of sleet
E. a condensation nucleus

E. a condensation nucleus

Liquid water that has cooled below the dew point becomes ________.


In the atmosphere, liquid water collects around minute particles called ________.

condensation nuclei

In order for atmospheric condensation to take place, ________.

plenty of "surfaces" need to be present in the atmosphere

In the atmosphere, some liquid water exists until the temperature lowers below ________ degrees Celsius.


In terms of the lower part of the troposphere, more than ________% of all water vapor is found within 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) of the Earth’s surface.


The rising and subsequent cooling of air at the rate of 10°C per 1,000 meters is called ________.

the dry adiabatic lapse rate

Rising air, warmed by the release of latent heat, cools at a rate called ________.

the saturated adiabatic lapse rate

Most of the Earth’s cloudiness results directly from ________.

adiabatic cooling

In degrees Celsius, how much GREATER is the dry adiabatic lapse rate than the saturated adiabatic lapse rate over 1,000 meters?

average around 4

The average lapse rate in the troposphere ________.

is quite variable by time and region

Saturated air is forced down the leeward side of a mountain. On its way down the air undergoes warming because of compression. What is the rate at which the air will heat up?

10°C per 1,000 m of descent

The altitude at which rising air reaches the dew point temperature is the ________.

lifting condensation level

Clouds form if air is ________.

cooled to the dew point

Among cloud types, those that occur at the highest altitudes are the ________.


Clouds of vertical development include the type called ________.


Water that stays in liquid form at temperatures below freezing is ________.


Which of the following cloud types has the greatest height (from top to bottom)?
A. cirrus
B. cumulus
C. cumulonimbus
D. stratus
E. altostratus

C. cumulonimbus

Cold air moving over a warmer lake surface will result in a(n) ________ type of fog.


Which of the following occurs because water is added to atmosphere?
A. radiation fog
B. advection fog
C. orographic fog
D. upslope fog
E. evaporation fog

E. evaporation fog

In the United States, fog occurs LEAST often in the ________ states.


White frost is simply a cold weather form of ________.


Showery weather and cumuliform clouds point to the presence of ________.


Air that resists vertical movement is said to be ________.


Any buoyant parcel of air is said to exhibit ________.


A lack of atmospheric buoyancy is called ________.


Buoyant air will rise until it ________.

reaches the temperature of the surrounding air

Water vapor can be described by all but one of the following
A. tasteless
B. odorless
C. light blue color
D. energy-rich
E. a small fraction of the atmosphere’s volume

C. light blue color

When air is heated enough so that it is warmer than the surrounding air, it is ________.


The sky is covered with stratiform clouds and drizzle is falling. Without measuring, one could reliably guess the atmosphere is ________.


A piece of unsaturated air is forced to rise. The lapse rate in the surrounding air is much less than the rate in change of temperature in the rising air. The rising air is said to be ________.


Conditional instability is when the lapse rate of an air parcel is ________.

between the wet and dry adiabatic lapse rate

When or where is air most likely unstable?

during the afternoon

Which of the following is most closely associated with stable air?

Descent of air

Global dimming is caused by ________.

human release of aerosols

The net effect of global dimming has been to ________ the effect of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions.

reduce by half

Showery precipitation is most closely associated with ________.

unstable air

Which of the following lapse rates represents the greatest temperature change over altitude?
A. average environmental lapse rate
B. wet adiabatic
C. dry adiabatic
D. They are all close to being the same rate.
E. They are all the same rate.

C. dry adiabatic

The saturated adiabatic lapse rate is a lesser lapse rate than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. This is because ________.

latent heat is being released

________ is the term used in the United States for small raindrops that freeze while falling and reach the ground as small pellets of ice


The Bergeron process is also known as the ________ process.

ice crystal formation

Most of the wettest areas around the world are located in the ________.


Which of the following DOES NOT comprise common hygroscopic nuclei?
A. sea salt
B. dust
C. pollen
D. bacteria
E. hail stones

E. hail stones

In terms of annual average precipitation, the rainiest region of the continental United States is the ________.


In the "Ice Crystal Formation" process, precipitation occurs because ice crystals ________.

grow at the expense of raindrops

Hail becomes larger because it collides with ________.

supercooled water

The most common and widespread form of precipitation is ________.


By definition, which of the following freezes after it reaches the ground?
A. rain
B. sleet
C. glaze
D. snow
E. hail

C. glaze

The number of condensation nuclei in a raindrop is on the order of ________.


Atmospheric water vapor can be described as ________.

having an erratic distribution

Which is NOT among the main types of atmospheric lifting and precipitation?
A. convergent
B. convective
C. advective
D. frontal
E. orographic

C. advective

The GOES satellites monitoring the weather of the United States are ________.


Downwind of large mountain ranges there is less precipitation; this drier zone is called the ________.

rain shadow

Air forced to move over a mountain is most closely associated with which type of lifting?


The leeward slope of a hill or mountain blocking precipitation is called the ________.

rain shadow

A precipitation type extremely characteristic of the lower latitudes is ________.

convergent lifting

The American states with the highest average annual incidence of fog are located on ________.

the Pacific coast

The rainiest portion of South America is the ________.

central interior

The western coasts of continents in the subtropical zones are in ________ precipitation zones.


Central Asia and western North America experience dryness because of ________.

lack of moist air masses

Liquid converts to gas when ________.

molecules break loose from the liquid

Which of the following would one expect to find associated with low annual precipitation totals?
A. fronts
B. convection
C. convergence
D. subtropical highs
E. mountain ranges

D. subtropical highs

Which of the following is found along the western edges of continents at 25 degrees from the Equator?
A. air that is stable because it is so cold
B. Earth’s greatest concentrations of precipitation-producing clouds
C. dryness
D. the least variable annual precipitation totals on Earth
E. the rapid rise of air

C. dryness

Which of the following is TRUE concerning precipitation in the interiors of continents?
A. They tend to be without orographic uplift.
B. They tend to be wetter than the coastal areas.
C. They tend to have more balanced seasonal precipitation regimes than the coastal areas.
D. They tend to have anticyclonic conditions in the summer.
E. They tend to have their wettest season in the summer.

E. They tend to have their wettest season in the summer.

In the United States, winter precipitation exceeds summer precipitation ________.

on the West Coast

Most regions of the globe receive a ________ maximum of rainfall.


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