Patterson Ch5

1. The focus of civil liberties is the ________ and the focus of civil rights is the ________.
a. individual: individual
b. group: group
c. individual: group
d. group: individual
e. Tenth Amendment: Twenty-seventh Amendment

Answer: c Page: 132

2. Disadvantaged Americans have gained their rights
a. through the enlightened policies of advantaged Americans.
b. through judicial action only.
c. through struggle against entrenched interests.
d. mainly through action by the states rather than the federal government.
e. by using public opinion to their advantage.

Answer: c Page: 132

3. Before the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, the political strategy of black Americans centered on achieving change through
a. judicial action.
b. legislative action.
c. presidential action.
d. bureaucratic action.
e. mass-media action.

Answer: a Page: 133

4. The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling (1954) held that racial segregation in schools violated the
a. due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
b. due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
c. equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
d. Civil Rights Act.
e. establishment clause of the First Amendment.

Answer: c Page: 133

5. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s had all of the following characteristics except
a. an emphasis on non-violent political protest to create support for legislative action designed to promote equality.
b. the attainment of significant civil rights legislation and substantial elimination of legal barriers to equality.
c. strong leadership, particularly from African-American leaders.
d. a recognition by the white majority in the South of the futility of further resistance to desegregation, which led to the quick enactment of a wide range of sweeping state laws designed to eliminate age-old discriminatory practices.
e. a well-organized, concerted effort.

Answer: d Page: 134

6. ________ is the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Peace Prize.
a. Jimmy Carter
b. John F. Kennedy
c. Lyndon B. Johnson
d. Robert F. Kennedy
e. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Answer: e Page: 134

7. Which statement about women's rights is correct?
a. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was ratified by the necessary 38 states in 1982.
b. The women's rights movement began in the era of World War I and within a few years achieved voting rights for women.
c. Women have made clear gains in the areas of appointive and elective offices.
d. Women tend to cast their votes for Republican candidates.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: c Page: 137

8. The movement for women's rights was initially aligned with
a. the abolition movement.
b. the Progressive movement.
c. the labor movement.
d. the modern civil rights movement.
e. the modern environmental movement.

Answer: a Page: 136

9. All of the following statements about Hispanic Americans are true except
a. they are the fastest-growing minority in the United States.
b. they have made major political gains in terms of electing local officials, particularly in the Southwestern states.
c. they are one of the nation's oldest ethnic groups despite the fact that many of today's Hispanic Americans are relatively recent arrivals.
d. Latinos are monolithic in their political thinking in the sense that, whatever their country of origin, they tend to vote Democratic.
e. they have lower average income levels than non-Hispanic whites.

Answer: d Page: 142

10. Efforts in Congress in 2006 to clamp down on immigrants who have entered illegally from Mexico and other Latin American countries resulted in
a. a law that requires a prison term of not less than one year for anyone caught in the United States who is not here legally.
b. a law that requires a prison term of not less than one year for any employer who, after two warnings, knowingly hires another illegal immigrant.
c. a law that requires a prison term of not less than one year for any citizen who knowingly provides food and shelter to an illegal immigrant.
d. massive demonstrations in cities with large Hispanic populations to protest what Congress was attempting to do.
e. vigilante groups being formed in many American communities for the purpose of rounding up illegal immigrants and turning them over to authorities for deportation.

Answer: d Page: 142

11. Native Americans
a. today number more than 1 million.
b. have lower life expectancies than the national average.
c. have in recent years filed suit to reclaim their ancestral lands.
d. are less than half as likely to attend college as other Americans.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 139

12. All of the following statements about Asian American rights are true except
a. for a long period, Asian people were effectively denied entry to the United States on account of their race.
b. Asian Americans are an upwardly mobile group, but are under-represented in top positions in society due to past and present discrimination.
c. Asian Americans were as fully involved as other minorities in the civil rights movements of the 1950s and 1960s.
d. Asian Americans have made notable educational advancements.
e. discrimination against Asian Americans did not ease substantially until the 1960s.

Answer: c Page: 143

13. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was aimed chiefly at eliminating discrimination
a. by governments in their conduct of elections (e.g., registration, placement of polling booths).
b. by private individuals in their social relations—bigoted statements and other acts of prejudice are unlawful under most circumstances.
c. by governments in their job practices and provision of services (e.g, schools, roads).
d. by private individuals in their employment practices and in their operation of public accommodations (e.g., hotels, restaurants).
e. against gays and lesbians.

Answer: d Page: 149

14. De jure discrimination and de facto discrimination are two ways in which some Americans are less equal than others. Examples of public policies designed to address each of these forms of discrimination are
a. the Brown decision (de jure), and affirmative action (de facto).
b. affirmative action (de jure), and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de facto).
c. the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de jure), and the Brown decision (de facto).
d. the Supreme Court's busing decisions (de jure), and affirmative action decisions (de facto).
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: a Page: 152

15. In applying the reasonable basis test, courts tend to
a. give government the benefit of the doubt.
b. assess whether a law had the support of a two-thirds majority of legislators at the time of passage.
c. determine whether a law is working well and, if so, to allow it to remain in effect.
d. prohibit any law that results in the unequal treatment of Americans.
e. interpret the equal protection clause in a strict manner.

Answer: a Page: 147

16. Any law that attempts a racial or ethnic classification is subject to the
a. reasonable basis test.
b. strict scrutiny test.
c. intermediate scrutiny test.
d. precedent basis test.
e. clear and present danger test.

Answer: b Page: 148

17. Housing in America
a. falls largely outside the scope of the law—people are free to rent or sell property to whomever they want.
b. is an area where equality in practice is now nearly a reality: people of similar incomes, regardless of race or color, find it equally easy to qualify for home mortgages.
c. is an unimportant civil rights issue, since housing patterns almost completely reflect the personal preferences of people, and are not substantially influenced by past or present racial bias.
d. is still largely segregated as judged by where people actually live.
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: d Page: 150

18. An example of a policy that aimed chiefly to overcome de facto discrimination is
a. the Equal Rights Amendment.
b. the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
c. busing to achieve racial integration in the schools.
d. the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling.
e. the Fourteenth Amendment.

Answer: c Page: 152

19. The policy of affirmative action arose when
a. it became apparent that disadvantaged Americans would not attain equal employment opportunities through law suits that benefited single individuals only.
b. the Supreme Court declared in Bakke that the Fourteenth Amendment requires government and large firms to hire more women and minorities.
c. the Supreme Court ruled that de facto discrimination is unlawful.
d. private firms decided on their own that a more diverse workforce was actually a more productive and effective workforce.
e. the Supreme Court rendered its Adarand v. Pena decision in 1995.

Answer: a Page: 152

20. Opponents of affirmative action have argued that the policy
a. results in widespread reverse discrimination against white males.
b. inevitably degenerates into a quota system, and therefore violates the law.
c. is fair only when it is victim-specific, applying only to those individuals who are personally discriminated against and hence deserve to benefit from government intervention.
d. is unconstitutional.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 154

21. The Supreme Court's decision in the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke case
a. invalidated the principle of affirmative action.
b. ruled that Bakke could not be admitted to medical school.
c. established quota systems as a legitimate basis of affirmative action.
d. upheld the principle of affirmative action.
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: d Page: 154

22. With regard to affirmative action, the Supreme Court in recent years has
a. moved to outlaw it.
b. moved to narrow its application.
c. asked Congress to clarify the policy.
d. asked the president to clarify the policy.
e. asked the state legislatures to clarify the policy.

Answer: b Page: 154

23. The Supreme Court's ruling in the Swann case on busing differed from the Brown decision in that Swann
a. addressed the problem of de facto discrimination.
b. applied to many northern communities in addition to communities in the South.
c. authorized the use of busing as a means of desegregating public schools.
d. All of the answers are correct.
e. None of the answers is correct.

Answer: d Page: 156

24. The effectiveness of busing in achieving racial integration in the public schools was limited by
a. the refusal of many local communities to fully implement the busing plans prepared specifically for them by federal district court judges, who have no effective means of forcing them to comply.
b. the Supreme Court ruling that limits the use of busing across school district boundaries, which has insulated predominantly white suburban schools from busing plans.
c. state laws that have prohibited busing in any of the state's school districts.
d. local referenda on busing, which have produced the two-thirds vote against busing that is required to rescind the policy.
e. school superintendents who routinely violate federal law.

Answer: b Page: 156

25. Native Americans
a. have always been legal citizens of the United States.
b. were not given citizenship status until the twentieth century.
c. do not today have the full legal rights of other U.S. citizens.
d. are U.S. citizens unless they choose to live on a reservation.
e. have numbered roughly ten million in the United States since the 1700s.

Answer: b Page: 140

26. The demands of women for equal pay relative to men for work that is similarly demanding, involves similar responsibilities, and that requires similar levels of education and training is the basis of the concept of
a. equality of opportunity.
b. affirmative action.
c. comparable worth.
d. de jure discrimination.
e. reverse discrimination.

Answer: c Page: 138

27. Which of the following is true?
a. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2000 that the Boy Scouts can ban gays.
b. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2003 that states cannot ban sexual relations among consenting adults of the same sex.
c. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 1996 that states could not adopt hostile policies toward gays and lesbians.
d. All of the answers are correct.
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: d Page: 145

28. According to Gunnar Myrdal, what is America's curse?
a. greed
b. racial discrimination
c. obesity
d. street violence
e. religious intolerance

Answer: b Page: 157

29. Women in America obtained the right to vote in national elections in
a. 1790.
b. 1865.
c. 1890.
d. 1920.
e. 1974.

Answer: d Page: 136

30. Non-Hispanic white Americans have a higher average income level than other ethnic and racial groups. The group with the average income level closest to that of non-Hispanic whites is
a. Native Americans.
b. African Americans.
c. Hispanic Americans.
d. Asian Americans
e. Middle Eastern Americans.

Answer: d Page: 152

31. In a 2002 global attitudes survey, residents in which of the following nations was least likely to agree that "homosexuality is a way of life that should be accepted by society?"
a. Germany
b. France
c. United States
d. Great Britain
e. Italy

Answer: c Page: 147

32. Today, the majority of African Americans in the nation
a. live in segregated neighborhoods.
b. send their children to schools that are predominantly white.
c. have the same quality of health care as the majority of white Americans
d. have the same opportunities for higher education as the majority of white Americans.
e. have incomes equal to that of the majority of white Americans.

Answer: a Page: 150

33. Which one of the following occurred after the Brown decision?
a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
b. Voting Rights Act of 1965
c. Birmingham demonstrations against racial discrimination
d. Martin Luther King's "I have a dream" speech
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 134

34. A substantial defeat for advocates of affirmative action was the ______ decision, which held that setting aside a certain percentage of government contracts for minority-owned businesses was unconstitutional.
a. Adarand v. Pena
b. Craig v. Boren
c. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
d. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: a Page: 154

35. The famous "I have a dream speech" in the civil rights movement was delivered by
a. Jesse Jackson.
b. Martin Luther King, Jr.
c. Thurgood Marshall.
d. John F. Kennedy.
e. Robert F. Kennedy.

Answer: b Page: 134

36. The major argument made by civil rights groups who endorse the aggressive application of affirmative action is that
a. it is necessary in order overcome the effects of past discrimination and existing prejudice.
b. it is the only way to equalize wages between men and women.
c. it alone will break the stubborn pattern of segregation in American life.
d. it will force Americans to live together in harmony.
e. it will teach school children respect for each other.

Answer: a Page: 152

37. The gender gap refers to the tendency of women to favor
a. Green party candidates.
b. Democrats.
c. Independents.
d. Republicans.
e. Libertarians.

Answer: b Page: 138

38. In the early decades of the United States, women were not permitted to
a. vote.
b. hold office.
c. serve on juries.
d. own and dispense property without the husband's consent.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 135

39. Equality of result policies are primarily directed at ________ discriminatory effects.
a. de jure
b. de facto
c. religious
d. gender
e. due process

Answer: b Page: 152

40. The central issue in the Bakke case was
a. school desegregation.
b. sexual harassment.
c. affirmative action.
d. Native Americans' civil rights.
e. comparable worth.

Answer: c Page: 154

41. Which of the following is true?
a. Public schools are becoming more segregated nationally.
b. Many urban public school districts have ended the use of busing for desegregation purposes.
c. Suburbanization has made it more difficult to desegregate urban schools.
d. Reformers have shifted away from busing and focused more on school financing in recent years.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 157

42. In terms of women and public office, it is accurate to say
a. women today hold fewer U.S. public offices than they did a decade ago.
b. women in the United States hold a larger percentage of public offices than do women in northern European countries like Sweden and Denmark.
c. women hold a higher percentage of U.S. offices at the national level than they do at the state and local level.
d. All of the answers are correct.
e. None of the answers is correct.

Answer: e Page: 137

43. The Fourteenth Amendment applies to discriminatory action
a. by government only.
b. by private parties only.
c. by both government and private parties.
d. by the president specifically.
e. by Congress specifically.

Answer: a Page: 149

44. Most Hispanic voters support ________ candidates.
a. Republican
b. Libertarian
c. Democratic
d. Socialist
e. Independent

Answer: c Page: 142

45. Native Americans were officially made citizens of the United States in
a. 1789, at the time of the writing of the Constitution.
b. 1865, at the end of the Civil War.
c. 1924, about two decades after the last of U.S. wars with Indian tribes.
d. 1964 with passage of the Civil Rights Act.
e. 1998 with passage of the Voting Rights Act.

Answer: c Page: 140

46. Which Latino group identifies most strongly with the Republican party?
a. Puerto Rican Americans
b. Mexican Americans
c. Cuban Americans
d. Dominican Americans
e. No Latino group identifies strongly with the Republican party.

Answer: c Page: 142

47. Current issues of concern to women include
a. sexual harassment.
b. the gender gap.
c. comparable worth.
d. political representation.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 137

48. What was politically significant about Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein in 1992?
a. It was the first time two women had been elected governors of neighboring states.
b. It was the first time that women had been elected to the two Senate seats from one state.
c. It was the first time that women have held jobs of governor and lieutenant governor from the same state.
d. It was the first time that women held the top two positions in the U.S. House of Representatives.
e. It was the first time that women held the top two positions in the U.S. Senate.

Answer: b Page: 137

49. In 2004, as a result of the state's Supreme Court, ________ instituted same-sex marriage.
a. California
b. Texas
c. Vermont
d. Massachusetts
e. Alabama

Answer: d Page: 145

50. The first woman ever to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court was appointed by President
a. Truman.
b. Eisenhower.
c. Kennedy.
d. Reagan.
e. Carter.

Answer: d Page: 137

51. The first women's rights convention in the United States was held in 1848 in
a. Boston, Massachusetts.
b. San Francisco, California.
c. Minneapolis, Minnesota.
d. Seneca Falls, New York.
e. Madison, Wisconsin.

Answer: d Page: 136

52. In the last decade or so, busing as a means of desegregating America's public schools has
a. largely ended.
b. been expanded to include suburbs.
c. been confined to the southern states.
d. been confined to northern urban areas.
e. None of the above answers is correct.

Answer: a Page: 156

53. In two cases in 2003 involving University of Michigan affirmative action programs (one for undergraduate applicants and one for law school applicants), the Supreme Court
a. struck down both programs.
b. upheld both programs.
c. struck down one program but upheld the other.
d. ruled on one program but declined to rule on the other.
e. declined to rule on both programs, which had the effect of upholding the decisions on these cases made by lower courts.

Answer: c Page: 155

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Patterson Ch5

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1. The focus of civil liberties is the ________ and the focus of civil rights is the ________.
a. individual: individual
b. group: group
c. individual: group
d. group: individual
e. Tenth Amendment: Twenty-seventh Amendment

Answer: c Page: 132

2. Disadvantaged Americans have gained their rights
a. through the enlightened policies of advantaged Americans.
b. through judicial action only.
c. through struggle against entrenched interests.
d. mainly through action by the states rather than the federal government.
e. by using public opinion to their advantage.

Answer: c Page: 132

3. Before the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, the political strategy of black Americans centered on achieving change through
a. judicial action.
b. legislative action.
c. presidential action.
d. bureaucratic action.
e. mass-media action.

Answer: a Page: 133

4. The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling (1954) held that racial segregation in schools violated the
a. due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
b. due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
c. equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
d. Civil Rights Act.
e. establishment clause of the First Amendment.

Answer: c Page: 133

5. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s had all of the following characteristics except
a. an emphasis on non-violent political protest to create support for legislative action designed to promote equality.
b. the attainment of significant civil rights legislation and substantial elimination of legal barriers to equality.
c. strong leadership, particularly from African-American leaders.
d. a recognition by the white majority in the South of the futility of further resistance to desegregation, which led to the quick enactment of a wide range of sweeping state laws designed to eliminate age-old discriminatory practices.
e. a well-organized, concerted effort.

Answer: d Page: 134

6. ________ is the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Peace Prize.
a. Jimmy Carter
b. John F. Kennedy
c. Lyndon B. Johnson
d. Robert F. Kennedy
e. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Answer: e Page: 134

7. Which statement about women’s rights is correct?
a. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was ratified by the necessary 38 states in 1982.
b. The women’s rights movement began in the era of World War I and within a few years achieved voting rights for women.
c. Women have made clear gains in the areas of appointive and elective offices.
d. Women tend to cast their votes for Republican candidates.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: c Page: 137

8. The movement for women’s rights was initially aligned with
a. the abolition movement.
b. the Progressive movement.
c. the labor movement.
d. the modern civil rights movement.
e. the modern environmental movement.

Answer: a Page: 136

9. All of the following statements about Hispanic Americans are true except
a. they are the fastest-growing minority in the United States.
b. they have made major political gains in terms of electing local officials, particularly in the Southwestern states.
c. they are one of the nation’s oldest ethnic groups despite the fact that many of today’s Hispanic Americans are relatively recent arrivals.
d. Latinos are monolithic in their political thinking in the sense that, whatever their country of origin, they tend to vote Democratic.
e. they have lower average income levels than non-Hispanic whites.

Answer: d Page: 142

10. Efforts in Congress in 2006 to clamp down on immigrants who have entered illegally from Mexico and other Latin American countries resulted in
a. a law that requires a prison term of not less than one year for anyone caught in the United States who is not here legally.
b. a law that requires a prison term of not less than one year for any employer who, after two warnings, knowingly hires another illegal immigrant.
c. a law that requires a prison term of not less than one year for any citizen who knowingly provides food and shelter to an illegal immigrant.
d. massive demonstrations in cities with large Hispanic populations to protest what Congress was attempting to do.
e. vigilante groups being formed in many American communities for the purpose of rounding up illegal immigrants and turning them over to authorities for deportation.

Answer: d Page: 142

11. Native Americans
a. today number more than 1 million.
b. have lower life expectancies than the national average.
c. have in recent years filed suit to reclaim their ancestral lands.
d. are less than half as likely to attend college as other Americans.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 139

12. All of the following statements about Asian American rights are true except
a. for a long period, Asian people were effectively denied entry to the United States on account of their race.
b. Asian Americans are an upwardly mobile group, but are under-represented in top positions in society due to past and present discrimination.
c. Asian Americans were as fully involved as other minorities in the civil rights movements of the 1950s and 1960s.
d. Asian Americans have made notable educational advancements.
e. discrimination against Asian Americans did not ease substantially until the 1960s.

Answer: c Page: 143

13. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was aimed chiefly at eliminating discrimination
a. by governments in their conduct of elections (e.g., registration, placement of polling booths).
b. by private individuals in their social relations—bigoted statements and other acts of prejudice are unlawful under most circumstances.
c. by governments in their job practices and provision of services (e.g, schools, roads).
d. by private individuals in their employment practices and in their operation of public accommodations (e.g., hotels, restaurants).
e. against gays and lesbians.

Answer: d Page: 149

14. De jure discrimination and de facto discrimination are two ways in which some Americans are less equal than others. Examples of public policies designed to address each of these forms of discrimination are
a. the Brown decision (de jure), and affirmative action (de facto).
b. affirmative action (de jure), and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de facto).
c. the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de jure), and the Brown decision (de facto).
d. the Supreme Court’s busing decisions (de jure), and affirmative action decisions (de facto).
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: a Page: 152

15. In applying the reasonable basis test, courts tend to
a. give government the benefit of the doubt.
b. assess whether a law had the support of a two-thirds majority of legislators at the time of passage.
c. determine whether a law is working well and, if so, to allow it to remain in effect.
d. prohibit any law that results in the unequal treatment of Americans.
e. interpret the equal protection clause in a strict manner.

Answer: a Page: 147

16. Any law that attempts a racial or ethnic classification is subject to the
a. reasonable basis test.
b. strict scrutiny test.
c. intermediate scrutiny test.
d. precedent basis test.
e. clear and present danger test.

Answer: b Page: 148

17. Housing in America
a. falls largely outside the scope of the law—people are free to rent or sell property to whomever they want.
b. is an area where equality in practice is now nearly a reality: people of similar incomes, regardless of race or color, find it equally easy to qualify for home mortgages.
c. is an unimportant civil rights issue, since housing patterns almost completely reflect the personal preferences of people, and are not substantially influenced by past or present racial bias.
d. is still largely segregated as judged by where people actually live.
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: d Page: 150

18. An example of a policy that aimed chiefly to overcome de facto discrimination is
a. the Equal Rights Amendment.
b. the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
c. busing to achieve racial integration in the schools.
d. the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling.
e. the Fourteenth Amendment.

Answer: c Page: 152

19. The policy of affirmative action arose when
a. it became apparent that disadvantaged Americans would not attain equal employment opportunities through law suits that benefited single individuals only.
b. the Supreme Court declared in Bakke that the Fourteenth Amendment requires government and large firms to hire more women and minorities.
c. the Supreme Court ruled that de facto discrimination is unlawful.
d. private firms decided on their own that a more diverse workforce was actually a more productive and effective workforce.
e. the Supreme Court rendered its Adarand v. Pena decision in 1995.

Answer: a Page: 152

20. Opponents of affirmative action have argued that the policy
a. results in widespread reverse discrimination against white males.
b. inevitably degenerates into a quota system, and therefore violates the law.
c. is fair only when it is victim-specific, applying only to those individuals who are personally discriminated against and hence deserve to benefit from government intervention.
d. is unconstitutional.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 154

21. The Supreme Court’s decision in the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke case
a. invalidated the principle of affirmative action.
b. ruled that Bakke could not be admitted to medical school.
c. established quota systems as a legitimate basis of affirmative action.
d. upheld the principle of affirmative action.
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: d Page: 154

22. With regard to affirmative action, the Supreme Court in recent years has
a. moved to outlaw it.
b. moved to narrow its application.
c. asked Congress to clarify the policy.
d. asked the president to clarify the policy.
e. asked the state legislatures to clarify the policy.

Answer: b Page: 154

23. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Swann case on busing differed from the Brown decision in that Swann
a. addressed the problem of de facto discrimination.
b. applied to many northern communities in addition to communities in the South.
c. authorized the use of busing as a means of desegregating public schools.
d. All of the answers are correct.
e. None of the answers is correct.

Answer: d Page: 156

24. The effectiveness of busing in achieving racial integration in the public schools was limited by
a. the refusal of many local communities to fully implement the busing plans prepared specifically for them by federal district court judges, who have no effective means of forcing them to comply.
b. the Supreme Court ruling that limits the use of busing across school district boundaries, which has insulated predominantly white suburban schools from busing plans.
c. state laws that have prohibited busing in any of the state’s school districts.
d. local referenda on busing, which have produced the two-thirds vote against busing that is required to rescind the policy.
e. school superintendents who routinely violate federal law.

Answer: b Page: 156

25. Native Americans
a. have always been legal citizens of the United States.
b. were not given citizenship status until the twentieth century.
c. do not today have the full legal rights of other U.S. citizens.
d. are U.S. citizens unless they choose to live on a reservation.
e. have numbered roughly ten million in the United States since the 1700s.

Answer: b Page: 140

26. The demands of women for equal pay relative to men for work that is similarly demanding, involves similar responsibilities, and that requires similar levels of education and training is the basis of the concept of
a. equality of opportunity.
b. affirmative action.
c. comparable worth.
d. de jure discrimination.
e. reverse discrimination.

Answer: c Page: 138

27. Which of the following is true?
a. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2000 that the Boy Scouts can ban gays.
b. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2003 that states cannot ban sexual relations among consenting adults of the same sex.
c. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 1996 that states could not adopt hostile policies toward gays and lesbians.
d. All of the answers are correct.
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: d Page: 145

28. According to Gunnar Myrdal, what is America’s curse?
a. greed
b. racial discrimination
c. obesity
d. street violence
e. religious intolerance

Answer: b Page: 157

29. Women in America obtained the right to vote in national elections in
a. 1790.
b. 1865.
c. 1890.
d. 1920.
e. 1974.

Answer: d Page: 136

30. Non-Hispanic white Americans have a higher average income level than other ethnic and racial groups. The group with the average income level closest to that of non-Hispanic whites is
a. Native Americans.
b. African Americans.
c. Hispanic Americans.
d. Asian Americans
e. Middle Eastern Americans.

Answer: d Page: 152

31. In a 2002 global attitudes survey, residents in which of the following nations was least likely to agree that "homosexuality is a way of life that should be accepted by society?"
a. Germany
b. France
c. United States
d. Great Britain
e. Italy

Answer: c Page: 147

32. Today, the majority of African Americans in the nation
a. live in segregated neighborhoods.
b. send their children to schools that are predominantly white.
c. have the same quality of health care as the majority of white Americans
d. have the same opportunities for higher education as the majority of white Americans.
e. have incomes equal to that of the majority of white Americans.

Answer: a Page: 150

33. Which one of the following occurred after the Brown decision?
a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
b. Voting Rights Act of 1965
c. Birmingham demonstrations against racial discrimination
d. Martin Luther King’s "I have a dream" speech
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 134

34. A substantial defeat for advocates of affirmative action was the ______ decision, which held that setting aside a certain percentage of government contracts for minority-owned businesses was unconstitutional.
a. Adarand v. Pena
b. Craig v. Boren
c. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
d. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education
e. None of the answers are correct.

Answer: a Page: 154

35. The famous "I have a dream speech" in the civil rights movement was delivered by
a. Jesse Jackson.
b. Martin Luther King, Jr.
c. Thurgood Marshall.
d. John F. Kennedy.
e. Robert F. Kennedy.

Answer: b Page: 134

36. The major argument made by civil rights groups who endorse the aggressive application of affirmative action is that
a. it is necessary in order overcome the effects of past discrimination and existing prejudice.
b. it is the only way to equalize wages between men and women.
c. it alone will break the stubborn pattern of segregation in American life.
d. it will force Americans to live together in harmony.
e. it will teach school children respect for each other.

Answer: a Page: 152

37. The gender gap refers to the tendency of women to favor
a. Green party candidates.
b. Democrats.
c. Independents.
d. Republicans.
e. Libertarians.

Answer: b Page: 138

38. In the early decades of the United States, women were not permitted to
a. vote.
b. hold office.
c. serve on juries.
d. own and dispense property without the husband’s consent.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 135

39. Equality of result policies are primarily directed at ________ discriminatory effects.
a. de jure
b. de facto
c. religious
d. gender
e. due process

Answer: b Page: 152

40. The central issue in the Bakke case was
a. school desegregation.
b. sexual harassment.
c. affirmative action.
d. Native Americans’ civil rights.
e. comparable worth.

Answer: c Page: 154

41. Which of the following is true?
a. Public schools are becoming more segregated nationally.
b. Many urban public school districts have ended the use of busing for desegregation purposes.
c. Suburbanization has made it more difficult to desegregate urban schools.
d. Reformers have shifted away from busing and focused more on school financing in recent years.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 157

42. In terms of women and public office, it is accurate to say
a. women today hold fewer U.S. public offices than they did a decade ago.
b. women in the United States hold a larger percentage of public offices than do women in northern European countries like Sweden and Denmark.
c. women hold a higher percentage of U.S. offices at the national level than they do at the state and local level.
d. All of the answers are correct.
e. None of the answers is correct.

Answer: e Page: 137

43. The Fourteenth Amendment applies to discriminatory action
a. by government only.
b. by private parties only.
c. by both government and private parties.
d. by the president specifically.
e. by Congress specifically.

Answer: a Page: 149

44. Most Hispanic voters support ________ candidates.
a. Republican
b. Libertarian
c. Democratic
d. Socialist
e. Independent

Answer: c Page: 142

45. Native Americans were officially made citizens of the United States in
a. 1789, at the time of the writing of the Constitution.
b. 1865, at the end of the Civil War.
c. 1924, about two decades after the last of U.S. wars with Indian tribes.
d. 1964 with passage of the Civil Rights Act.
e. 1998 with passage of the Voting Rights Act.

Answer: c Page: 140

46. Which Latino group identifies most strongly with the Republican party?
a. Puerto Rican Americans
b. Mexican Americans
c. Cuban Americans
d. Dominican Americans
e. No Latino group identifies strongly with the Republican party.

Answer: c Page: 142

47. Current issues of concern to women include
a. sexual harassment.
b. the gender gap.
c. comparable worth.
d. political representation.
e. All of the answers are correct.

Answer: e Page: 137

48. What was politically significant about Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein in 1992?
a. It was the first time two women had been elected governors of neighboring states.
b. It was the first time that women had been elected to the two Senate seats from one state.
c. It was the first time that women have held jobs of governor and lieutenant governor from the same state.
d. It was the first time that women held the top two positions in the U.S. House of Representatives.
e. It was the first time that women held the top two positions in the U.S. Senate.

Answer: b Page: 137

49. In 2004, as a result of the state’s Supreme Court, ________ instituted same-sex marriage.
a. California
b. Texas
c. Vermont
d. Massachusetts
e. Alabama

Answer: d Page: 145

50. The first woman ever to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court was appointed by President
a. Truman.
b. Eisenhower.
c. Kennedy.
d. Reagan.
e. Carter.

Answer: d Page: 137

51. The first women’s rights convention in the United States was held in 1848 in
a. Boston, Massachusetts.
b. San Francisco, California.
c. Minneapolis, Minnesota.
d. Seneca Falls, New York.
e. Madison, Wisconsin.

Answer: d Page: 136

52. In the last decade or so, busing as a means of desegregating America’s public schools has
a. largely ended.
b. been expanded to include suburbs.
c. been confined to the southern states.
d. been confined to northern urban areas.
e. None of the above answers is correct.

Answer: a Page: 156

53. In two cases in 2003 involving University of Michigan affirmative action programs (one for undergraduate applicants and one for law school applicants), the Supreme Court
a. struck down both programs.
b. upheld both programs.
c. struck down one program but upheld the other.
d. ruled on one program but declined to rule on the other.
e. declined to rule on both programs, which had the effect of upholding the decisions on these cases made by lower courts.

Answer: c Page: 155

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