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According to Freud, which part of the mind acts as a person’s conscience?

D. superego

Cettina fills out a personality inventory several times over the course of one year. The results of each administration of the test are extremely different. Cettina’s situation suggests that this personality inventory may not be

A. reliable

Which approach toward personality is the least deterministic?

B. humanistic

One of your classmates remarks that "Mark is all is." What does she likely mean?

D. Mary frequently pursues immediate gratification

The belief that personality is created by the interaction between a person, his or her behavior, and the environment is known as

C. reciprocal determinism

Juan has a huge crush on Sally, but he never admits it. Instead, he tells all who will listen that Sally is really "into him." Psychoanalysts would see Juan’s bragging as an example of

E. projection

Dr. Li asks her clients to interpret ambiguous pictures of people in various settings. the method she is using is called

C. the TAT

One personality trait that is thought to be highly heritable is

D. introversion

Humanistic psychologists assert that people are motivated to self-actualize. Which of the following statements best describes the meaning of this term?

D. trying to achieve their full potential

Which is NOT one of the big five personality traits?

D. honesty

Feminist psychoanalytic critics of Freud most commonly argue that

C. women’s superegos are just as strong as men’s

Jamal sucked his thumb until age eight. As an adult, he smokes, chews gum, and thinks constantly of food. Psychoanalysts would describe Jamal as having a(n)

D. oral fixation

Someone who has an external locus of control is likely to have a

D. belief in luck

What kind of psychologist would be most likely to use a projective personality assessment?

E. psychoanalytic

Redirecting one’s unacceptable urges into more socially acceptable pursuits best defines which of the following defense mechanisms?

C. sublimation

1. The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective.


2. Jaydon doesn’t realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a

weak ego

3. Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of

oral fixation

4. Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as

reaction formation

5. Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning.

unconditional positive regard

6. Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.


7. Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others’ opinions illustrate


8. Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of

positive self-concept

9. Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?

factor analysis

10. During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark’s amazement at the psychic’s apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates

the Barnum effect

11. One of the Big Five personality factors is


12. Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates

reciprocal determinism

13. Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates

an external locus of control

14. Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates

a pessimistic attributional style

15. When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates

the spotlight effect

1. Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of

unconscious wishes

2. Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a(n)

weak superego

3. According to psychoanalytic theory, boys’ fear of castration is most closely associated with

the Oedipus complex

4. Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates


5. Children who have witnessed a parent’s murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud’s concept of


6. According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for


7. Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?


8. The MMPI was originally developed to identify

emotional disorders

9. Around the world, people describe others’ personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called

the Big Five

10. The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of

the trait persepective

11. We can better predict drivers’ behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers’ personalities. This best illustrates the importance of

situational influences

12. The social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of personal traits and environment, a process that Albert Bandura called

reciprocal determinism

13. After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates

learned helplessness

14. Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates

unrealistic optimism

15. Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate

self-serving bias


the unique attitudes, behaviors, and emotions that characterize a person

Type A personality

tend to feel a sense of time pressure and are easily angered; competitive; ambitious; hard-working; at a higher risk for heart disease

Type B personality

relaxed and easygoing




negotiate between the desires of the id and the limitations of the environment


a conscience and thinking about what is right and wrong

defense mechanisms

repression, denial, displacement, projection, reaction formation, regression, rationalization, intellectualization, and sublimation


Biff could displace his feelings of anger and resentment onto his little brother, pet hamster, or football


Biff insists that Muffy still cares for him

reaction formation

Biff claims he loathes Muffy


Biff believes that he can now find a better girlfriend. Muffy is not all that pretty, smart, and fun to be with.


Biff embarks on an in-depth research project about failed teen romances


Biff devotes himself to writing poetry and publishes a small volume before he graduates high school

Barnum effect

there’s a sucker born every minute

self-report inventories



psychoanalytic; psychosexual stages, unconscious

Rogers, Maslow

humanistic, free will self-actualization, subjective feelings about self

Costa and McCrae

trait, Big Five, factor analysis, established patterns of behavior


sociocognitive, triadic reciprocality, ways of thinking

Big five

extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability

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