physic chapter 9

What are two primary functions of the kidney?

excretion and regulation

What are the components of the renal corpuscle?

Bowmans capsule, Glomerulus

Starting at the renal corpuscle, list the components of the renal tubule as they are encountered by filtrate

Bowmans capsule, proximal convoluted tubule,loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct

Describe the effect of decreasing the afferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate

When afferent radius decreased the pressure and filtration rate decreased.

Describe the effect of increasing the afferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate

When afferent radius increase, the pressure and filtration rate increased.

Describe the effect of decreasing the efferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate.

When efferent radius decreased, the pressure and filtration rate increased.

Describe the effect of increasing the efferent radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate

When efferent radius increased, the pressure and filtration decreased.

As blood pressure increased, what happened to the glomerular filtration rate?

The glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate increased.

Compare the urine volume in your baseline data with the urine volume as you increased the blood pressure. How did the urine volume change?

Increased proportionally

How could a change in urine volume with the increase in blood pressure be viewed as being beneficial to the body?

Increased blood pressure can be a result of increased blood volume, and increase in urine volume would stabilize blood volume.

When the one way valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder was closed, what happened to the filtrate pressure in Bowmans capsule and the glomerular filtration rate?

If you close the one-way valve, pressure will increase in Bowmans capsule and filtration rate will decrease.

How did increasing the blood pressure alter the results when the valve was closed?

The filtration rate decreased but glomerular pressure stayed the same.

What happened to the urine concentration as the solute concentration in the interstitial space was increased?

the urine volume decreased.

What happened to the volume of urine as the solute concentration in the interstitial space was increased?

the volume decreased

What do you think will happen to urine if you didn't add ADH to the collecting duct.?

The urine volume will increase in the absence of ADH in the collecting duct

Is most of the tubule filtrate reabsorbed into the body or excreted in urine?

Reabsorbed to prevent fluid loss and maintain homeostasis.

Can the reabsorption of solutes influence water reabsorption from the tubule fluid?

Yes, reabsorption of solutes affects water reabsorption because water will follow the solute by osmosis.

How did the addition of aldosterone affect urine volume(compared with baseline)? Can the reabsorption of solutes influence water absorption in the nephron?

Urine volume decreased, aldosterone results in increased sodium and water reabsorption and increased potassium secretion.

How did the addition of ADH affect urine volume (compared to baseline)? Why did the addition of ADH also affect the concentration of potassium in the urine(compared with baseline)

Urine volume decreased, the addition of ADH resulted in potassium being more concentrated because the volume of urine decreased.

What is the principal determinant for the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex?

Its stimulated by the production of angiostensin 2 which is under control of the bodes renin-angiostensin system

how did the addition of both aldosterone and ADH affect urine volume (compared with baseline)

When the ADH was added, urine increased

What is the principal determinant for the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland? Does ADH favor the formation of dilute or concentrated urine?

An increase in body fluid osmolarity will stimulate the release of more ADH, ADH favors dilute urine

which hormone has greater effect on urine volume?

ADH because its responsible for reapsorption

If ADH is not available, can the urine concentrate still vary?

If ADH is not available, other factors may vary like permiability of reabsorbing tissues and the amout of solutes ( osmolarity ) of the tubules themselves.

Consider: you want to reabsorb sodium ions but you do not want to increase the volume of the blood by reabsorbing large amounts of water from the filtrate. Assuming the aldosterone and ADH are both present, how would you adjust the hormones to accomplish the task?

In order to reabsorb sodium without affecting urine volume, you will need to increase the amount of aldosterone and decrease ADH

role of ADH

promotes H2O reabsorption, reduces urine volume, increases concentration, makes collecting ducts more permeable to water

role of aldosterone

promotes Na+ reabsorption in kidney in exchange for K+ and H+, maintains BP, water and salt balance

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physic chapter 9

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What are two primary functions of the kidney?

excretion and regulation

What are the components of the renal corpuscle?

Bowmans capsule, Glomerulus

Starting at the renal corpuscle, list the components of the renal tubule as they are encountered by filtrate

Bowmans capsule, proximal convoluted tubule,loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct

Describe the effect of decreasing the afferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate

When afferent radius decreased the pressure and filtration rate decreased.

Describe the effect of increasing the afferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate

When afferent radius increase, the pressure and filtration rate increased.

Describe the effect of decreasing the efferent arteriole radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate.

When efferent radius decreased, the pressure and filtration rate increased.

Describe the effect of increasing the efferent radius on glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate

When efferent radius increased, the pressure and filtration decreased.

As blood pressure increased, what happened to the glomerular filtration rate?

The glomerular capillary pressure and filtration rate increased.

Compare the urine volume in your baseline data with the urine volume as you increased the blood pressure. How did the urine volume change?

Increased proportionally

How could a change in urine volume with the increase in blood pressure be viewed as being beneficial to the body?

Increased blood pressure can be a result of increased blood volume, and increase in urine volume would stabilize blood volume.

When the one way valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder was closed, what happened to the filtrate pressure in Bowmans capsule and the glomerular filtration rate?

If you close the one-way valve, pressure will increase in Bowmans capsule and filtration rate will decrease.

How did increasing the blood pressure alter the results when the valve was closed?

The filtration rate decreased but glomerular pressure stayed the same.

What happened to the urine concentration as the solute concentration in the interstitial space was increased?

the urine volume decreased.

What happened to the volume of urine as the solute concentration in the interstitial space was increased?

the volume decreased

What do you think will happen to urine if you didn’t add ADH to the collecting duct.?

The urine volume will increase in the absence of ADH in the collecting duct

Is most of the tubule filtrate reabsorbed into the body or excreted in urine?

Reabsorbed to prevent fluid loss and maintain homeostasis.

Can the reabsorption of solutes influence water reabsorption from the tubule fluid?

Yes, reabsorption of solutes affects water reabsorption because water will follow the solute by osmosis.

How did the addition of aldosterone affect urine volume(compared with baseline)? Can the reabsorption of solutes influence water absorption in the nephron?

Urine volume decreased, aldosterone results in increased sodium and water reabsorption and increased potassium secretion.

How did the addition of ADH affect urine volume (compared to baseline)? Why did the addition of ADH also affect the concentration of potassium in the urine(compared with baseline)

Urine volume decreased, the addition of ADH resulted in potassium being more concentrated because the volume of urine decreased.

What is the principal determinant for the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex?

Its stimulated by the production of angiostensin 2 which is under control of the bodes renin-angiostensin system

how did the addition of both aldosterone and ADH affect urine volume (compared with baseline)

When the ADH was added, urine increased

What is the principal determinant for the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland? Does ADH favor the formation of dilute or concentrated urine?

An increase in body fluid osmolarity will stimulate the release of more ADH, ADH favors dilute urine

which hormone has greater effect on urine volume?

ADH because its responsible for reapsorption

If ADH is not available, can the urine concentrate still vary?

If ADH is not available, other factors may vary like permiability of reabsorbing tissues and the amout of solutes ( osmolarity ) of the tubules themselves.

Consider: you want to reabsorb sodium ions but you do not want to increase the volume of the blood by reabsorbing large amounts of water from the filtrate. Assuming the aldosterone and ADH are both present, how would you adjust the hormones to accomplish the task?

In order to reabsorb sodium without affecting urine volume, you will need to increase the amount of aldosterone and decrease ADH

role of ADH

promotes H2O reabsorption, reduces urine volume, increases concentration, makes collecting ducts more permeable to water

role of aldosterone

promotes Na+ reabsorption in kidney in exchange for K+ and H+, maintains BP, water and salt balance

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