Nutrition Ch. 7

T/F: Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed directly into the blood and thus stored more readily in tissues.​

False

T/F: The most familiar function of vitamin A is to sustain normal eyesight.​

True

T/F: Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause bowed legs, an abnormality seen in the disease rickets.​

True

T/F: Infants are born with adequate vitamin K in their intestinal tracts.

False

T/F: The B vitamins work together with enzymes in the metabolism of energy nutrients and in the making of new cells.​

True

T/F: No convincing evidence indicating benefits from antioxidant supplements in well-nourished people exists.​

True

T/F: The claim that supplements are necessary because today's foods lack sufficient nutrients to support health is a marketing trap.

True

​By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except:
A. ​indispensable to body function.
B. required to prevent deficiency diseases.
C. ​an energy-yielding nutrient.
D. ​an organic compound.
E. ​needed in minute amounts.

C. An energy-yielding nutrient

A compound in food that can be converted into an active vitamin inside the body is known as a(n):​
A. ​coenzyme.
B. ​predecessor.
C. ​antivitamin.
D. ​provitamin.
E. ​enzyme.

D. Provitamin

All of the following are fat-soluble vitamins except:​
A. ​K.
B. ​C.
C. ​A.
D. D.​
E. ​E.

B. C

Any disease that produces _____ malabsorption can bring about deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, and K.
A. ​calcium
B. ​protein
C. ​carbohydrate
D. ​fat
E. ​medication

D. Fat

Water-soluble vitamins:
A. ​are stored in body tissues to a large extent.
B. ​often result in toxicities among infants and children.
C. ​dissolve in body fluids but not in cooking water.
D. ​are easily excreted in the urine.
E. ​are not damaged by high temperatures or oxygen exposure.

D. Are easily excreted in the urine

Vitamin A plays an important role in:​
A. ​blood clotting.
B. ​calcium regulation.
C. ​promoting keratinization.
D. ​fluid and electrolyte balance.
E. ​maintenance of body linings and skin.

E. Maintenance of body linings and skin.

​The active form of vitamin A stored in the liver is:
A. ​yellow.
B. ​retinoic acid.
C. ​bright orange.
D. ​retinol.
E. ​beta-carotene.

D. Retinol

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include:​
A. ​joint pain.
B. ​frequent urination.
C. ​hemorrhaging of small blood vessels.
D. ​night blindness.
E. ​facial tics.

D. Night Blindness

The amount of vitamin A a person needs is proportional to:​
A. ​age.
B. ​sex.
C. ​season of the year.
D. ​height.
E. ​body weight.

E. Body weight

To obtain an adequate intake of vitamin A, a man needs a daily average of about _____ micrograms of the active form.​
A. 1200
B. ​900
C. ​700
D. ​1500
E. ​9000

B. 900

All of the following foods contain active vitamin A except:​
A. ​fortified cereal.
B. ​milk.
C. ​liver.
D. ​fish oils.
E. ​french fries.

E. French fries

Healthy people can eat vitamin A-rich foods in large amounts without risking toxicity, with the possible exception of what food?​
A. ​carrots
B. ​liver
C. ​cheese
D. ​fortified breakfast cereals
E. ​eggs

B. Liver

​Population studies suggest that people whose diets lack foods rich in beta-carotene have a higher incidence of:
A. ​macular degeneration.
B. ​rickets.
C. ​anemia.
D. ​night blindness.
E. ​osteomalacia.

A. Macular Degeneration

What is one symptom of a beta-carotene toxicity?​
A. ​xerophthalmia
B. ​night blindness
C. ​bright yellow skin
D. ​hardening of the macula in the eye
E. ​rough, dry skin

C. Bright yellow skin

​Foods rich in beta-carotene include:
A. ​beets.
B. ​corn.
C. ​red cabbage.
D. ​sweet potatoes.
E. ​whole grains.

D. Sweet Potatoes

Important roles of vitamin D include all of the following except:​
A. ​bone health.
B. ​cell growth and specialization.
C. ​influence over reproductive system cells.
D. ​health of the retina in the eye.
E. ​influence over hair follicles.

D. health of the retina in the eye

Research suggests that deficiency of vitamin D may lead to:​
A. ​kidney stones.
B. ​low blood pressure.
C. ​blood disorders.
D. ​cardiovascular disease.
E. ​gallbladder disease.

D. Cardiovascular Disease

The vitamin D deficiency disease that develops in adults is known as:​
A. ​osteomalacia.
B. ​rickets.
C. ​macular degeneration.
D. ​pellagra.
E. ​scurvy.

A. Oseomalacia

Fortified food sources of vitamin D available in the United States include:​
A. ​salmon.
B. sardines.​
C. ​margarine.
D. ​eggs.
E. ​tuna.

C. Margarine

All of the following are significant food sources of vitamin D except:​
A. ​sardines.
B. ​rolled oats.
C. ​salmon.
D. ​mushrooms.
E. ​fortified milk.

B. Rolled Oats

The recommended intake for vitamin D is _____ micrograms per day for adults over 70.​
A. 10​
B. ​5
C. ​500
D. ​20
E. 100​

D. 20

Vitamin E serves as:​
A. ​a provitamin.
B. ​an antioxidant.
C. ​an antivitamin.
D. ​a vitamin antagonist.
E. ​a precursor.

B. An antioxidant

Which individual is LEAST likely to acquire a vitamin E deficiency?
A. ​someone who eats a diet high in fat
B. ​someone with severe liver disease
C. ​someone whose pancreas is failing to produce digestive enzymes
D. ​someone who is born prematurely
E. ​someone who consumes a very low-fat diet composed largely of convenience foods

A. Someone who eats a diet high in fat

​As people consume more polyunsaturated oil their need for vitamin _____ rises.
A. ​D
B. ​E
C. ​A
D. ​K
E. ​B6

B. E

Much of the vitamin E people consume comes from​
A. ​cooked vegetables.
B. ​meats, fish, poultry, and eggs.
C. ​vegetable oils and products made from them.
D. ​convenience and fast foods.
E. ​fruits and vegetables.

C. Vegetable oils and products made from them

The main function of vitamin K is:​
A. ​to quench free radicals.
B. ​to help synthesize key bone proteins.
C. ​to influence body functions through its regulation of the genes.
D. ​to help activate proteins that help clot the blood.
E. ​to act as an antioxidant in cell membranes.

D. To help activate proteins that help clot the blood

A non-food source of vitamin K is:​
A. ​antibiotics.
B. ​sunlight.
C. ​intestinal bacteria.
D. ​dental implants.
E. ​tap water.

C. Intestinal bacteria

What is NOT a characteristic of water-soluble vitamins?​
A. ​They seldom reach toxic levels.
B. ​They are easily absorbed and excreted.
C. ​They dissolve in water.
D. ​They are stored extensively in tissues.
E. ​Some are destroyed on exposure to light, heat, or oxygen during processing.

D. They are stored extensively in tissues

What is NOT one of the functions of vitamin C?​
A. ​to protect and recycle vitamin E to its active form
B. ​to produce and maintain collagen
C. ​to promote the absorption of iron
D. ​to maintain the functions of the reproductive organs
E. ​to help form scar tissue that heals wounds

D. To maintain the functions of the reproductive organs

In the U.S., scurvy is seldom seen today except in:​
A. ​people addicted to alcohol.
B. ​young women.
C. ​vegetarians.
D. ​breastfed infants.
E. ​dieters.

A. People addicted to alcohol

Which statement regarding vitamin C is true?​
A. ​A lack of the vitamin results in beriberi.
B. ​It inhibits iron absorption.
C. ​It prevents the common cold.
D. ​It helps to produce carnitine.
E. ​An excess of the vitamin can result in gallstones.

D. It helps to produce carnitine

The DRI recommendation for vitamin C for women is _____ milligrams per day.​
A. ​45
B. ​65
C. ​75
D. ​90
E. ​10

C. 75

Which individuals should avoid vitamin C supplements because of above-normal risk of negative effects?​
A. ​smokers with low produce intakes
B. ​people with too much cholesterol in their blood
C. ​people with colds
D. ​people with kidney disorders
E. ​people with burn injuries

D. People with kidney disorders

To obtain the maximum amount of vitamin C from vegetables, you would:​
A. ​cut them into small pieces.
B. ​cook them for long periods of time.
C. ​wash them after cutting and peeling them rather than before.
D. ​drain the cooking water before adding them to mixed dishes.
E. ​consume them promptly after purchasing.

E. Consume them promptly after purchasing

Which food is NOT a good food source of vitamin C?​
A. citrus fruits​
B. ​strawberries
C. ​milk
D. ​broccoli
E. ​green peppers

C. Milk

The B vitamins act as part of:
A. ​anticoagulants.
B. ​antibodies.
C. ​coenzymes.
D. ​intrinsic factors.
E. ​the bone matrix.

C. Coenzymes

The thiamin deficiency disease is known as:​
A. ​pellagra.
B. ​osteomalacia.
C. ​scurvy.
D. ​beriberi.
E. ​anemia.

D. Beriberi

Pellagra is a _____ deficiency disease.​
A. ​vitamin C
B. ​niacin
C. ​thiamin
D. ​vitamin B12
E. ​folate

B. Niacin

Which B vitamin is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?​
A. ​vitamin B6
B. ​biotin
C. ​folate
D. ​vitamin B12
E. ​thiamin

C. Folate

The best natural sources of folate include:​
A. ​cereals.
B. ​raw spinach.
C. ​cooked strawberries.
D. ​milk.
E. ​eggs.

B. Raw spinach

The main reason for fortifying enriched grain products with folic acid is to:​
A. ​reduce the incidence of birth defects called neural tube defects.
B. ​help lower serum folate concentrations during pregnancy.
C. ​make up for the lack of prenatal care.
D. ​prevent mental retardation from developing late in the pregnancy.
E. ​prevent cardiovascular disease.

A. Reduce the incidence of birth defects called neural tube defects

An uninformed strict vegetarian is at special risk for _____ deficiency.​
A. vitamin B12​
B. ​folate
C. ​vitamin B6
D. ​niacin
E. ​thiamin

A. Vitamin B12

Which vitamin aids in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin?​
A. ​vitamin B6
B. ​vitamin C
C. ​folate
D. ​vitamin B12
E. ​thiamin

A. Viatmin B6

Nutrition Ch. 7 - Subjecto.com

Nutrition Ch. 7

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T/F: Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed directly into the blood and thus stored more readily in tissues.​

False

T/F: The most familiar function of vitamin A is to sustain normal eyesight.​

True

T/F: Vitamin D deficiency in children can cause bowed legs, an abnormality seen in the disease rickets.​

True

T/F: Infants are born with adequate vitamin K in their intestinal tracts.

False

T/F: The B vitamins work together with enzymes in the metabolism of energy nutrients and in the making of new cells.​

True

T/F: No convincing evidence indicating benefits from antioxidant supplements in well-nourished people exists.​

True

T/F: The claim that supplements are necessary because today’s foods lack sufficient nutrients to support health is a marketing trap.

True

​By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except:
A. ​indispensable to body function.
B. required to prevent deficiency diseases.
C. ​an energy-yielding nutrient.
D. ​an organic compound.
E. ​needed in minute amounts.

C. An energy-yielding nutrient

A compound in food that can be converted into an active vitamin inside the body is known as a(n):​
A. ​coenzyme.
B. ​predecessor.
C. ​antivitamin.
D. ​provitamin.
E. ​enzyme.

D. Provitamin

All of the following are fat-soluble vitamins except:​
A. ​K.
B. ​C.
C. ​A.
D. D.​
E. ​E.

B. C

Any disease that produces _____ malabsorption can bring about deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, and K.
A. ​calcium
B. ​protein
C. ​carbohydrate
D. ​fat
E. ​medication

D. Fat

Water-soluble vitamins:
A. ​are stored in body tissues to a large extent.
B. ​often result in toxicities among infants and children.
C. ​dissolve in body fluids but not in cooking water.
D. ​are easily excreted in the urine.
E. ​are not damaged by high temperatures or oxygen exposure.

D. Are easily excreted in the urine

Vitamin A plays an important role in:​
A. ​blood clotting.
B. ​calcium regulation.
C. ​promoting keratinization.
D. ​fluid and electrolyte balance.
E. ​maintenance of body linings and skin.

E. Maintenance of body linings and skin.

​The active form of vitamin A stored in the liver is:
A. ​yellow.
B. ​retinoic acid.
C. ​bright orange.
D. ​retinol.
E. ​beta-carotene.

D. Retinol

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include:​
A. ​joint pain.
B. ​frequent urination.
C. ​hemorrhaging of small blood vessels.
D. ​night blindness.
E. ​facial tics.

D. Night Blindness

The amount of vitamin A a person needs is proportional to:​
A. ​age.
B. ​sex.
C. ​season of the year.
D. ​height.
E. ​body weight.

E. Body weight

To obtain an adequate intake of vitamin A, a man needs a daily average of about _____ micrograms of the active form.​
A. 1200
B. ​900
C. ​700
D. ​1500
E. ​9000

B. 900

All of the following foods contain active vitamin A except:​
A. ​fortified cereal.
B. ​milk.
C. ​liver.
D. ​fish oils.
E. ​french fries.

E. French fries

Healthy people can eat vitamin A-rich foods in large amounts without risking toxicity, with the possible exception of what food?​
A. ​carrots
B. ​liver
C. ​cheese
D. ​fortified breakfast cereals
E. ​eggs

B. Liver

​Population studies suggest that people whose diets lack foods rich in beta-carotene have a higher incidence of:
A. ​macular degeneration.
B. ​rickets.
C. ​anemia.
D. ​night blindness.
E. ​osteomalacia.

A. Macular Degeneration

What is one symptom of a beta-carotene toxicity?​
A. ​xerophthalmia
B. ​night blindness
C. ​bright yellow skin
D. ​hardening of the macula in the eye
E. ​rough, dry skin

C. Bright yellow skin

​Foods rich in beta-carotene include:
A. ​beets.
B. ​corn.
C. ​red cabbage.
D. ​sweet potatoes.
E. ​whole grains.

D. Sweet Potatoes

Important roles of vitamin D include all of the following except:​
A. ​bone health.
B. ​cell growth and specialization.
C. ​influence over reproductive system cells.
D. ​health of the retina in the eye.
E. ​influence over hair follicles.

D. health of the retina in the eye

Research suggests that deficiency of vitamin D may lead to:​
A. ​kidney stones.
B. ​low blood pressure.
C. ​blood disorders.
D. ​cardiovascular disease.
E. ​gallbladder disease.

D. Cardiovascular Disease

The vitamin D deficiency disease that develops in adults is known as:​
A. ​osteomalacia.
B. ​rickets.
C. ​macular degeneration.
D. ​pellagra.
E. ​scurvy.

A. Oseomalacia

Fortified food sources of vitamin D available in the United States include:​
A. ​salmon.
B. sardines.​
C. ​margarine.
D. ​eggs.
E. ​tuna.

C. Margarine

All of the following are significant food sources of vitamin D except:​
A. ​sardines.
B. ​rolled oats.
C. ​salmon.
D. ​mushrooms.
E. ​fortified milk.

B. Rolled Oats

The recommended intake for vitamin D is _____ micrograms per day for adults over 70.​
A. 10​
B. ​5
C. ​500
D. ​20
E. 100​

D. 20

Vitamin E serves as:​
A. ​a provitamin.
B. ​an antioxidant.
C. ​an antivitamin.
D. ​a vitamin antagonist.
E. ​a precursor.

B. An antioxidant

Which individual is LEAST likely to acquire a vitamin E deficiency?
A. ​someone who eats a diet high in fat
B. ​someone with severe liver disease
C. ​someone whose pancreas is failing to produce digestive enzymes
D. ​someone who is born prematurely
E. ​someone who consumes a very low-fat diet composed largely of convenience foods

A. Someone who eats a diet high in fat

​As people consume more polyunsaturated oil their need for vitamin _____ rises.
A. ​D
B. ​E
C. ​A
D. ​K
E. ​B6

B. E

Much of the vitamin E people consume comes from​
A. ​cooked vegetables.
B. ​meats, fish, poultry, and eggs.
C. ​vegetable oils and products made from them.
D. ​convenience and fast foods.
E. ​fruits and vegetables.

C. Vegetable oils and products made from them

The main function of vitamin K is:​
A. ​to quench free radicals.
B. ​to help synthesize key bone proteins.
C. ​to influence body functions through its regulation of the genes.
D. ​to help activate proteins that help clot the blood.
E. ​to act as an antioxidant in cell membranes.

D. To help activate proteins that help clot the blood

A non-food source of vitamin K is:​
A. ​antibiotics.
B. ​sunlight.
C. ​intestinal bacteria.
D. ​dental implants.
E. ​tap water.

C. Intestinal bacteria

What is NOT a characteristic of water-soluble vitamins?​
A. ​They seldom reach toxic levels.
B. ​They are easily absorbed and excreted.
C. ​They dissolve in water.
D. ​They are stored extensively in tissues.
E. ​Some are destroyed on exposure to light, heat, or oxygen during processing.

D. They are stored extensively in tissues

What is NOT one of the functions of vitamin C?​
A. ​to protect and recycle vitamin E to its active form
B. ​to produce and maintain collagen
C. ​to promote the absorption of iron
D. ​to maintain the functions of the reproductive organs
E. ​to help form scar tissue that heals wounds

D. To maintain the functions of the reproductive organs

In the U.S., scurvy is seldom seen today except in:​
A. ​people addicted to alcohol.
B. ​young women.
C. ​vegetarians.
D. ​breastfed infants.
E. ​dieters.

A. People addicted to alcohol

Which statement regarding vitamin C is true?​
A. ​A lack of the vitamin results in beriberi.
B. ​It inhibits iron absorption.
C. ​It prevents the common cold.
D. ​It helps to produce carnitine.
E. ​An excess of the vitamin can result in gallstones.

D. It helps to produce carnitine

The DRI recommendation for vitamin C for women is _____ milligrams per day.​
A. ​45
B. ​65
C. ​75
D. ​90
E. ​10

C. 75

Which individuals should avoid vitamin C supplements because of above-normal risk of negative effects?​
A. ​smokers with low produce intakes
B. ​people with too much cholesterol in their blood
C. ​people with colds
D. ​people with kidney disorders
E. ​people with burn injuries

D. People with kidney disorders

To obtain the maximum amount of vitamin C from vegetables, you would:​
A. ​cut them into small pieces.
B. ​cook them for long periods of time.
C. ​wash them after cutting and peeling them rather than before.
D. ​drain the cooking water before adding them to mixed dishes.
E. ​consume them promptly after purchasing.

E. Consume them promptly after purchasing

Which food is NOT a good food source of vitamin C?​
A. citrus fruits​
B. ​strawberries
C. ​milk
D. ​broccoli
E. ​green peppers

C. Milk

The B vitamins act as part of:
A. ​anticoagulants.
B. ​antibodies.
C. ​coenzymes.
D. ​intrinsic factors.
E. ​the bone matrix.

C. Coenzymes

The thiamin deficiency disease is known as:​
A. ​pellagra.
B. ​osteomalacia.
C. ​scurvy.
D. ​beriberi.
E. ​anemia.

D. Beriberi

Pellagra is a _____ deficiency disease.​
A. ​vitamin C
B. ​niacin
C. ​thiamin
D. ​vitamin B12
E. ​folate

B. Niacin

Which B vitamin is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?​
A. ​vitamin B6
B. ​biotin
C. ​folate
D. ​vitamin B12
E. ​thiamin

C. Folate

The best natural sources of folate include:​
A. ​cereals.
B. ​raw spinach.
C. ​cooked strawberries.
D. ​milk.
E. ​eggs.

B. Raw spinach

The main reason for fortifying enriched grain products with folic acid is to:​
A. ​reduce the incidence of birth defects called neural tube defects.
B. ​help lower serum folate concentrations during pregnancy.
C. ​make up for the lack of prenatal care.
D. ​prevent mental retardation from developing late in the pregnancy.
E. ​prevent cardiovascular disease.

A. Reduce the incidence of birth defects called neural tube defects

An uninformed strict vegetarian is at special risk for _____ deficiency.​
A. vitamin B12​
B. ​folate
C. ​vitamin B6
D. ​niacin
E. ​thiamin

A. Vitamin B12

Which vitamin aids in the conversion of tryptophan to niacin?​
A. ​vitamin B6
B. ​vitamin C
C. ​folate
D. ​vitamin B12
E. ​thiamin

A. Viatmin B6

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