Nutrition Chapter 10-11

C

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria? Answer A E K D

C

The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced Answer exposure to sunlight. milk intake of older people. absorption of dietary vitamin D. activation of vitamin D by the kidneys.

A

In what chief capacity does vitamin K function? Answer Blood clotting Energy metabolism Calcium utilization Epithelial tissue renewal

D

Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he's consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn't eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear? Answer "Take a vitamin A supplement as soon as you can!" "As long as you eat some chicken tonight you will not develop chicken eyes." "Well, there isn't any vitamin A in carrots so you probably haven't consumed vitamin A for some time now." "Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects."

C

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n) Answer peroxide. coenzyme. antioxidant. free radical.

B

Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet? Answer Meat Fortified milk Fruits and vegetables Enriched breads and cereals

A

Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D? Answer Egg yolks Red meats Tomato juice Whole-wheat bread

A

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E? Answer Both protect against LDL oxidation Neither reduces arterial inflammation Neither participates in regulating blood clotting Both act as prooxidants at physiological intakes

D

Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin? Answer Retinol Tocopherol Phylloquinone Cyanocobalamin

A

Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency? Answer Bowed legs Rupture of red blood cells Frequent respiratory infections Abnormally high blood calcium level

C

Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis? Answer Toxicity of vitamin A Toxicity of beta-carotene Deficiency of vitamin A Deficiency of vitamin D

D

What is a free radical? Answer An antioxidant substance that prevents accumulation of cell-damaging oxides A substance in food that interacts with nutrients to decrease their utilization A nutrient in excess of body needs that the body is free to degrade with no consequence A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

B

Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A? Answer Corn Pumpkin pie Baked potato Whole-grain bread

D

Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions? Answer Acne Rickets Osteomalacia Night blindness

B

All of the following are other names for vitamin D except Answer calciferol. calcitonin. cholecalciferol. dihydroxy vitamin D.

A

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity? Answer Children Adolescents Adults Elderly

C

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet? Answer Meats Citrus fruits Vegetable oils Milk and dairy products

C

Why shouldn't a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane? Answer It may aggravate existing edema It may lead to prolongation of labor It is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby It contains high concentrations of vitamin D that can cause birth defects

C

What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia? Answer Infants Elderly men Adult women Children ages 2-12 years

D

Which of the following is a feature of Accutane? Answer It is effective in treating rickets It is less toxic than pure vitamin A It is known to be effective in treating mild but not severe acne It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women

C

In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur? Answer Adolescent women Overweight adults Those taking vitamin A supplements Those consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily

C

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins? Answer Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins

D

Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E? Answer Butter Carrots Milk fat Corn oil

D

What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D? Answer Promotes secretion of calcitonin Promotes synthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol Promotes synthesis of carotenoids and controls absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

D

Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D? Answer Bone Carotene Tryptophan Exposure to sunlight

C

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency? Answer Inadequate intake Increased excretion Inadequate absorption Increased losses in food preparation

B

John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you recommend? Answer Liver, yogurt, milk Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries Banana, peanut butter, canned tuna fish Whole grains, pork, fortified corn flakes

A

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings? Answer Folate Inositol Methoxatin Lipoic acid

B

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein? Answer Scurvy Pellagra Wet beriberi Pernicious anemia

B

In what capacity does vitamin C function? Answer Coenzyme for energy release Cofactor in collagen formation Cofactor with calcium in blood coagulation Coenzyme in the formation of red blood cells

C

What is a precursor? Answer A conditionally essential vitamin A sign or symptom of a vitamin deficiency disorder A substance that is used to synthesize another compound A substance that is recycled through the liver and intestines

C

All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except Answer severe deficiency may lead to edema. severe deficiency may occur without edema. recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents." recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity.

D

What is a chief function of the B vitamins? Answer Antioxidation Anticoagulation Antibody stabilization Coenzyme participation

A

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of Answer folate. niacin. vitamin C. vitamin B6.

A

Which of the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun? Answer Niacin Choline Inositol Riboflavin

B

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk? Answer Airtight Cardboard Transparent glass Translucent plastic

C

Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins? Answer Folate Biotin Riboflavin Pantothenic acid

D

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie? Answer Dairy Meats Fruits Vegetables

C

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of Answer folate. selenium. vitamin B12. iron and copper.

C

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of Answer folate. thiamin. vitamin A. riboflavin.

D

Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C? Answer Tofu Yogurt Legumes Broccoli

A

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption? Answer Injection of cobalamin Topical administration of liver extract Oral supplements of B-vitamin complex A diet high in liver and green, leafy vegetables

D

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not Answer be concerned as long as he consumes both the yolk and whites of the eggs. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to niacin and prevent its absorption. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to biotin and prevent its absorption. be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.

B

Beriberi results from a deficiency of Answer niacin. thiamin. vitamin C. vitamin B12.

C

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12? Answer Bile Lipase Intrinsic factor Carboxypeptidase

B

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed Answer soy milk. goat's milk. chicken liver. infant formula.

C

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism? Answer Biotin Vitamin A Vitamin B6 Riboflavin

A

What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modest vitamin C concentration? Answer Potatoes Organ meats Breaded fish Whole-grain cereals

A

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake? Answer Milk Potatoes Orange juice Peanut butter

D

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect? Answer Scurvy Beriberi Pellagra Spina bifida

D

A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin Answer A. K. E. D.

D

Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane? Answer They are teratogenic They are highly toxic They are usually taken orally They have chemical structures similar to vitamin A

B

All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except Answer overconsumption from foods is harmless. overconsumption from supplements is harmless. drinking alcohol worsens the adverse effects of supplements. smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements.

C

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation? Answer Albumin Cholesterol Chylomicrons Liposoluble binding proteins

B

Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store? Answer Whole-grain bread Vitamin D-fortified milk Vitamin A-fortified carrot juice Omega-3 fatty acid-fortified milk

B

Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings Thomas home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after the birth, Thomas received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explained that it Answer was needed to prevent eye disease. prevented possible bleeding events. protected the baby from lipid oxidation. was needed to promote good bone growth.

B

Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins? Answer A E K D

B

A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except Answer liver. bananas. apricots. sweet potatoes.

A

Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient? Answer Osteomalacia and rickets Xerophthalmia and breath pentane release Kwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease Hemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia

C

Keratinization is the result of Answer toxicity of vitamin A. toxicity of vitamin D. deficiency of vitamin A. deficiency of vitamin D.

B

What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults? Answer Rickets Osteomalacia Keratomalacia Hyperkeratosis

C

Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues? Answer Albumin Rhodopsin Retinol-binding protein Transcarotenoid protein

D

What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines? Answer Cold water fish Processed soups Enriched breads Green leafy vegetables

C

The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually Answer xerosis. xerophthalmia. night blindness. corneal keratinization.

D

The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except Answer vitamin toxicity. the taker may ignore warning signs of a disease. the taker may feel a false sense of security and consume a poor diet. pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection.

B

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria? Answer Folate Biotin Cyanocobalamin Pantothenic acid

D

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to Answer heat. acid. alkali. ultraviolet light.

B

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food? Answer The total amount available from plant and animal food The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body The amount that escapes destruction from food processing The number of different chemical forms of the same vitamin

A

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings? Answer Biotin Inositol Lipoic acid Orotic acid

A

A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood? Answer Folate Biotin Niacin Vitamin K

A

hich of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size? Answer Ham Squash Whole milk Whole-grain breads

D

A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of Answer vitamin A. vitamin B6. vitamin C. vitamin D.

D

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C? Answer Antiviral agent Antifungal agent Anticancer agent Antioxidant agent

A

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers? Answer Niacin Thiamin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12

C

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C? Answer Milk group Meat group Fruit group Bread-cereal group

C

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C? Answer Milk group Meat group Fruit group Bread-cereal group

A

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency? Answer Bleeding gums Pernicious anemia Appearance of a cold Hysteria and depression

D

Which of the following is not among the common signs of pellagra? Answer Diarrhea Dementia Dermatitis Desiccation

B

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12? Answer Pecans Hot dog Cauliflower Whole-grain bread

A

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except Answer they must be consumed daily. toxic levels in the body are rarely found. they are absorbed directly into the blood. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.

B

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk? Answer Thiamin Vitamin A Riboflavin Vitamin B12

B

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins? Answer Bile Kidney Intestine Perspiration

D

In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop? Answer One month Six months One year Three years

B

Which of the following is not known to be a vitamin for human beings? Answer Cobalamin Ubiquinone Pyridoxine Pantothenic acid

B

Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency? Answer Achlorhydria Antibiotic therapy Presence of oxalic acid in food Insufficient intake of green leafy vegetables

D

All of the following are forms of vitamin A except Answer retinol. retinal. retinoic acid. retinoquinone.

D

All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except Answer infants frequently require a supplement at birth. good food sources are plants of the cabbage family. risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods. gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.

D

The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of Answer lysosomes. free radicals. mucopolysaccharides. polyunsaturated fatty acids.

A

Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition? Answer Sweet potato Orange juice Peanut butter Powdered skim milk

C

Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A? Answer Osteomalacia Osteoporosis Xerophthalmia Prolonged blood-clotting time

C

Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice? Answer Bone pain Dermatitis Skin yellowing Vitamin A toxicity

C

Which vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns? Answer Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin B12

D

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy? Answer B vitamins are a source of kilocalories Absorption of carbohydrates and fats is decreased Oxygen for energy metabolism cannot be transported to the cells Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

A

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings? Answer Choline Inositol Lipoic acid Pangamic acid

A

Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi? Answer High intakes of white rice Low intakes of whole grains High intakes of unrefined rice Low intakes of enriched grains

A

Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C? Answer Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea Hot dog, cabbage, french fries, and milk Roast beef, broccoli, noodles, and coffee Spaghetti with tomato sauce, meatball, garlic bread, and red wine

B

A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems except Answer skin. skeletal system. nervous system. gastrointestinal tract.

B

Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition? Answer Participates in activation of prothrombin Poor sources include seafood and cheeses Significant amounts are found in leafy vegetables Deficiency results in cheilosis and marked dermatitis

C

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize Answer FAD. biotin. niacin. inositol.

D

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food? Answer Biotin Niacin Vitamin B12 Pantothenic acid

D

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in Answer meats. grains. vegetables. dairy foods.

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Nutrition Chapter 10-11

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C

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria? Answer A E K D

C

The risk for vitamin D deficiency increases with advancing age for all of the following reasons except reduced Answer exposure to sunlight. milk intake of older people. absorption of dietary vitamin D. activation of vitamin D by the kidneys.

A

In what chief capacity does vitamin K function? Answer Blood clotting Energy metabolism Calcium utilization Epithelial tissue renewal

D

Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he’s consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn’t eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear? Answer "Take a vitamin A supplement as soon as you can!" "As long as you eat some chicken tonight you will not develop chicken eyes." "Well, there isn’t any vitamin A in carrots so you probably haven’t consumed vitamin A for some time now." "Don’t worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects."

C

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n) Answer peroxide. coenzyme. antioxidant. free radical.

B

Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet? Answer Meat Fortified milk Fruits and vegetables Enriched breads and cereals

A

Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D? Answer Egg yolks Red meats Tomato juice Whole-wheat bread

A

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin C and vitamin E? Answer Both protect against LDL oxidation Neither reduces arterial inflammation Neither participates in regulating blood clotting Both act as prooxidants at physiological intakes

D

Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin? Answer Retinol Tocopherol Phylloquinone Cyanocobalamin

A

Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency? Answer Bowed legs Rupture of red blood cells Frequent respiratory infections Abnormally high blood calcium level

C

Which of the following is associated with the condition known as xerosis? Answer Toxicity of vitamin A Toxicity of beta-carotene Deficiency of vitamin A Deficiency of vitamin D

D

What is a free radical? Answer An antioxidant substance that prevents accumulation of cell-damaging oxides A substance in food that interacts with nutrients to decrease their utilization A nutrient in excess of body needs that the body is free to degrade with no consequence A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

B

Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A? Answer Corn Pumpkin pie Baked potato Whole-grain bread

D

Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions? Answer Acne Rickets Osteomalacia Night blindness

B

All of the following are other names for vitamin D except Answer calciferol. calcitonin. cholecalciferol. dihydroxy vitamin D.

A

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity? Answer Children Adolescents Adults Elderly

C

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet? Answer Meats Citrus fruits Vegetable oils Milk and dairy products

C

Why shouldn’t a 7-month pregnant woman be prescribed Accutane? Answer It may aggravate existing edema It may lead to prolongation of labor It is a teratogen and can be harmful to the baby It contains high concentrations of vitamin D that can cause birth defects

C

What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia? Answer Infants Elderly men Adult women Children ages 2-12 years

D

Which of the following is a feature of Accutane? Answer It is effective in treating rickets It is less toxic than pure vitamin A It is known to be effective in treating mild but not severe acne It is known to cause birth defects when used by pregnant women

C

In which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur? Answer Adolescent women Overweight adults Those taking vitamin A supplements Those consuming more than 100 g of carrots daily

C

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins? Answer Most of them are synthesized by intestinal bacteria Intestinal transport occurs by way of the portal circulation Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet Toxicity risk is higher for vitamins E and K than for other fat-soluble vitamins

D

Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E? Answer Butter Carrots Milk fat Corn oil

D

What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D? Answer Promotes secretion of calcitonin Promotes synthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol Promotes synthesis of carotenoids and controls absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

D

Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D? Answer Bone Carotene Tryptophan Exposure to sunlight

C

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency? Answer Inadequate intake Increased excretion Inadequate absorption Increased losses in food preparation

B

John is looking to increase his dietary sources of vitamin C. However, he expresses a strong dislike for all citrus fruits. Which of the following shopping lists would you recommend? Answer Liver, yogurt, milk Brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries Banana, peanut butter, canned tuna fish Whole grains, pork, fortified corn flakes

A

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings? Answer Folate Inositol Methoxatin Lipoic acid

B

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein? Answer Scurvy Pellagra Wet beriberi Pernicious anemia

B

In what capacity does vitamin C function? Answer Coenzyme for energy release Cofactor in collagen formation Cofactor with calcium in blood coagulation Coenzyme in the formation of red blood cells

C

What is a precursor? Answer A conditionally essential vitamin A sign or symptom of a vitamin deficiency disorder A substance that is used to synthesize another compound A substance that is recycled through the liver and intestines

C

All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except Answer severe deficiency may lead to edema. severe deficiency may occur without edema. recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents." recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity.

D

What is a chief function of the B vitamins? Answer Antioxidation Anticoagulation Antibody stabilization Coenzyme participation

A

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of Answer folate. niacin. vitamin C. vitamin B6.

A

Which of the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on areas exposed to the sun? Answer Niacin Choline Inositol Riboflavin

B

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk? Answer Airtight Cardboard Transparent glass Translucent plastic

C

Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins? Answer Folate Biotin Riboflavin Pantothenic acid

D

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie? Answer Dairy Meats Fruits Vegetables

C

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of Answer folate. selenium. vitamin B12. iron and copper.

C

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of Answer folate. thiamin. vitamin A. riboflavin.

D

Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C? Answer Tofu Yogurt Legumes Broccoli

A

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption? Answer Injection of cobalamin Topical administration of liver extract Oral supplements of B-vitamin complex A diet high in liver and green, leafy vegetables

D

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not Answer be concerned as long as he consumes both the yolk and whites of the eggs. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to niacin and prevent its absorption. follow the diet, since the avidin in the egg whites could bind to biotin and prevent its absorption. be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.

B

Beriberi results from a deficiency of Answer niacin. thiamin. vitamin C. vitamin B12.

C

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12? Answer Bile Lipase Intrinsic factor Carboxypeptidase

B

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed Answer soy milk. goat’s milk. chicken liver. infant formula.

C

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism? Answer Biotin Vitamin A Vitamin B6 Riboflavin

A

What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modest vitamin C concentration? Answer Potatoes Organ meats Breaded fish Whole-grain cereals

A

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake? Answer Milk Potatoes Orange juice Peanut butter

D

Which of the following is a type of neural tube defect? Answer Scurvy Beriberi Pellagra Spina bifida

D

A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin Answer A. K. E. D.

D

Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane? Answer They are teratogenic They are highly toxic They are usually taken orally They have chemical structures similar to vitamin A

B

All of the following are characteristics of excess consumption of beta-carotene except Answer overconsumption from foods is harmless. overconsumption from supplements is harmless. drinking alcohol worsens the adverse effects of supplements. smoking cigarettes aggravates the detrimental effects of supplements.

C

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation? Answer Albumin Cholesterol Chylomicrons Liposoluble binding proteins

B

Your old friend from high school has just moved to Northern Canada to do full-time research on bats in caves. She typically works in the caves during the day when the bats are there and leaves at sundown when the bats are active. Since your friend only purchases organic and all natural foods, which of the following would you most likely advise she buy regularly at the grocery store? Answer Whole-grain bread Vitamin D-fortified milk Vitamin A-fortified carrot juice Omega-3 fatty acid-fortified milk

B

Jennifer has just had a baby. When she brings Thomas home, she regales you with the details of her hospital stay. She mentions that shortly after the birth, Thomas received an intramuscular injection of vitamin K, and she wondered why this was done, as it made him cry. You explained that it Answer was needed to prevent eye disease. prevented possible bleeding events. protected the baby from lipid oxidation. was needed to promote good bone growth.

B

Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins? Answer A E K D

B

A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except Answer liver. bananas. apricots. sweet potatoes.

A

Which of the following conditions or diseases are known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient? Answer Osteomalacia and rickets Xerophthalmia and breath pentane release Kwashiorkor and fibrocystic breast disease Hemolytic anemia and large-cell type anemia

C

Keratinization is the result of Answer toxicity of vitamin A. toxicity of vitamin D. deficiency of vitamin A. deficiency of vitamin D.

B

What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults? Answer Rickets Osteomalacia Keratomalacia Hyperkeratosis

C

Which of the following is responsible for transporting vitamin A from the liver to other tissues? Answer Albumin Rhodopsin Retinol-binding protein Transcarotenoid protein

D

What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines? Answer Cold water fish Processed soups Enriched breads Green leafy vegetables

C

The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually Answer xerosis. xerophthalmia. night blindness. corneal keratinization.

D

The known dangers of taking vitamin supplements include all of the following except Answer vitamin toxicity. the taker may ignore warning signs of a disease. the taker may feel a false sense of security and consume a poor diet. pathogenic bacterial overgrowth of the large intestines leading to increased risk of infection.

B

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria? Answer Folate Biotin Cyanocobalamin Pantothenic acid

D

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to Answer heat. acid. alkali. ultraviolet light.

B

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food? Answer The total amount available from plant and animal food The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body The amount that escapes destruction from food processing The number of different chemical forms of the same vitamin

A

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings? Answer Biotin Inositol Lipoic acid Orotic acid

A

A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood? Answer Folate Biotin Niacin Vitamin K

A

hich of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size? Answer Ham Squash Whole milk Whole-grain breads

D

A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of Answer vitamin A. vitamin B6. vitamin C. vitamin D.

D

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C? Answer Antiviral agent Antifungal agent Anticancer agent Antioxidant agent

A

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers? Answer Niacin Thiamin Vitamin B6 Vitamin B12

C

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C? Answer Milk group Meat group Fruit group Bread-cereal group

C

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C? Answer Milk group Meat group Fruit group Bread-cereal group

A

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency? Answer Bleeding gums Pernicious anemia Appearance of a cold Hysteria and depression

D

Which of the following is not among the common signs of pellagra? Answer Diarrhea Dementia Dermatitis Desiccation

B

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12? Answer Pecans Hot dog Cauliflower Whole-grain bread

A

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except Answer they must be consumed daily. toxic levels in the body are rarely found. they are absorbed directly into the blood. excesses are eliminated from the kidneys.

B

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk? Answer Thiamin Vitamin A Riboflavin Vitamin B12

B

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins? Answer Bile Kidney Intestine Perspiration

D

In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop? Answer One month Six months One year Three years

B

Which of the following is not known to be a vitamin for human beings? Answer Cobalamin Ubiquinone Pyridoxine Pantothenic acid

B

Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency? Answer Achlorhydria Antibiotic therapy Presence of oxalic acid in food Insufficient intake of green leafy vegetables

D

All of the following are forms of vitamin A except Answer retinol. retinal. retinoic acid. retinoquinone.

D

All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except Answer infants frequently require a supplement at birth. good food sources are plants of the cabbage family. risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods. gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.

D

The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of Answer lysosomes. free radicals. mucopolysaccharides. polyunsaturated fatty acids.

A

Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. Once there, she saw that many of the children and some adults suffer from night blindness. Which of the following foods should she recommend be incorporated into the Indonesian diet to help prevent future generations from developing this condition? Answer Sweet potato Orange juice Peanut butter Powdered skim milk

C

Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A? Answer Osteomalacia Osteoporosis Xerophthalmia Prolonged blood-clotting time

C

Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice? Answer Bone pain Dermatitis Skin yellowing Vitamin A toxicity

C

Which vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns? Answer Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin B12

D

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy? Answer B vitamins are a source of kilocalories Absorption of carbohydrates and fats is decreased Oxygen for energy metabolism cannot be transported to the cells Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

A

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings? Answer Choline Inositol Lipoic acid Pangamic acid

A

Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi? Answer High intakes of white rice Low intakes of whole grains High intakes of unrefined rice Low intakes of enriched grains

A

Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C? Answer Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea Hot dog, cabbage, french fries, and milk Roast beef, broccoli, noodles, and coffee Spaghetti with tomato sauce, meatball, garlic bread, and red wine

B

A general niacin deficiency is known to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems except Answer skin. skeletal system. nervous system. gastrointestinal tract.

B

Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition? Answer Participates in activation of prothrombin Poor sources include seafood and cheeses Significant amounts are found in leafy vegetables Deficiency results in cheilosis and marked dermatitis

C

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize Answer FAD. biotin. niacin. inositol.

D

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food? Answer Biotin Niacin Vitamin B12 Pantothenic acid

D

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in Answer meats. grains. vegetables. dairy foods.

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