Nutrition Exam 3 Ch 10-14

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Which is not a fat-soluble vitamin?

ascorbic acid

Which vitamin can be synthesized in significant amounts by humans and, therefore, may not be essential?

. vitamin D

Fat-soluble vitamins are mainly stored in

fatty tissues and liver.

. Which must be present for fat-soluble vitamins to be absorbed?

dietary lipids and bile

. For absorption, fat-soluble vitamins are packed into _____ and transported into the _____.

chylomicrons; lymph

Which is NOT a function of vitamin D?

antioxidant

The milk fortification program was instituted to

reduce rickets due to vitamin D deficiency.

Which vitamin combination does NOT have antioxidant properties?

vitamin K and vitamin D

Which does NOT play a role in maintaining blood concentrations when calcium levels are low?

parathyroid hormone increasing intestinal production of active vitamin D

Which is the richest food source of vitamin D?

salmon (3 oz)

Vitamin D is converted to its active form by the

small intestines and kidneys.

Vitamin D deficiency in adults results in

osteomalacia.

An early sign of vitamin A deficiency is

night blindness.

Which is an example of provitamin A?

beta-carotene

Which foods are the richest source of provitamin A?

. carrots and sweet potatoes

Calcification of soft tissues is a symptom of

vitamin D excess.

For adults age 19 to 50, the RDA for vitamin D is

600 IU.

_____is used to synthesize vitamin D when human skin is exposed to UV radiation.

Cholesterol

The active form of vitamin D is known as

calcitriol.

In order to avoid vitamin D toxicity, one should avoid

high-dose vitamin D supplements.

What vitamins are associated with cell differentiation and cell development?

vitamins A and D

The visual pigment rhodopsin is made of _____ and _____.

opsin; retinal

When light strikes rhodopsin, retinal changes its shape from

cis to trans

Vitamin A deficiency delays reformation of

cis retinal with opsin to form rhodopsin.

Which deficiency condition is related to vitamin A’s role in maintaining epithelial tissue?

keratinization

Too much carotene intake can result in

a yellowing of the skin.

. Which is NOT a good food source of vitamin E?

milk

Which would provide the highest amount of vitamin E per tablespoon?

sunflower oil

The result of too much vitamin E intake is

tendency to bleed.

Which can protect against free radicals?

vitamin E supplementation

Which vitamin is particularly effective at preventing free-radical damage to cell membranes?

vitamin E

Antibiotic use can result in reduced synthesis of

vitamin K.

Which fat-soluble vitamin has no established Upper Tolerable Intake Level (UL)?

vitamin K

Which fat-soluble vitamin can prevent the oxidation of LDL and potentially reduce risk of atherosclerosis?

vitamin E

Which vitamin is given to infants soon after birth due to reduce the risk of hemorrhage?

vitamin K

Which can be produced by intestinal bacteria?

vitamin K

Which vitamin functions as a hormone?

both vitamins A and D

Which of these conditions can increase the tendency to bleed?

vitamin E and vitamin K deficiencies

Which vitamins play a role in bone health?

vitamin D and vitamin K

Too much of which vitamin can result in birth defects?

retinoids

A patient with a poor diet shows mental disturbances, muscle weakness, and impaired cardiac function, suggesting a possible

thiamin deficiency.

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome results from

thiamin deficiency due to alcoholism.

A patient with a poor diet showing symptoms of diarrhea, confusion, and discoloration of the skin suggests a possible

niacin deficiency.

A patient showing poor wound healing, bruising, joint pain, and bleeding gums may have a deficiency of

vitamin C.

Scurvy is a disease resulting from

vitamin C deficiency due to low fruit and vegetable consumption.

A patient’s blood sample shows large immature red blood cells. This may suggest a deficiency in

vitamin B12 and folate.

Which list contains only vitamins that can have toxic effects if consumed in excess?

niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin C

Excess of which water-soluble vitamin can cause a long-term toxic effect of numbness due to nerve damage?

vitamin B6

Excess of which water-soluble vitamin can cause a long-term toxic effect of liver damage?

niacin

Excess of which vitamin can cause toxic effects of excess perspiration and fishy body odor?

choline

Which vitamin has a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) based on gastrointestinal discomfort?

vitamin C

Which list contains only vitamins that play a role in red blood cell health?

vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate

Which list contains only vitamins that play a role in RNA and DNA synthesis?

thiamin, folate, niacin

Which list contains only vitamins that do NOT function as coenzymes in energy metabolism?

choline and vitamin C

Which vitamin does NOT act as a coenzyme?

choline

Physicians will sometimes prescribe niacin in high doses to

lower LDL cholesterol.

Which water-soluble vitamin has antioxidant properties?

vitamin C

The amino acid tryptophan can be converted to

. niacin.

Consumption of 300 mg tryptophan can result in the synthesis of

5 mg of niacin.

Which vitamin is required for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin?

vitamin B6

Which action does not preserve water-soluble vitamins in foods?

removing the peel from fruits and vegetables

Which vitamin is readily destroyed by exposure to heat?

vitamin C

Which list contains only vitamins whose deficiency can cause anemia?

vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate

Milk is packaged in opaque containers to prevent light from destroying

riboflavin.

Which water-soluble vitamin can be stored in the body?

vitamin B12

When water-soluble vitamins are consumed in excess the body prevents toxicity by

excretion in the urine.

Which vitamin rarely results in a deficiency because of its presence in a wide variety of plant and animal sources?

pantothenic acid

Pernicious anemia is the result of

vitamin B12 deficiency due to failure to produce intrinsic factor.

Which foods provide the richest source of folic acid?

fortified cereals

Which foods provide the richest source of folate?

spinach and broccoli

. Consumption of 10 mcg of folate as cooked spinach and 10 mcg of folic acid from fortified cereal fortified results in

27 mcg DFE.

Consumption of 10 mcg of folate as cooked spinach and 10 mcg folic acid supplement A. results in

30 mcg DFE.

High-dose folic acid can mask a _____________ deficiency.

vitamin B12

Which vitamins are required for the production of methionine from homocysteine?

vitamin B12 and folate

High levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of

heart disease.

Which foods contain the least amount of vitamin B12?

spinach and leafy green vegetables

The chemical name for vitamin B12 is

cobalamin.

The most common dietary supplement taken by Americans is

multivitamin and multimineral.

Dietary supplements are a _____ dollar a year industry.

$30 billion

A dietary supplement may contain which of the following dietary ingredients?

vitamins B. minerals C. herbs D. amino acids

T/F Digestive enzymes are NOT categorized as a dietary supplement.

False

T/F Regular use of multivitamin/mineral supplements has been shown to decrease the risk of death or chronic disease.

False

Dietary supplements may be beneficial for

A. a pregnant woman. B. someone who is on a diet with restricted kilocalorie intake. C. an elderly man with pneumonia.

A _____ supplement is commonly recommended for elderly individuals.

vitamin D

An individual with lactose intolerance may benefit from taking

calcium and vitamin D.

A large research trial using a _____ supplement was stopped early due to evidence of possible harm.

beta carotene

T/F Most individuals who take dietary supplements have very poor diets or low nutritional status.

False

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that the best nutrition-based strategy for health is to

eat a wide variety of foods.

T/F The FDA has strict guidelines for approving dietary supplements for safety before they are made available to consumers.

False

The Dietary Supplement Health and Safety Act (DHSEA) dictates that _____is responsible for ensuring that a dietary supplement product is safe.

the manufacturer of the product

A potential negative outcome of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) is that

A. unsafe substances can be added to supplements and sold to consumers without being listed on labels. B. the FDA must prove that a substance is unsafe in order to restrict its use or remove it from market. C. once the FDA announces that a product is unsafe, they do not always have the authority to remove it from market. D. the FDA does not approve new dietary ingredients or supplements; they are free to be marketed 75 days after the information has been submitted to the FDA.

Ingredients that were already in the food supply prior to October 15, 1994, do not need FDA approval before being marketed. These substances are referred to as

generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

A dietary supplement label must contain all of the following, except

identification of any banned substances the product contains.

What is the main difference between the "Facts Panel" of a supplement and of a food?

The supplement label can list ingredients that do not have recommended daily values.

Dietary supplement labels may contain a _____, which describes how that product could affect the body’s structure or function.

structure/function claim

T/F The main difference between a health claim and a structure/function claim is that the FDA has NOT evaluated a health claim, and it HAS evaluated a structure/function claim.

false

Which of the following does NOT describe or exemplify a qualified health claim?

"Approved based on significant scientific agreement (SSA) about the publicly available scientific evidence."

Which of the following would be an acceptable structure/function claim to include on a label?

B. Calcium builds strong bones. C. Vitamin C supports collagen production.

Which of the following labeling terms prove that a product is safe?

None of the above.

Which of the following are ways in which consumers can measure the quality of a supplement?

A. Look for the United States Pharmacopeial Conception (USP) seal of approval on the product label. B. Look for the NSF international (NSF) seal of approval on the product label. C. Look for ConsumerLab.com (CL) testing and publication.

Which of the following disease and diet/nutrient link is NOT an approved health claim?

the common cold and vitamin C

Symptoms such as diarrhea, fatigue, nerve damage, birth defects, and nutrient interaction can all be a result of

. ingesting very high doses of certain supplements (above the upper limit).

Which of the following could possibly cause a nutrient or herb/drug interaction?

A. ginkgo biloba B. vitamin E C. St. John’s Wort D. omega-3 fatty acids

. Which of the following is NOT a description of herbs?

have a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) associated with them

What herb has a possible laxative benefit associated with it?

senna

Mild to moderate depression may be helped by

St. John’s wort.

Long-term use of _____ may result in liver injury.

black cohosh

There are _____ primary herbs with _____names.

550; 1,800

. Foods that contain nutrients or other constituents that may enhance their contribution to health and disease prevention beyond their basic nutritional content are called

. functional foods.

Examples of functional foods include all of the following, except

butter.

This group represents the largest percent of new food products introduced to the market over the last decade.

functional foods

Which of the following are nutraceuticals that may be either added to, or naturally be a part of, functional foods?

A. lycopene B. anthocyanins C. fiber D. probiotics

Live beneficial bacteria found in fermented foods are called

probiotics.

T/F Prebiotics are a type of protein.

False

Which of the following is NOT a food source of prebiotics?

cow milk

Which of the following is NOT a food source of probiotics?

soy

Benefits of _____ include supporting our immune system, improving the integrity of our gut mucosa, and reducing carcinogens in our colons.

probiotics

. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two species of

probiotics.

When evaluating a dietary supplement, it is best to look for the following information on the label

B. USP seal (U.S. Pharmocopeial Convention) or NSF seal (NSF International) C. expiration date D. formula for your age and gender

The three major minerals involved in bone maintenance are

calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.

Which is the most abundant mineral in the body?

calcium

The adequate daily intake (AI) of fluids comes from

intake of beverages, food, and water.

Where do we absorb most minerals that are ingested?

small intestine

Since peak bone mass occurs around age 30, what should be consumed regularly prior to that time to maximize bone mass?

foods with calcium and vitamin D

All of the following are controllable risk factors for osteoporosis, except

advanced age.

In the body, the function of water is to

A. transport nutrients and oxygen to tissues. B. lubricate joints. C. protect the brain and spinal cord. D. remove waste.

All of the following are symptoms of potassium deficiency, except

skin rash.

Food sources of calcium include all of the following, except

eggs.

Why can diarrhea lead to death, especially among children?

It causes dehydration.

Which electrolytes are involved in maintaining fluid balance in the body?

sodium, potassium, and chloride

Electrolytes are used in the body for all of the following purposes, except

maintaining cell membranes.

Which of the following is NOT a good source of magnesium?

bacon

Which of the following is an excellent source of potassium?

baked potato

Hyponatremia is the result of

excessive water consumption.

All of the following increase water needs, except

consuming a high-fat diet.

Which mineral is essential for the absorption of calcium and critical for bone strength?

magnesium

Why might a person have a low intake of dietary calcium?

They do not like dairy products and avoid leafy green vegetables.

Sodium in U.S. diets primarily comes from

processed and restaurant foods.

How does an increase in dietary sodium affect health?

It increases blood pressure.

Why does the DASH diet support consumption of an abundance of foods with potassium?

Potassium lowers blood pressure.

How much of our body is made up of water?

60% to 70%

Why does water move through cell membranes via osmosis?

to equalize the concentration of solutes inside of and outside of the cell

When a person becomes deficient in calcium, what will increase as a consequence?

absorption and bioavailability of calcium

Which of the following statements about minerals is FALSE?

They can be destroyed by cooking.

Which type of bread would have the most minerals?

bread made from whole grains

A 60-year-old man has been diagnosed with osteopenia. Which of the following is most likely to have caused this?

age, inactivity, and inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D

Which ethnic group has a lower recommended intake of sodium in the diet?

African Americans

Hypokalemia is a deficiency of which mineral?

potassium

Which body type generally would have the highest ratio of water content to total body mass?

muscular male

When we increase fluid consumption, excess water is

excreted through urine.

When more water is needed in the bloodstream, what part of the body releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

pituitary gland

Who regulates bottled water in the United States?

FDA

Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning dehydration?

A. Dehydration is a water deficiency in the body. B. Concentrated urine is an indicator of dehydration. C. Dehydration is an issue in developing countries where safe drinking water is scarce. D. Dehydration can be a result of excess vomiting and/or diarrhea.

The DASH diet is designed to ______ and includes many foods that are high in ______.

lower blood pressure; potassium

If a woman is trying to lose weight by taking diuretics and exercising for 90 minutes daily, what could be an immediate consequence?

severe dehydration

Trace minerals are those needed in daily amounts of

less than 100 milligrams.

The bioavailability of trace minerals can be affected by

A. the form of the food. B. our nutrition status. C. pregnancy. D. age.

The majority of total iodine intake in the United States comes from

milk and processed grain products.

Heme iron is found in

both hemoglobin and myoglobin

To increase the absorption of iron, you can serve a food with non-heme iron with

foods with vitamin C.

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include all of the following, except

excessive bleeding.

Iron deficiency anemia can be caused by

A. blood loss due to menstruation. B. frequent blood donations. C. being pregnant. D. insufficient intake of iron.

All of the following are symptoms of zinc deficiency, except

vision loss.

Food sources of selenium include all of the following, except

raw cherries.

How would you identify an iodine deficiency?

look for a goiter and test for hypothyroidism

Which one of the following could inhibit zinc absorption?

. whole grains

Which one of the following describes the primary function of selenium?

. co-factor for enzymes to activate thyroid hormone

Gus enjoys a variety of snacks, including popcorn, pistachios, oranges, bananas, and frozen yogurt. Which of those is the best source of dietary copper?

pistachios

Which of the following is the major function of fluoride?

preventing dental caries

Macie has staining and pitting of her teeth. She drinks three glasses of milk per day and enjoys yogurt as a snack. She lives in an urban area of the United States and regularly brushes her teeth and rinses afterward with a cavity-fighting solution. The cause of the stains and pits in her teeth are most likely caused by

excessive fluoride.

Why are chronic alcoholics at risk for zinc deficiency?

Alcohol reduces zinc absorption and increases zinc excretion via urine.

A vegetarian could consume good sources of dietary iron by eating

A. iron-fortified cereal. B. raisins. C. dried plums. D. beans/legumes.

To consume adequate trace minerals without taking a dietary supplement, a person should

eat a variety of foods across food groups.

A naturally occurring source of iodine can be found in

seafood.

The thyroid gland is sensitive to the amount of iodine in the blood. If there is not enough iodine, the thyroid gland can

increase in size.

Which of the following is TRUE about thyroid-stimulating hormone?

It is released by the pituitary gland.

An underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) slows the metabolic rate. This translates to symptoms such as

weight gain and fatigue.

Cretinism is a consequence of a pregnant woman with an iron deficiency and is associated with all of the following symptoms, except

blindness.

The most common mineral deficiency worldwide is

iron deficiency.

The amount of iodine in a food is affected by

A. the iodine content of the soil in which the plant grew. B. whether the plant or fish is from the ocean. C. whether iodized salt has been added. D. the iodine content of the soil and whether salt has been added.

An example of a salad that could be consumed by a vegetarian to maximize iron absorption would be

spinach and mandarin orange.

A child is admitted to the emergency department with symptoms of nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, and confusion. His mother found an open dietary supplement bottle for a single trace mineral. A poisoning with which trace mineral would most likely have caused the child’s symptoms?

copper

Trace minerals include all of the following, except

sodium.

Which trace mineral is needed for the regulation of protein synthesis and reproduction and immune functions?

zinc

Nonprotein, inorganic substances that enable enzymes to carry out chemical reactions are

co-factors.

The trace mineral that is NOT an essential nutrient is

fluoride.

The thyroid gland is located in the

neck.

Non-heme iron is found in

A. meat and fish. B. legumes and lentils. C. dried fruits. D. beans and dried fruits.

When someone is already consuming a diet low in vitamin E, what may result from consuming a diet that is deficient in selenium?

vitamin E deficiency

Research studies have NOT found that supplementation with chromium

A. improves mood. B. increases weight loss. C. improves muscle mass. D. controls blood sugar.

National nutrition studies indicate two populations in the United States are consuming less than the recommended amounts of iron. These groups are

women of childbearing age and young children.

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