nutrition ch 17

What fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?
a. 1/100
b. 1/30
c. 1/8
d. 1/3

1/8

What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?
a. 21-30 years
b. 35-50 years
c. Over 65 years
d. Over 85 years

Over 85 years

What is the life expectancy of black males and females in the United States?
a. 70-77 years
b. 78-85 years
c. 85-89 years
d. 90-93 years

70-77 years

What was the average life expectancy of a person born in the year 1900?
a. 47 years
b. 55 years
c. 61 years
d. 68 years

47 years

What is the life expectancy of white males and females in the United States?
a. 62-68 years
b. 76-81 years
c. 82-86 years
d. 87-90 years

76-81 years

Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?
a. 75
b. 100
c. 115
d.Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?
a. 75
b. 100
c. 115
d. 130

130

Approximately what percentage of a person's life expectancy is under control of her genes?
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75

25

Approximately what percentage of a person's life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75

75

What would be the physiological age of a 75-year-old woman whose physical health is equivalent to that of her 50-year-old daughter?
a. 25 years
b. 50 years
c. 70 years
d. 125 years

50 years

Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except
a. weight control.
b. regularity of meals.
c. short periods of sleep.
d. no or moderate alcohol intake.

short periods of sleep.

What is the most important predictor of a person's mobility in the later years?
a. BMI
b. Alcohol use
c. Chronological age
d. Regular physical activity

Regular physical activity

Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?
a. Restriction of specific nutrients exerted antiaging effects
b. Energy-restricted diets led to life extension in 90% of the rats
c. Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature
d. Restriction of food intake only after rats reached maturity, but not before, resulted in extension of life span

Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature

Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?
a. Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat
b. Restriction of energy intake in genetically obese animals does not seem to improve longevity
c. Biochemical markers for longevity in humans are improved only when energy intake is reduced by at least one-third
d. The activities of the genes of older mice on energy-restricted diets are similar to those of mice on standard diets

Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat

What minimum reduction from the usual intake of energy in people brings about measurable improvements in body fat, blood pressure, insulin response, and blood lipids?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 50%

10%

People who persistently restrict energy intake by 30% for 30 years can expect to increase longevity by up to how many years?
a. 3
b. 6
c. 9
d. 12

3

In people who practice energy restriction to prolong life, hunger becomes persistent when kcal intake first drops by what percentage?
a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60

30

Which of the following is a proposed mechanism for energy restriction and improved longevity in animals?
a. Reduced oxidative stress
b. Increased metabolic rate
c. Enhanced lipid oxidation
d. Accelerated growth and development

Reduced oxidative stress

Which of the following is a feature of the stress response in men and women?
a. Women's general reactions to stress are different than those of men
b. The ability to respond is weaker in older women compared with older men
c. The secretion of epinephrine is suppressed in elderly women compared with elderly men
d. Psychological stressors such as divorce or death of a loved one are handled much less well by elderly men compared with elderly women

Women's general reactions to stress are different than those of men

All of the following are characteristics of body weight and older people except
a. a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia.
b. being overweight at age 75 does not reduce longevity.
c. being moderately overweight may not carry health risks.
d. a low body weight may be more detrimental than a high one.

a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia.

The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age
a. 45.
b. 55.
c. 65.
d. 75.

65.

What is sarcopenia?
a. Loss of central visual activity
b. Loss of muscle mass and strength
c. Aging-induced chronic inflammation of the stomach
d. Intestinal dysmotility from excessive use of laxatives

Loss of muscle mass and strength

Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?
a. Immunity in older people does not seem to be affected by regular exercise
b. In the United States, infectious diseases are a minor cause of deaths in the elderly
c. Immune function does not decline with age in people who maintain good nutrition
d. Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems

Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems

Which of the following terms describes an immune system that is inefficient and overactive in the aged?
a. Inflammaging
b. Dysphagic cell mass
c. Sarcopenic undermining
d. Endentulous-induced wasting

Inflammaging

Mary is 75 years old and has been getting sick recently and losing weight. After assessing all symptoms, her doctor diagnoses atrophic gastritis and prescribes an antibiotic. All of the following are symptoms associated with this condition except
a. diarrhea.
b. acid reflux.
c. weight loss.
d. stomach pain.

acid reflux.

A person with dysphagia has
a. no teeth.
b. low immunity.
c. difficulty swallowing.
d. diminished muscle mass.

difficulty swallowing.

All of the following are characteristics of tooth loss in the elderly except
a. people without teeth have low intakes of fiber and vitamins.
b. properly-fitted dentures are less effective than natural teeth.
c. people without teeth commonly consume fewer fruits and vegetables.
d. the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.

the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.

Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except
a. inflamed stomach mucosa.
b. lack of hydrochloric acid.
c. abundant bacteria in the stomach.
d. insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin.

insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin.

A person who is edentulous has
a. no teeth.
b. low immunity.
c. difficulty swallowing.
d. diminished muscle mass.

no teeth.

Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living
a. in nursing homes.
b. with their children.
c. at home with others.
d. at home by themselves.

in nursing homes.

What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes?
a. 40 years and over
b. 50 years and over
c. 65 years and over
d. 71 years and older

71 years and older

A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her
a. skin.
b. colon.
c. mouth.
d. stomach.

skin.

Approximately what percentage decline in basal metabolism is seen in an 80-year-old person compared with a 40-year-old?
a. 1-2
b. 2-4
c. 4-8
d. 8-16

4-8

Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old?
a. 2
b. 10
c. 20
d. 30

20

Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?
a. They vary according to individual histories
b. They remain the same as in young adult life
c. They increase; therefore, supplementation is required
d. They decrease for vitamins and minerals due to changes in body composition

They vary according to individual histories

Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?
a. They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth
b. They have a higher total body water content compared with younger adults
c. They show increased frequency of urination, which results in higher requirements
d. They frequently show symptoms of overhydration such as mental lapses and disorientation

They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth

What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 10

6

Marie is an 80-year-old woman with a BMI of 27 who has been admitted to the hospital for dehydration. She lives alone, her diet is very high in desserts and sweets, and she only drinks diet colas. On morning hospital rounds, the attending physician asks the group of interns what they recommend for the patient. With which intern should you disagree?
a. Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI
b. Intern B: Try to incorporate soft fruits and cooked vegetables into the diet
c. Intern C: Try to avoid sodas that contain caffeine as they may contribute to dehydration
d. Intern D: Try to drink at least 6 glasses of water a day (or the equivalent in fruit juices)

Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI

Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from
a. intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
b. insufficient intake of vitamin B12.
c. reduced output of intrinsic factor.
d. reduced output of hydrochloric acid.

insufficient intake of vitamin B12.

John is 60 years old and has been experiencing numbness in his hands for the past 3 months. His doctor suspects that John is not producing enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor and encourages him to eat more foods containing vitamin B12. What is wrong with this suggestion?
a. People missing intrinsic factor cannot digest foods containing vitamin B12 and will develop diarrhea
b. Intrinsic factor is not associated with vitamin B12 and eating more foods containing it would have no effect on John's health
c. It is improbable that a lack of hydrochloric acid production and intrinsic factor are associated with the numbness that John is experiencing
d. Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement

Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except
a. the RDA is the same as for younger adults.
b. older adults are advised to obtain most of their vitamin B12 from fortified foods and supplements.
c. up to 30% of those over 50 years of age are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency due to atrophic gastritis.
d. the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.

the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.

Which of the following is a recent finding on vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
a. Self-synthesis capacity is high
b. The skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced
c. The presence of atrophic gastritis reduces bioavailability of the vitamin
d. Symptoms of deficiency include dermatitis and diminished taste acidity

The skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
a. Most elderly receive near-RDA amounts of the vitamin
b. Aging reduces the kidneys' ability to convert vitamin D to its active form
c. The RDA for vitamin D in the elderly is lower due to less excretion by the kidneys
d. Most elderly rely primarily on self-synthesis of the vitamin due to their greater time spent outdoors

Aging reduces the kidneys' ability to convert vitamin D to its active form

To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective except
a. eating more legumes.
b. drinking more water.
c. increasing physical activity.
d. taking vitamin B12 injections.

taking vitamin B12 injections.

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly?
a. The DRI is 800-1000 mg
b. Calcium intakes are well below recommendations
c. Calcium supplements are not effective sources of calcium due to poor digestibility
d. Calcium from food is not well absorbed due to the intake of calcium-binding laxatives

Calcium intakes are well below recommendations

Although many health-care professionals do not recommend a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement, the needs for which of the following nutrients are usually met from supplement use?
a. Calcium
b. Vitamin C
c. Vitamin D
d. Magnesium

Vitamin D

Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?
a. Zinc intake is adequate for about 95% of this group
b. Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity
c. Calcium intakes of females are near the RDA for this group
d. Calcium allowances for this group have recently been increased by the Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes

Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity

A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is
a. lack of intrinsic factor.
b. loss of iron due to menopause.
c. blood loss from yearly physical testing procedures.
d. poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.

poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.

What are the thickenings that occur to the lenses of the eye, thereby affecting vision, especially in the elderly?
a. Retinitis
b. Keratoids
c. Cataracts
d. Rhodolipids

Cataracts

Jimmy is 33 years old and his obese parents each have cataracts in both eyes. They rarely eat fruits or vegetables and prefer a meat and potatoes existence. To reduce his risk of developing cataracts like his parents, Jimmy should incorporate all of the following into his diet except
a. maintaining a healthy body weight.
b. eating a variety of foods that contain carotenoids.
c. eating a variety of foods that contain vitamins C and E.
d. getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes.

getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes.

All of the following are characteristics of age-related macular degeneration except
a. it is the leading cause of vision loss in older people.
b. risk factors include sunlight-induced oxidative stress.
c. dietary omega-3 fatty acids from fish may be protective.
d. therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods.

therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods.

All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except
a. high BMI is a risk factor.
b. nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility.
c. it is the most common type of arthritis that disables older people.
d. weight loss improves the symptoms in the hands as well as the weight-bearing joints.

nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility.

What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?
a. Iron and calcium
b. Chromium and zinc
c. Vitamin B12 and folate
d. Vitamin C and vitamin E

Vitamin C and vitamin E

What organ is affected by macular degeneration?
a. Bone
b. Eyes
c. Liver
d. Kidneys

Eyes

Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people?
a. Milk
b. Olive oil
c. Iodized salt
d. Refined cereals

Olive oil

All of the following are features of arthritis except
a. the immune system is directly involved in rheumatoid arthritis.
b. weight loss improves the pain in the hands from osteoarthritis.
c. weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.
d. supplements of glucosamine and chondroitin seem to reduce the pain of arthritis.

weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.

Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?
a. High in simple sugars, low in canned fruit
b. High in animal protein, low in canned fruit
c. Low in polyunsaturated fat, high in oleic acid
d. Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids

Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids

All of the following are characteristics of gout except
a. it has a higher prevalence in men.
b. dairy products seem to be protective.
c. it is considered a common form of arthritis.
d. it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles.

it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles.

Glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements are used by some people to treat symptoms of
a. arthritis.
b. sarcopenia.
c. pressure ulcers.
d. mild memory loss.

arthritis.

Which of the following is not a common feature of gout?
a. It affects mostly men
b. It is a form of arthritis
c. It results from uric acid crystals in the joints
d. It is treated by reducing intake of milk products

It is treated by reducing intake of milk products

Which of the following is thought to promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles?
a. Oxidative stress
b. Excess acetylcholine
c. Dietary deficiency of choline
d. Low blood levels of homocysteine

Oxidative stress

What percentage of U.S. adults are affected by Alzheimer's disease after age 70?
a. 0.5
b. 1
c. 10
d. 20

10

Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer's disease include all of the following except
a. an increase in free radicals.
b. an increase in beta-amyloid.
c. a decrease in acetylcholine synthesis.
d. a decrease in homocysteine synthesis.

a decrease in homocysteine synthesis.

Which of the following is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease?
a. It affects 60% of those over 80 years of age
b. It is responsive to dietary choline supplementation
c. It is associated with stability of brain nerve cell number
d. It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain

It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain

What is the main reason for dieting in the elderly?
a. To economize when food prices increase
b. To improve appearance among their peers
c. To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose
d. To reduce risks for development of atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia

To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose

Which of the following is a feature of food choices and eating habits of older people?
a. The quality of life among older people has not improved since 1995
b. Older people spend less money on foods to eat at home than younger people
c. People over 65 are less likely to lose weight by dieting than are younger people
d. Most older people think of themselves as generally unhappy and in poor health

People over 65 are less likely to lose weight by dieting than are younger people

Goals of the federal Older Americans Act nutrition program include the provision of all of the following except
a. transportation services.
b. high-cost nutritious meals.
c. opportunity for social interactions.
d. counseling and referral to other social services.

high-cost nutritious meals.

What is a congregate meal?
a. A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
b. A meal prepared for the elderly that meets one-third of the Dietary Recommended Intakes
c. A meal prepared for disadvantaged people of all ages to encourage communal gathering of diverse population groups
d. A meal provided through the Nutrition Screening Initiative for the elderly and served primarily to church congregations

A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center

All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except
a. it is administered by volunteers.
b. it operates at least 5 days a week.
c. it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.
d. the only qualification to receive benefits is achieving the age of 60 years.

it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.

A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that
a. the cost of administering congregate meals is lower.
b. there are more social benefits to congregate meals.
c. nutritional benefits are greater with congregate meals.
d. more meals per week are served with congregate meals.

there are more social benefits to congregate meals.

Rose is a 73-year-old spunky, energetic woman who is wheel-chair bound. She cannot go to the grocery store and has no family members nearby. Which of the following would be the most appropriate suggestion for ensuring that Rose is obtaining adequate nutrition?
a. Suggest she attend congregate meals
b. Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program
c. Suggest that Rose enter a nursing home that will cater to her every need
d. Have a volunteer buy in bulk from a grocery warehouse once a month and deliver the food to Rose

Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program

Which of the following is a program that provides low-income older adults with coupons that are exchangeable for fresh vegetables and fruits at community-supported farmers' markets and roadside stands?
a. Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program
b. Food Security for the Disadvantaged Elderly
c. Old Age and Survivors Health Benefits Program
d. Elderly Nutrition and Maintenance Food Co-Op

Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program

What percentage of eligible people 60 years and older participate in nutrition assistance programs?
a. 30
b. 50
c. 65
d. 90

30

What fraction of prescription drugs sold in the United States is taken by people over 65 years of age?
a. 1/10
b. 1/5
c. 1/3
d. 1/2

1/3

How does aspirin reduce inflammation and pain?
a. It acts as a sedative and barbiturate
b. It promotes wound healing and blood clotting
c. It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins
d. It binds to nerve receptors involved in pain perception

It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins

What are the known consequences of taking a single two-tablet dose of aspirin?
a. It inhibits monoamine oxidase activity
b. It doubles the bleeding time of wounds
c. It increases production of prostaglandins that enhance fever
d. It is excreted very rapidly in people taking vitamin C supplements

It doubles the bleeding time of wounds

All of the following are characteristics of aspirin use except
a. it acts as a pro-clotting agent.
b. it should not be taken before surgery.
c. it works faster when taken on an empty stomach.
d. it irritates the stomach lining, especially on an empty stomach.

it acts as a pro-clotting agent.

What is the primary action of the medication megestrol acetate?
a. It relieves depression
b. It promotes weight loss
c. It promotes weight gain
d. It lowers blood pressure

It promotes weight gain

A major side effect from the regular use of some antipsychotics, antidepressants, and corticosteroids is
a. anemia.
b. chronic constipation.
c. substantial weight gain.
d. insomnia, loose stool, and acid reflux.

substantial weight gain.

What two nutrients are known to interfere significantly with the utilization of the antibiotic tetracycline?
a. Iron and calcium
b. Zinc and chromium
c. Vitamin B12 and folate
d. Vitamin C and vitamin E

Iron and calcium

Regular use of antacids interferes significantly with absorption of all of the following except
a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. folate.
d. vitamin B12.

zinc.

Which of the following drugs has a chemical structure similar to folate?
a. Tyramine
b. Coumadin
c. Tamoxifen
d. Methotrexate

Methotrexate

What is a common side effect from taking certain prescription drugs and consuming grapefruit juice?
a. A metallic taste in the mouth appears
b. Blood concentrations of the drugs increase
c. The bioavailability of the drugs falls substantially
d. The bioflavonoids in the juice bind to the drugs and promote formation of uric acid crystals

Blood concentrations of the drugs increase

Which of the following is a feature of warfarin use and vitamin K utilization?
a. Warfarin blocks vitamin K absorption
b. Orange juice intake interferes with warfarin's effects on vitamin K
c. Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed
d. The tyramine content of aged meats interferes with binding of vitamin K to warfarin

Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed

Your father was recently prescribed an anticoagulant medicine and was surprised that the doctor advised him to maintain consumption of consistent amounts of green leafy vegetables every day. You inform your father that
a. these vegetables significantly reduce absorption of the drug.
b. these vegetables significantly increase absorption of the drug.
c. variable intake of green leafy vegetables will affect activity of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
d. inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.

inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.

Which of the following foods in particular must be restricted in the diet of a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug?
a. Soybeans
b. Aged cheeses
c. Acid-forming foods
d. Cruciferous vegetables

Aged cheeses

What ingredient commonly used as a sweetener in liquid medicines often causes diarrhea?
a. Sorbitol
b. Maltose
c. Saccharin
d. Aspartame

Sorbitol

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What fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?
a. 1/100
b. 1/30
c. 1/8
d. 1/3

1/8

What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?
a. 21-30 years
b. 35-50 years
c. Over 65 years
d. Over 85 years

Over 85 years

What is the life expectancy of black males and females in the United States?
a. 70-77 years
b. 78-85 years
c. 85-89 years
d. 90-93 years

70-77 years

What was the average life expectancy of a person born in the year 1900?
a. 47 years
b. 55 years
c. 61 years
d. 68 years

47 years

What is the life expectancy of white males and females in the United States?
a. 62-68 years
b. 76-81 years
c. 82-86 years
d. 87-90 years

76-81 years

Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?
a. 75
b. 100
c. 115
d.Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?
a. 75
b. 100
c. 115
d. 130

130

Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is under control of her genes?
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75

25

Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75

75

What would be the physiological age of a 75-year-old woman whose physical health is equivalent to that of her 50-year-old daughter?
a. 25 years
b. 50 years
c. 70 years
d. 125 years

50 years

Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except
a. weight control.
b. regularity of meals.
c. short periods of sleep.
d. no or moderate alcohol intake.

short periods of sleep.

What is the most important predictor of a person’s mobility in the later years?
a. BMI
b. Alcohol use
c. Chronological age
d. Regular physical activity

Regular physical activity

Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?
a. Restriction of specific nutrients exerted antiaging effects
b. Energy-restricted diets led to life extension in 90% of the rats
c. Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature
d. Restriction of food intake only after rats reached maturity, but not before, resulted in extension of life span

Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature

Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?
a. Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat
b. Restriction of energy intake in genetically obese animals does not seem to improve longevity
c. Biochemical markers for longevity in humans are improved only when energy intake is reduced by at least one-third
d. The activities of the genes of older mice on energy-restricted diets are similar to those of mice on standard diets

Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat

What minimum reduction from the usual intake of energy in people brings about measurable improvements in body fat, blood pressure, insulin response, and blood lipids?
a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 40%
d. 50%

10%

People who persistently restrict energy intake by 30% for 30 years can expect to increase longevity by up to how many years?
a. 3
b. 6
c. 9
d. 12

3

In people who practice energy restriction to prolong life, hunger becomes persistent when kcal intake first drops by what percentage?
a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60

30

Which of the following is a proposed mechanism for energy restriction and improved longevity in animals?
a. Reduced oxidative stress
b. Increased metabolic rate
c. Enhanced lipid oxidation
d. Accelerated growth and development

Reduced oxidative stress

Which of the following is a feature of the stress response in men and women?
a. Women’s general reactions to stress are different than those of men
b. The ability to respond is weaker in older women compared with older men
c. The secretion of epinephrine is suppressed in elderly women compared with elderly men
d. Psychological stressors such as divorce or death of a loved one are handled much less well by elderly men compared with elderly women

Women’s general reactions to stress are different than those of men

All of the following are characteristics of body weight and older people except
a. a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia.
b. being overweight at age 75 does not reduce longevity.
c. being moderately overweight may not carry health risks.
d. a low body weight may be more detrimental than a high one.

a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia.

The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age
a. 45.
b. 55.
c. 65.
d. 75.

65.

What is sarcopenia?
a. Loss of central visual activity
b. Loss of muscle mass and strength
c. Aging-induced chronic inflammation of the stomach
d. Intestinal dysmotility from excessive use of laxatives

Loss of muscle mass and strength

Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?
a. Immunity in older people does not seem to be affected by regular exercise
b. In the United States, infectious diseases are a minor cause of deaths in the elderly
c. Immune function does not decline with age in people who maintain good nutrition
d. Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems

Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems

Which of the following terms describes an immune system that is inefficient and overactive in the aged?
a. Inflammaging
b. Dysphagic cell mass
c. Sarcopenic undermining
d. Endentulous-induced wasting

Inflammaging

Mary is 75 years old and has been getting sick recently and losing weight. After assessing all symptoms, her doctor diagnoses atrophic gastritis and prescribes an antibiotic. All of the following are symptoms associated with this condition except
a. diarrhea.
b. acid reflux.
c. weight loss.
d. stomach pain.

acid reflux.

A person with dysphagia has
a. no teeth.
b. low immunity.
c. difficulty swallowing.
d. diminished muscle mass.

difficulty swallowing.

All of the following are characteristics of tooth loss in the elderly except
a. people without teeth have low intakes of fiber and vitamins.
b. properly-fitted dentures are less effective than natural teeth.
c. people without teeth commonly consume fewer fruits and vegetables.
d. the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.

the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.

Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except
a. inflamed stomach mucosa.
b. lack of hydrochloric acid.
c. abundant bacteria in the stomach.
d. insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin.

insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin.

A person who is edentulous has
a. no teeth.
b. low immunity.
c. difficulty swallowing.
d. diminished muscle mass.

no teeth.

Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living
a. in nursing homes.
b. with their children.
c. at home with others.
d. at home by themselves.

in nursing homes.

What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes?
a. 40 years and over
b. 50 years and over
c. 65 years and over
d. 71 years and older

71 years and older

A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her
a. skin.
b. colon.
c. mouth.
d. stomach.

skin.

Approximately what percentage decline in basal metabolism is seen in an 80-year-old person compared with a 40-year-old?
a. 1-2
b. 2-4
c. 4-8
d. 8-16

4-8

Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old?
a. 2
b. 10
c. 20
d. 30

20

Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?
a. They vary according to individual histories
b. They remain the same as in young adult life
c. They increase; therefore, supplementation is required
d. They decrease for vitamins and minerals due to changes in body composition

They vary according to individual histories

Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?
a. They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth
b. They have a higher total body water content compared with younger adults
c. They show increased frequency of urination, which results in higher requirements
d. They frequently show symptoms of overhydration such as mental lapses and disorientation

They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth

What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?
a. 4
b. 6
c. 8
d. 10

6

Marie is an 80-year-old woman with a BMI of 27 who has been admitted to the hospital for dehydration. She lives alone, her diet is very high in desserts and sweets, and she only drinks diet colas. On morning hospital rounds, the attending physician asks the group of interns what they recommend for the patient. With which intern should you disagree?
a. Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI
b. Intern B: Try to incorporate soft fruits and cooked vegetables into the diet
c. Intern C: Try to avoid sodas that contain caffeine as they may contribute to dehydration
d. Intern D: Try to drink at least 6 glasses of water a day (or the equivalent in fruit juices)

Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI

Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from
a. intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
b. insufficient intake of vitamin B12.
c. reduced output of intrinsic factor.
d. reduced output of hydrochloric acid.

insufficient intake of vitamin B12.

John is 60 years old and has been experiencing numbness in his hands for the past 3 months. His doctor suspects that John is not producing enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor and encourages him to eat more foods containing vitamin B12. What is wrong with this suggestion?
a. People missing intrinsic factor cannot digest foods containing vitamin B12 and will develop diarrhea
b. Intrinsic factor is not associated with vitamin B12 and eating more foods containing it would have no effect on John’s health
c. It is improbable that a lack of hydrochloric acid production and intrinsic factor are associated with the numbness that John is experiencing
d. Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement

Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except
a. the RDA is the same as for younger adults.
b. older adults are advised to obtain most of their vitamin B12 from fortified foods and supplements.
c. up to 30% of those over 50 years of age are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency due to atrophic gastritis.
d. the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.

the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.

Which of the following is a recent finding on vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
a. Self-synthesis capacity is high
b. The skin’s capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced
c. The presence of atrophic gastritis reduces bioavailability of the vitamin
d. Symptoms of deficiency include dermatitis and diminished taste acidity

The skin’s capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
a. Most elderly receive near-RDA amounts of the vitamin
b. Aging reduces the kidneys’ ability to convert vitamin D to its active form
c. The RDA for vitamin D in the elderly is lower due to less excretion by the kidneys
d. Most elderly rely primarily on self-synthesis of the vitamin due to their greater time spent outdoors

Aging reduces the kidneys’ ability to convert vitamin D to its active form

To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective except
a. eating more legumes.
b. drinking more water.
c. increasing physical activity.
d. taking vitamin B12 injections.

taking vitamin B12 injections.

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly?
a. The DRI is 800-1000 mg
b. Calcium intakes are well below recommendations
c. Calcium supplements are not effective sources of calcium due to poor digestibility
d. Calcium from food is not well absorbed due to the intake of calcium-binding laxatives

Calcium intakes are well below recommendations

Although many health-care professionals do not recommend a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement, the needs for which of the following nutrients are usually met from supplement use?
a. Calcium
b. Vitamin C
c. Vitamin D
d. Magnesium

Vitamin D

Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?
a. Zinc intake is adequate for about 95% of this group
b. Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity
c. Calcium intakes of females are near the RDA for this group
d. Calcium allowances for this group have recently been increased by the Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes

Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity

A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is
a. lack of intrinsic factor.
b. loss of iron due to menopause.
c. blood loss from yearly physical testing procedures.
d. poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.

poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.

What are the thickenings that occur to the lenses of the eye, thereby affecting vision, especially in the elderly?
a. Retinitis
b. Keratoids
c. Cataracts
d. Rhodolipids

Cataracts

Jimmy is 33 years old and his obese parents each have cataracts in both eyes. They rarely eat fruits or vegetables and prefer a meat and potatoes existence. To reduce his risk of developing cataracts like his parents, Jimmy should incorporate all of the following into his diet except
a. maintaining a healthy body weight.
b. eating a variety of foods that contain carotenoids.
c. eating a variety of foods that contain vitamins C and E.
d. getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes.

getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes.

All of the following are characteristics of age-related macular degeneration except
a. it is the leading cause of vision loss in older people.
b. risk factors include sunlight-induced oxidative stress.
c. dietary omega-3 fatty acids from fish may be protective.
d. therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods.

therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods.

All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except
a. high BMI is a risk factor.
b. nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility.
c. it is the most common type of arthritis that disables older people.
d. weight loss improves the symptoms in the hands as well as the weight-bearing joints.

nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility.

What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?
a. Iron and calcium
b. Chromium and zinc
c. Vitamin B12 and folate
d. Vitamin C and vitamin E

Vitamin C and vitamin E

What organ is affected by macular degeneration?
a. Bone
b. Eyes
c. Liver
d. Kidneys

Eyes

Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people?
a. Milk
b. Olive oil
c. Iodized salt
d. Refined cereals

Olive oil

All of the following are features of arthritis except
a. the immune system is directly involved in rheumatoid arthritis.
b. weight loss improves the pain in the hands from osteoarthritis.
c. weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.
d. supplements of glucosamine and chondroitin seem to reduce the pain of arthritis.

weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.

Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?
a. High in simple sugars, low in canned fruit
b. High in animal protein, low in canned fruit
c. Low in polyunsaturated fat, high in oleic acid
d. Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids

Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids

All of the following are characteristics of gout except
a. it has a higher prevalence in men.
b. dairy products seem to be protective.
c. it is considered a common form of arthritis.
d. it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles.

it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles.

Glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements are used by some people to treat symptoms of
a. arthritis.
b. sarcopenia.
c. pressure ulcers.
d. mild memory loss.

arthritis.

Which of the following is not a common feature of gout?
a. It affects mostly men
b. It is a form of arthritis
c. It results from uric acid crystals in the joints
d. It is treated by reducing intake of milk products

It is treated by reducing intake of milk products

Which of the following is thought to promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles?
a. Oxidative stress
b. Excess acetylcholine
c. Dietary deficiency of choline
d. Low blood levels of homocysteine

Oxidative stress

What percentage of U.S. adults are affected by Alzheimer’s disease after age 70?
a. 0.5
b. 1
c. 10
d. 20

10

Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease include all of the following except
a. an increase in free radicals.
b. an increase in beta-amyloid.
c. a decrease in acetylcholine synthesis.
d. a decrease in homocysteine synthesis.

a decrease in homocysteine synthesis.

Which of the following is a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease?
a. It affects 60% of those over 80 years of age
b. It is responsive to dietary choline supplementation
c. It is associated with stability of brain nerve cell number
d. It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain

It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain

What is the main reason for dieting in the elderly?
a. To economize when food prices increase
b. To improve appearance among their peers
c. To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose
d. To reduce risks for development of atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia

To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose

Which of the following is a feature of food choices and eating habits of older people?
a. The quality of life among older people has not improved since 1995
b. Older people spend less money on foods to eat at home than younger people
c. People over 65 are less likely to lose weight by dieting than are younger people
d. Most older people think of themselves as generally unhappy and in poor health

People over 65 are less likely to lose weight by dieting than are younger people

Goals of the federal Older Americans Act nutrition program include the provision of all of the following except
a. transportation services.
b. high-cost nutritious meals.
c. opportunity for social interactions.
d. counseling and referral to other social services.

high-cost nutritious meals.

What is a congregate meal?
a. A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
b. A meal prepared for the elderly that meets one-third of the Dietary Recommended Intakes
c. A meal prepared for disadvantaged people of all ages to encourage communal gathering of diverse population groups
d. A meal provided through the Nutrition Screening Initiative for the elderly and served primarily to church congregations

A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center

All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except
a. it is administered by volunteers.
b. it operates at least 5 days a week.
c. it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.
d. the only qualification to receive benefits is achieving the age of 60 years.

it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.

A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that
a. the cost of administering congregate meals is lower.
b. there are more social benefits to congregate meals.
c. nutritional benefits are greater with congregate meals.
d. more meals per week are served with congregate meals.

there are more social benefits to congregate meals.

Rose is a 73-year-old spunky, energetic woman who is wheel-chair bound. She cannot go to the grocery store and has no family members nearby. Which of the following would be the most appropriate suggestion for ensuring that Rose is obtaining adequate nutrition?
a. Suggest she attend congregate meals
b. Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program
c. Suggest that Rose enter a nursing home that will cater to her every need
d. Have a volunteer buy in bulk from a grocery warehouse once a month and deliver the food to Rose

Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program

Which of the following is a program that provides low-income older adults with coupons that are exchangeable for fresh vegetables and fruits at community-supported farmers’ markets and roadside stands?
a. Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program
b. Food Security for the Disadvantaged Elderly
c. Old Age and Survivors Health Benefits Program
d. Elderly Nutrition and Maintenance Food Co-Op

Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program

What percentage of eligible people 60 years and older participate in nutrition assistance programs?
a. 30
b. 50
c. 65
d. 90

30

What fraction of prescription drugs sold in the United States is taken by people over 65 years of age?
a. 1/10
b. 1/5
c. 1/3
d. 1/2

1/3

How does aspirin reduce inflammation and pain?
a. It acts as a sedative and barbiturate
b. It promotes wound healing and blood clotting
c. It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins
d. It binds to nerve receptors involved in pain perception

It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins

What are the known consequences of taking a single two-tablet dose of aspirin?
a. It inhibits monoamine oxidase activity
b. It doubles the bleeding time of wounds
c. It increases production of prostaglandins that enhance fever
d. It is excreted very rapidly in people taking vitamin C supplements

It doubles the bleeding time of wounds

All of the following are characteristics of aspirin use except
a. it acts as a pro-clotting agent.
b. it should not be taken before surgery.
c. it works faster when taken on an empty stomach.
d. it irritates the stomach lining, especially on an empty stomach.

it acts as a pro-clotting agent.

What is the primary action of the medication megestrol acetate?
a. It relieves depression
b. It promotes weight loss
c. It promotes weight gain
d. It lowers blood pressure

It promotes weight gain

A major side effect from the regular use of some antipsychotics, antidepressants, and corticosteroids is
a. anemia.
b. chronic constipation.
c. substantial weight gain.
d. insomnia, loose stool, and acid reflux.

substantial weight gain.

What two nutrients are known to interfere significantly with the utilization of the antibiotic tetracycline?
a. Iron and calcium
b. Zinc and chromium
c. Vitamin B12 and folate
d. Vitamin C and vitamin E

Iron and calcium

Regular use of antacids interferes significantly with absorption of all of the following except
a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. folate.
d. vitamin B12.

zinc.

Which of the following drugs has a chemical structure similar to folate?
a. Tyramine
b. Coumadin
c. Tamoxifen
d. Methotrexate

Methotrexate

What is a common side effect from taking certain prescription drugs and consuming grapefruit juice?
a. A metallic taste in the mouth appears
b. Blood concentrations of the drugs increase
c. The bioavailability of the drugs falls substantially
d. The bioflavonoids in the juice bind to the drugs and promote formation of uric acid crystals

Blood concentrations of the drugs increase

Which of the following is a feature of warfarin use and vitamin K utilization?
a. Warfarin blocks vitamin K absorption
b. Orange juice intake interferes with warfarin’s effects on vitamin K
c. Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed
d. The tyramine content of aged meats interferes with binding of vitamin K to warfarin

Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed

Your father was recently prescribed an anticoagulant medicine and was surprised that the doctor advised him to maintain consumption of consistent amounts of green leafy vegetables every day. You inform your father that
a. these vegetables significantly reduce absorption of the drug.
b. these vegetables significantly increase absorption of the drug.
c. variable intake of green leafy vegetables will affect activity of monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
d. inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.

inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.

Which of the following foods in particular must be restricted in the diet of a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug?
a. Soybeans
b. Aged cheeses
c. Acid-forming foods
d. Cruciferous vegetables

Aged cheeses

What ingredient commonly used as a sweetener in liquid medicines often causes diarrhea?
a. Sorbitol
b. Maltose
c. Saccharin
d. Aspartame

Sorbitol

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