Nutrition Chapter 14

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The duration of pregnancy normally is ______ weeks.


The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother’s womb is called the


The first trimester of pregnancy

is a time of particular importance to avoid nutritional deficiencies and insults to prevent harm to the fetus.

Preterm infants

may have problems sucking and swallowing.

Which trimester is an especially critical period when poor nutrition or drug use can result in birth defects?


All of the following are poor pregnancy practices except

gaining 25 to 35 pounds.

During the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, an average of ______ extra kilocalories per day are needed.

450 – 550

Extra kilocalories for pregnancy are needed mostly during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Which of the following is a suggested practice as far as exercise and pregnancy are concerned?

Drink plenty of fluids.

During pregnancy, it is particularly important to make sure to consume adequate

essential fatty acids

During the first trimester, a woman should gain ______ pounds.

2 to 4

During the second and third trimesters, pregnant women should gain approximately ______ pound(s) per week.


For a woman with a prepregnancy BMI of 22, total pregnancy weight gain should fall within the range of ______ pounds.

25 to 35

Millie’s prepregnancy BMI is 18. Her weight gain goal should be ______ pounds.

28 to 40

Sue’s prepregnancy BMI is 38. Her weight gain goal should be ______ pounds

15 to 25

A low-birth-weight infant weighs ______ pounds

less than 5.5

Which of the following is true about protein intake during pregnancy?

The RDA for protein increases by about 25 grams per day over that for the nonpregnant state.

Vitamin needs generally increase during pregnancy, especially for

vitamin D.

Barb wants to make sure she gets adequate folate during her pregnancy. She should do which of the following?

Eat more ready-to-eat breakfast cereals.

Patricia’s physician tells her she needs more folate in her diet during pregnancy. She should do which of the following?

Drink orange juice.

Mineral needs generally are increased during pregnancy. All of the following are needed in higher quantities except iron.


All of the following are true about folate and pregnancy except

it is impossible for pregnant women to meet their nutrient needs without supplementation

The need for extra iron during pregnancy is greatest during which trimester(s)?

Second and third

Most of the extra calcium for pregnancy is needed during which trimester(s)?

Calcium needs do not increase

The best way for a calcium-deficient pregnant woman to get the calcium she needs is to consume

low-fat milk and cheese

During pregnancy, a woman should follow MyPlate’s Daily Food Plan and consume

3 cups of calcium-rich foods from the milk and cheese group.

For most pregnancies, women need to consume supplemental


All of the following are true about prenatal supplements for pregnancy except

there is significant evidence that they are harmful.

Obesity during pregnancy is associated with all of the following except

a low-birth-weight infant.

Consumption of non-food items such as laundry starch, ice, and dirt is known as


Which of the following is true about lifestyle habits and pregnancy?

Repeated intake of four or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting is harmful to the fetus.

Which of the following is a federal program for reducing infant mortality by providing nutritional support and counseling?

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Carol has heartburn during her pregnancy. She should do all of the following except

lie down after she eats.

Constipation is a common problem during pregnancy. All the of following practices can be helpful except

avoiding too much fluid.

Rachel is pregnant and has morning sickness. She should do all the following except

eat large, less frequent meals.

During pregnancy, symptoms such as high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine, edema, changes in blood clotting, and nervous system disorders are associated with a condition called

pregnancy-induced hypertension.

Low iodide status during the first trimester of pregnancy may lead to


The hormone that triggers "let down" or milk release is


Which of the following is true about lactation?

The major reason why women do not breastfeed is lack of information

Which of the following is not true about the let-down reflex?

It is triggered by the release of the hormone estrogen.

Which of the following statements is important for infant feeding?

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of a child’s life.

During each feeding, human milk changes composition in which of the following ways?

fat increases

Breast milk production requires approximately ____ kilocalories per day


All of the following are barriers to breastfeeding except

having to carry a lot of equipment when traveling.

Women suffering from chronic alcoholism produce children with a recognizable pattern of malformations called

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).

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