Nutrition Test 3 (Chapter 8)

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The distribution of water between intra- and extra-cellular
spaces depends on concentration differences of _____, or
dissolved substances, including protein, sodium, and


When intracellular concentrations of protein and sodium
are high, you would expect that water is drawn into the


Water is moved by___________, which forces water from
the capillary blood vessels into the spaces between the
cells of the surrounding tissues.

blood pressure

In regard to the kidneys’ role in regulating water balance
in the body, the term reabsorption means the amount of
the substance that is:

absorbed back in to the blood after being filtered.

If antidiuretic hormone levels decrease, you would expect

more water is excreted in the urine.

Bernhard is a football player on your university football
team and he is eating high amounts of protein.
Considering his high protein intake, how should he adjust
his water intake and why?

He needs to increase his daily water intake to help the kidneys excrete the protein waste products.

Adam has just returned from his long run of 6 miles in
which he forgot his water bottle. Which of the following
processes is most likely happening in Adam’s body?

The antidiuretic hormone is signaling the kidneys to reabsorb water, thus decreasing the amount of water lost in the urine.

All of the following are true about thirst EXCEPT that

thirst is a weak urge, which does not reflect our need for water.

Which of the following is NOT a function of water in the
human body?

Regulation of blood glucose

Urine color charts help people monitor their ________


Water intoxication is a condition that occurs when a
person drinks enough water to significantly lower the
concentration of ____ in the blood.


Which of the following does NOT increase a person’s
need for water?

Following a low-sodium diet

A major mineral is one that

is needed in the diet in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day.

Which of the following is not a trace mineral?


Dried fruits are good sources of which of the following

Iron and potassium

In general, minerals in plant foods have an absorption rate
that is _______ than that in animal foods.


Phytic acid, tannins, and oxalates _____the absorption of
many minerals.


A woman of childbearing years who is not pregnant has
_______ absorption rate of calcium as compared to a
woman who is pregnant.

a lower

Which of the following is not a function of magnesium?

Assists with regulation of fluid balance

Which of the following minerals help regulate fluid

Sodium, potassium, and chloride

Which list below best reflects the minerals that keep
blood healthy and immune function strong?

Iron, copper, calcium, zinc, selenium, and magnesium

Which list below best reflects the minerals that aid
transmission of nerve impulses and provide for optimal
muscle contraction?

Sodium, calcium, potassium, and chloride

Diets that are high in ____ are associated with an
increased incidence of hypertension.


What occurs when a cofactor binds to an enzyme?

The enzyme is activated.

When a nerve cell is at rest, potassium is concentrated
_____ the nerve cell and sodium is concentrated _____
the nerve cell.

inside, outside

When a nerve cell is stimulated, the cell membrane
becomes ______ permeable to _______.

more, sodium

Outward symptoms of hypertension include which of the

There are no outward symptoms.

A healthy blood pressure is _____ mm of mercury.


Which of the following is FALSE about hypertension?

Dietary intake of sodium, but not magnesium or calcium, affects blood pressure.

Which of the following minerals are emphasized in the
DASH diet?

Calcium and magnesium.

Which of the following groups of individuals should
consume no more than 1500 mg sodium daily?

All of these should reduce their sodium consumption

Most people in the US need to _____ their sodium intake
and _____ their potassium intake to meet
recommendations for a healthy diet.

decrease, increase

This graph illustrates the sources of salt in our diets.
Which of the following would be the best strategy to
reduce salt in the diet?

Choose foods that are lower in sodium when reading food labels.

Based on the information in this graph, what is the correct
observation? Processed foods are generally _____ in
sodium and _____ in potassium than unprocessed foods.

higher, lower

Postmenopausal bone loss occurs in women for about
_____ after the menstrual cycle stops.

5 years

Excess body weight is associated with _____risk of
osteoporosis development.


Which of the following is NOT associated with increased
risk of developing osteoporosis?

Walking daily for exercise

When blood calcium levels are low, parathyroid hormone


When the hormone calcitonin is activated, blood calcium
levels will


Which of the following does not inhibit the absorption of

Vitamin D

Based on this visual, which of the following statements is

Grains are good sources of calcium.

Which of the following minerals have a role in blood
pressure regulation?

calcium and magnesium

Which of the following minerals stabilizes ATP’s


Magnesium absorption is enhanced by the presence of

active vitamin D

Which of the following is the correct sequence that occurs
with the development of iron deficiency anemia?

decrease in stored iron → low blood plasma iron → low hemoglobin concentration

The protein molecule that is found in red blood cells that
transports oxygen to body cells is called


_____ enhances the bioavailability of non-heme iron

Vitamin C

Because selenium is part of the enzyme glutathioneperoxidase,
it _____ the body’s need for vitamin E.


Which deficiency disease would be common in the areas
with selenium-deficient soils?

Keshan disease

A goiter occurs as a result of deficiency of:


When chromium is deficient, _______insulin is required
to produce the same effect on blood sugar as when
someone has adequate chromium status.


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